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EVOLYUTSIYAI MUBODILAI MODDAHO (Metabolizm CHist)

Barobari paydo shudani dastgohi oddii genetiki hujay rahoi soddae, ki chunin dastgohro doshtand, qobiliyati sintez kardani polipeptidhoi makhsusro paydo namudaand.

Mavjudoti az onho paydogashta oilahoi hujayrahoi soddaro ba vujud ovardand, ki bo ham qarobat va khosiyati irsi doshtaand va zeri tasiri intikhobi tabii memondand.

Metabolizm chistOn hujayrahoi soddae, ki mavodi irsi doshtand, imkoniyati khudro baroi sintez kardani safedahoi kaloni vazifaashon gunogun taqviyat bakhshidand. Pas az on ki ba tarkibi hujayrahoi muqarrari chunin molekulahoi vazifai gunogun doshta dokhil shudand, imkoniyati dar borai tabiati biologii onho sukhan guftan paydo meshavad.

CHi khele olimon takhmin mekunand, muhiti beruna dar on zamon manbai doimii hosilshavii hamai molekulahoi zarurii mayda bud. Dar natijai bo rohi fotosintez istifoda burdani nurhoi ultrabunafshi oftob energiyai khimiyavi

baroi giriftani pirofosfat dastras shud. Pas az muhitro ishgol kardani hujayrahoi avvalin fotosintez tagyir yoft.

Baze moddahoi gizoii khurdmolekula nazar ba hosilshaviashon dar tabiat zudtar istifoda megashtand. Tasiri intikhob nazarras bud, dar natija hamon hujayrahoe bartari paydo mekardand, ki az muhiti beruna moddahoi lozimaro ziyodtar girifta, onhoro ba moddai gizoii baroi hujayra zarur tabdil medodand.

Umuman, metabolizm az chand zina iborat buda, tavassuti fermentho amali meshavad, dar har zina molekula kamu besh tagyir meyobad (to on dame, ki moddai zaruri paydo nashavad).

Hamai sistemahoi biologi rohi yagonai tabdili biokhimiyaviro istifoda mebarand, masalan, metabolizmi qand, sintezi aminokislotaho, sintez va tajziyai charbho va gayra.

Hususiyati umumi doshtani rohhoi metabolizmro bo du tarz fahmonidan mumkin ast. YAkum, hamai mavjudoti zindai hozira nasli populyatsiyahoi hujayrahoi nakhustini pesh guzashta meboshand. Duyum, har yak rohi metabolizm dar ravandhoi biokhimiyavii hozira metavonad natijai evolyutsiyai hujayra bahri harchi beshtar istifoda burdani yagon molekulai baroi khud lozim ravon shuda boshad. Barobari dar ravandi evolyutsiya rushd yoftani rohhoi metabolizm, bo surati ziyod zinahoi navi ekologi paydo meshavand.

Dar obanborho allakay dar chuqurii chand metr qismi ziyodi nurhoi ultrabunafshro ob furu mebarad, hol on ki rushnoii ba chashm ayon to chuqurihoi beshtar meravad. Tasavvur kardan mumkin ast, ki intikhobi organizmhoi davrahoi avval nisbat ba istifodabarii rushnoii ba chashm ayon chi guna bud. Baroi onho muhimash mavjud budani khlorofill va sistemai fermenthoi naqliyotii elektronho ba shumor meraft.

Organizmhoe, ki qobiliyati istifodabarii energiyai rushnoiro dorand, baroi az moddahoi gayriorganiki sintez kardani moddahoi organiki afzaliyati beshtar paydo kardand. Hamin tavr, fotosintez paydo shud va in ba paydoishi manbai navi gizo asos guzosht. Masalan, surkhbakteriyahoi anaerobii sulfurii hozira dar rushnoi gidrogensulfidro to sulfat oksid mekunand. Gidrogeni dar natijai in reaksiya khorijshuda baroi to ba angishtobho va ob barqaror kardani duoksidi karbon istifoda mashavad. Payvasthoi organiki niz metavonand manbai gidrogen boshand.

Hamin tavr, organizmhoi autotrofi paydo shudand. Dar ravandi chunin fotosintez oksigen khorij nameshavad. Fotosintez dar bakteriyahoi anaerobi dar marhilai khele barvaqti paydoishi hayot inkishof yoftaast. Bakte riyahoi qobili fotosintez muddati khele daroz dar muhiti beoksigen vujud doshtand. Qadami digari evolyutsiya on bud, ki organizmhoi qobili fotosintez tavonistand obro ba sifati manbai gidrogen istifoda barand. Azkhudkunii autotrofii gazi SO2 az jonibi chunin organizmho khorijshavii O2-ro hamrohi mekard. Organizmhoi nakhustini qobili fotosintez, ki oksigenro ba atmosfera khorij mekardand, sia-nobakteriyaho budand.

Hamin ki hujayrahoi qobili fotosintez rushnoiro ba sifati mavodi ilovagii fotosintez istifoda burdand, ba atmosfera oksigeni molekulavi judo shud. Bo mururi zamon mavodi biologii oksigen sarfi onro dar davrahoi geologi muayyan mekard. Pardai ozonie, ki nurhoi ultrabunafshro ba Zamin guzashtan namemond, dar qabathoi boloi on taqriban 2 mlrdu. 250 mln. sol qabl paydo shudaast.

Zeri tasiri oksigeni ozod imkoniyati paydoishi mubodilai oksigenii moddahoe, ki doroi energiyai ziyod budand, ba vujud omad. In holat baroi paydo shudani bakteriyahoi aerobi zamina guzosht.

Hamin tavr, du omile, ki sababi dar rui Zamin paydo shudani oksigeni ozod shudand, bisyor shaklhoi navi organizmhoi zindaro ba vujud ovardand. Onho imkoniyati har chi beshtar istifoda burdani muhiti berunaro paydo kardand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Dar obhoi uqyonusi avvalin molekulahoi organikie, ki khosiyati gidrofili va gidrofobi doshtand, chi guna taqsim shuda budand?
  2. Prinsipi taqsimshavii mahlulro ba fazahoi konsentratsiyai molekulaashon kalon va khurd nombar kuned.
  3. Qatrai koatservati chist?
  4. Intikhobi koatservatho dar «shurboi (bulyoni) yakumin» chi guna surat megirift?
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