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Dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»

Junaydullohi Hoziq na tanho dar ejodi navhoi gunoguni liriki tabi balandu hunari volo doshtaast, balki dar dostonsaroi ham sohibi istedodi favqulodda meboshad.

Hoziq dar zaminai sunati adabi dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-ro talif menamoyad. SHoir dostoni mazkurro dar zamoni amir Umarkhon (1809-1822) ogoz namuda, soli 1724 onro ba itmom merasonad:

Namud ilhom dar tarikhash insho:

Mufassal qissai «YUsuf Zulaykho».

SHuruash bud az davri Umarshoh,

Ki zad ba sadri jannat khaymai joh.

Naburdam khudsari dar jaybi anjom,

Ki davri saltanat z-u yoft itmom…

ishq

Hoziq dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i khudro dar payravii dostonhoi Jomiyu Nozim ejod kardaast. Zimni asar shoir andeshahoi ijtimoi, siyosi, akhloqi, jamiyatii khudro niz bayon kardaast:

Ba dushi qissai YUsuf Zulaykho,

Murassa khilati digar bioro.

Libosi tozavu ushshoqi toza,

Bahori tozavu avroqi toza.

Zi har gul rangu bui toza jushad,

Zi har bulbul navo digar khurushad.

Dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho» doroi 60 bob va 4496 bayt buda, dar bahri Hazaji musaddasi mahzuf (bazan maqsur) ejod karda shudaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

  • / V / V – –
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yane: mafoilun, mafoilun, faulun.

Sujeti doston az bobi 12 ogoz meshavad.

Qissai «YUsuf va Zulaykho» yake az mashhurtarin qissaho buda, tarikhi paydoishi on ba asrhoi XV – XIV to melod taalluq dorad. Qissai mazkur dar kitobi muqaddasi «Tavarot» va badtar dar «Quron»-i majid zikr shudaast.

Dar osori adabi-badeii khalqhoi fors-tojik in qissa dar osori shoironi sadai X Abulmuayyadi Balkhi, Bakhtiyori va Firdavsi (mansub ba in ejodkor), minbad Amoni (asri XI), badho Amaqi Bukhoroi, Masudi Hiravi, Masudi Dehlavi, Ozari Tusi, Masudi Qumi, SHohini SHerozi va bisyor kasoni digar manzum shudaast. Hatto dar adabiyoti turkzabon ham chand tan: Hamdullohi CHalabi, Durbek ba in qissa ru ovardaand.

CHand tan shoironi asrhoi H^1-H1H niz dar ejodi qissai mazkur ranj burdaand, ki az zumrai onho: Mavjii Badakhshoni, Salimi Tabrezi, Mulloshohi Badakhshoni, Muhammad Ibrohimi Halilullohi Badakhshoni, Avhadii Balyoni, Javhari Tabrezi, SHahobi Turshezi va digaron meboshand. Vale mashhurtarini talifgaroni qissai mazkur Jomi, Nozimi Hiravi va Junaydullohi Hoziq meboshand.

Tahlili Dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziq

Doston mazkur bo on kharakternok ast, ki on fojeavi nest. Az tarafi digar, dar in qissa Zulaykho (nisbat ba dostonhoi digari ishqi- romantiki) khele faol ast. Zulaykho tamomi vazninii zindagi, rohi muhabbatro bar dushi khud megirad. Janbahoi voqeii ruzgori dar dostoni Hoziq boz ham beshtar ba nazar merasand. Dar in doston YUsuf tajassumi iffat- pokist.

Mazmuni mukhtasari Dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziq

Dar Magrib shohe bo nomi Taymus hukmroni mekard. In shoh farzand nadosht. Badho u farzanddor meshavad va dukhtarashro Zulaykho nom mekunad. Zulaykho chunon zebo bud, ki dar haft iqlim hammonand nadosht. Zulaykho ba balogat rasida, shabe zebotarin javonero dar khob mebinad va maftuni u meshavad. Tanho bori seyumi khobbini Zulaykho az javon nomu nishon mepursad:

Kujo budi, ki man devona budam,

Zi kheshu oshno begona budam.

Bigu shahrat kujo, kuyat kadom ast?

Turo, ay benishon, okhir chi nom ast?

Dar javob javon meguyad:

Azizi Misramu digar tu khud ras,

Buvad dar khona chun kas, in sukhan bas.

Ba u az har taraf khostgorho omada boshand ham, ba kase rozi nameshavad.

Vaziri shohi Misr – Aziz niz tavsifi husni Zulaykhoro shunida, bo hadyai ziyode khostgor ravon menamoyad. Taymus ba in shakhs rozigi medihad. Zulaykho tuy shuda ba Misr ovarda meshavad. Zulaykho Azizi Misrro hamon javoni dar khob didaash gumon karda khele khursand bud. Vale malum meshavad, ki on javoni dar khob didaash nest. Aziz bazmi boshukuhe orosta hokimi Misr-Malik Ruyon niz dar on ishtirok mekunad. Zulaykho dar qasri zebotarin zindagi kunad ham, khursand nabud. Dar Kanon YAqub umr ba sar meburd, ki duvozdah farzand dosht. YUsuf farzandi okhirini in mard buda, zebotarin meboshad. U na tanho zohiran, balki botinan ham nihoyat khushodobu khushraftor bud. Az in ru, YAqub uro beshtar dust medosht. In boisi rashki barodaron gardid va onho dar pai nest kardani YUsuf meshavand. Onho yak ruzi bahor padarro rozi kunonida YUsufro bo khud mebarand. Onho pandi padarro faromush namuda, YUsufro berahmona mezanand, azob medihand. U az tashnagi bemador meshavadu meaftad. YAke az barodaron ba YUsuf ob medihad, vale SHamun khashmgin shuda, az u obro kashida megirad.

Vale YAhudo bo khanjar ba SHamun hamla namuda, YUsufro najot medihad. Onho ba sari chohe omada YUsufro ba on choh mepartoyand.

Onho bo nolavu zori peshi padar meoyand va pirohani khunoludi YUsufro ba padar nishon doda meguyand, ki YUsufro gurg khurdaast. Vaqte ki padar ba igvoi onho chandon bovar namekunad, onho ba sahro rafta gurgero paydo mekunand va dahoni onro khunolud namuda ba YAqub nishon medihand. Vale gurg ba zaboni hol omada begunohii khudro khabar medihad.

Korvoni Molik az Magrib jonibi Misr rahsipor bud. Onho baroi justani ob juyoi choh meshavand. Bashri nom gulom az qari choh ba joi ob YUsufro paydo menamoyad. Barodaroni YUsuf az in kor khabar yofta, YUsufro ba ivazi hajdah dirham mefurushand. Vaqte korvon ba Misr merasad, hokimi on jo Malik Ruyon, vaziri u Aziz va zavjai vazir Zulaykho niz ogoh megardand. Zulaykho az ravzana YUsufro dida javoni dar khob didaashro meshinosad. Aziz bo maslihati Zulaykho YUsufro hamchun gulom kharida ba khona meorad.

Zulaykho ba YUsuf na misli khoja bo gulom, balki hamchun dustdoshtai khud munosibat menamud. Onho bo hamdigar sarguzashti khudro naql mekardand. Badtar YUsuf peshai chuponiro ikhtiyor mekunad. Zulaykho baroi visol tadbirho mejust, vale YUsuf az raftori u harosida az Hudo imdod metalabid. Bo khohishi Zulaykho qasri muhtashame sokhta meshavad. Zulaykho YUsufro ba tamoshoi qasr mebarad. Dar hujrai haftum YUsufro ogush kardani meshavad, vale YUsuf duri mejuyad. Zulaykho az qafo domani YUsufro kashida medaronad. Pas ba nazdi Aziz omada YUsufro tuhmat mekunad. Bad az in bo darkhosti Zulaykho YUsufro bo dakholati zanoni Misr ba mahkama meafkanand. Zulaykho az kardai khud pushaymon meshavad. Dar zindon obdor va sufragustori shoh niz zindoni budand.

SHabe obdor khob mebinad, ki shoh az u obi shirin khostaast. YUsuf khobi uro ba neki tabir menamoyad, ki az zindon ozod gardida sohibi mansabe khohi shud. On goh dar borai man,- meguyad YUsuf, – ba shoh khabar bideh. Ittifoqo, shabe Malik Ruyon niz khobe dahshatbore mebinad, vale kase onro tabir karda nametavonad. Obdor khabar medihad, ki YUsuf nom shakhsi tabirgare dar zindon hast, ki bo amri Aziz zindoni shudaast. YUsufro az zindon ozod namuda ba nazdi shoh meorand. U khobi shohro mudhish meguyad va tadbirhoro ham qoil meshavad.

Ruyon Azizro az vaziri kholi namuda, YUsufro vazir tain menamoyad. Zulaykho dar vayronae istiqomat karda, islomro mepazirad. YUsuf inro fahmida ba nazdi Zulaykho meravad. U holi Zulaykhoro dida rahmash meoyad va Zulaykhoro ba borgohi khud meorad. Zulaykho gamu gussaro az khud dur namuda az nav javon meshavad va husnash bo amri Hudo, barqaror megardad:

Maro dubora bakhshad zindagoni,

Diham bozam zi sar husni javoni.

Namoyad didaam ravshan zi ruyat,

Muattar ham dimogi jon zi buyat.

Zi lali jonfizoyat kom yobam,

Dar ogushat hamin orom yobam.

YUsuf bazm orosta bo Zulaykho khonador meshavad. Onho yakjoya si sol umr ba sar mebarand. Bad az on YUsuf olami foniro padrud meguyad. Zulaykho sari qabr omada onro ogush mekunad u niz jon mesuporad.

Dostoni Hoziq bo hamin khotima meyobad.

Obrazhoi Doston.

Dar dostoni mazkur ba gayr az obrazhoi markazi-YUsuf va Zulaykho yak qator obrazhoi digar: SHohi Misr Malik Ruyon, Azizi Misr, Taymus, YAqub, barodaron, Moliki Bishri, korvoniyon, zanoni Misr, zindoniyon va zindonbon, dasturkhondor va obdori shoh. In obrazho niz lahzavi boshand ham, khele halkunanda va joliband.

Obrazi YUsuf obrazi markazi va halkunandai doston ast. U noseh va pok ast. Inchunin boaqlu dono, pokiza va purtoqatu poktinat ast. Tanho doroi khislathoi hamida buda, yagon khislati bad nadorad. U na tanho zohiran, balki botinan ham zebost. Durandesh, bo mulohiza, ziraku oqil buda, ba oyanda bovari dorad. Hislathoi hamidai u sari har yak qadam ba nazar merasand. YUsuf paygmbarzoda niz hast. U boz ba gulomi rozi meshavad.

Hangomi tabiri khobi zindoni dar mahbas boz ham buzurgii u oshkor meshavad. Hobi Ruyonro tabir namudan uro sohibi mansab megardonad.

SHoir ba in vosita iffatu poki, rostivu rostkori, adlu insof, sadoqatu insof va gayraro targib namuda, khisoli hamidaro afzaliyat mebakhshad. SHoir khobi shohro chunin tasvir mekunad:

Malik Ruyon shabe chun chashm pushid,

Ba khobash haft govi farbehe did.

Pas az vay haft gove did logar,

Ki khurd in haft logar hafti digar.

Dar on dam khushahoi sabzu khurram,

Namudash haft bud on khushaho ham.

Pas on gah hafti digar khushaho did,

Ki har yak khushktar budi zi khurshed.

Bar on tarho chu pechidand on haft,

Hama gashtand khushku khurrami raft.

Hobi Malikro kase tabir karda nametavonad va tanho YUsuf onro chunin tabir mekunad:

Ki avval haft soli nek oyad,

Ba rui khalq nemat dar kushoyand.

Pas az vay haft sole dur girad,

Ki gardad zinda qaht, arzon bimirad.

Az on haft in qadar girand khusha,

Ki boshad dar rahi in haft tusha.

Ba shah to narkhi davlat boshad arzon,

Vaziri shah naboyad bud nodon.

Nigah gar bol nakshoyad ba gaflat,

Rasad kay sar ba devori mazallat.

In ast, ki az zindon raho yoftani YUsuf jori shudani adolat, tantanai ozodi, vazir tain shudani YUsuf, sari qudrat omadani adolatu ozodi, yane galabai ozodivu adolat bar zulmotu jaholat meboshad. Zero YUsuf hatto khudi shohro chunin pandu nasihat medihad, ki chunin juratro ki metavonist ba jo biyorad?!

CHunonchi:

Buvad chun bo raiyat shohro joh,

Raiyatparvari meboyad az shoh.

CHu boshad bar shukuhi shoh illat,

Gami khud mekhurad, khoh az raiyat.

Raiyat gar naboshad, bo ki shoh ast?

Falakro ruzi beakhtar siyoh ast.

V-agar boshad turo dono vazire,

Ki khud dardi sar az kishvar nagiri.

Agar dar in qazovat khiradi siyosi- ijtimoii YUsuf namoish doda shuda boshad, pas u dar jodai digar niz bartari dorad.

YUsuf dar ishq niz simoi poki va iffat ast. Mo tasiri islom va «Quron» – ro in jo beshtar his menamoem. U namekhohad, ki ba khonadoni nabavi gunohu tabohi biyorad. Az in ru, sabru tahammulro intikhob mekunad. Zarrae ishqi shahvoni namudor nameshavad va u dar in roh hatto fikr ham namekunad.

YUsuf shakhsiyati buzurg ast, ki hatto ba barodaroni jafokoru qotili khud ham shafqatu rahm mekunad. In ast, ki dar okhir ba maqsad merasad va dar zindagi nokom nest.

Obrazi Zulaykho. In simoi makhsusi zani notakror ast. U shohdukhtar ast, vale yode az mansab, boigari namekunad. U millat va tabaqai ijtimoiro ham ba nazar namegirad. U ustuvor va muboriz ast. Zulaykho pok, bo iffatu sharmgin ast. Hamin ishqi pok dar avval uro khele uqubat medihad:

Maro ishqe bubin okhir chiho kard,

Vatanbegona, gurbatoshno kard.

Azizi Misr juyon khor gashtam,

Pari guftam, ba deve yor gashtam.

Zulaykho dustdoshtaashro ba zindon meafkanad, vale khud guyo kheshro dar on jo afkanda boshad, ki azobi ruhi mekashad.

Hangomi vazir tain gardidani YUsuf, Zulaykho boz khortar shuda, khonavu joi khudro tark mekunad va dar rohi dustdoshtaash makon intikhob namuda, bo azobi ziyod va giryavu nola zindagi mekunad. Vale hamono iffatu ismatro nigoh medoraad. U niz poku beoloish va ustuvoru pursabr va tabovaru purtoqat meboshad. Zulaykho ham jonibdori barpo namudani oilai pok, sodiq, mushfiq, halol, samimi, beoloish ast. U baroi dustdoshtai khud az khud meguzarad. Zulaykho be YUsuf zindagiro tasavvur karda nametavonad. Az in ru, u ba maqsad merasad.

Dar doston obrazhoi shohi Misr – Malik Ruyon, YAqub, Taymus, korvoniyon, obdori shoh niz naqshhoi musbatand. YAqub umre baroi YUsuf mesuzad, Malik Ruyon jonibdori adolat, durandesh, mushohidakor va donovu oqil ast. Taymus niz shohi donost. U dar rohi muhabbati farzandash mone nest. Jonibdori ishqi pok va akhloqi hamida meboshad.

Barodaroni YUsuf az khonadoni muqaddasand, vale rashk, hasad, badbini, havashoi bejo dorand. Az in ru, onho dar zindagi rohi khudro paydo karda nametavonand.

Korvoniyon niz kori khayrero somon medihand, zero onho boisi idomai khatti sujeti doston meshavand.

Obdori shoh boshad kori nihoyat nekro somon doda, boisi az zindon rahoi yoftani YUsuf va inchunin ba mansabi baland omadani u va nihoyat ba maqsad rasidani Zulaykho megardad.

Junaydullohi Hoziq dar talifi doston nishon dodaast, ki u dar ejodi navhoi buzurgi adabi mahorati beshtare dorad. Hoziq dar qasidavu gazal, qitavu ruboi, tarjeotu sheri tasmit va gayra tabi baland doshta boshad ham, shuhrati uro hamchun ejodkor hamin dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho» tamin kardaast.

Az navhoi liriki u goliban dar gazal tabi baland doshta, dar rushdu tahavvuli janri mazkur sahmi arzanda guzoshtaast. Vale makhsusan dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziq bad az asarhoi hamnomi Jomiyu Nozimi Hiravi va umuman miyoni hamai onhoe, ki 10 asr dar in mavzu asar ejod kardaand, mavqei namoyon dorad.

Hoziq dar in doston lahzahoi ilovagii ziyod dorad, ki dar asarhoi qabli dida nameshavand: lahzai tuhmati gurg va ba zaboni hol omadani on, yo khud bevosita Hoziq az tavlidi YUsuf asarro ogoz mekunad, vale Jomi to in jo izhori chand andeshai falsafi, sharhu tavzehi baze chizho sar kardaast. YO ki dar dostoni Jomi padari Zulaykho ba jonibi Azizi Misr khostgor mefiristad, ki in dar asari Hoziq nest va gayra.

Hoziq shohi idealii khudro dar simoi malik Ruyon tasvir namuda, muqaddas budani khonadoni nabaviro dar obrazi YUsuf ba tasvir ovardaast, ki dar juziyot khele jolib ejod shudaand.

Hunari shoirii Hoziq dar sathi Jomi va Nozimi Hiroti naboshad ham, poyai u az digar shoirone, ki dar in mavzu doston ejod kardaand, baland ast. Baroi misol:

Zi rui khashm on qavmi jafokor,

Ba sad khori dar on sahroi khunkhor.

Zi po burdand kafsh, az sar kulohash,

Saropo shud barahna hamchu mohash.

SHud on domoni dashti pur zi khore,

Zi khuni zakhmi poyash lolazore.

Dar in abyot YUsuf ba moh monand karda meshavad, zero moh niz barahna dar biyoboni falak roh mepaymoyad. Agar dar in jo tashbehi balandu jolib boshad, dar bayti digar tavassuti guluvv az khuni poi YUsuf rangin gardidani dashtro takid mekunad, ki khele khotirmon va dilnishinand va khonandaro komilan mutaassir menamoyand.

YO in ki ba vositai lahzai tamsili va tavassuti sanati tashkhis gurg chunin holati halkunandaro musbat hal mekunad:

Ki man harchand dur az aqlu husham,

Nayam inson, az jinsi vuhusham.

Vale donam, ki in feli qabeh ast,

Ba har nodoniyam qubhash sareh ast.

Hamin farzandi khud gumkarda budam,

Dar in sahro surogash menamudam.

Ki shoyad yobam on gumkarda farzand,

Ba domi tuhmatam kardand poband.

Bibastand inchunin bo resmonam,

Biyoludand ham bo khun dahonam.

Zadandam gah ba chubu goh bo sang,

Biyovardand az sahro bad- in rang.

Kashidam be jinoyat garchi bedod,

Vale rui tu chun didam, shud az yod.

YAne ba vositai chunin sanati balandu tabi voloi shoiri Hoziq hatto gurgi vahshii khunkhorro rahmdil namudaast. Hamchunin bo chunin hunaru mahorati ejodi shoir kirdori barodaroni YUsufro baso vahshiyona tavonistaast biyofarad, to in ki khonandaro beshtar mutaassir namoyad.

Doston bo nazardoshti guzorishi masala, halli on, hukmu muhokimaroniho, mantiqi ifoda, korburdi kalimot, intikhobi on, korgiri az maqolu zarbulmasal, tabiru ifodahoi khalqi, hunari shoiri, istifodavu intikhobi radifu qofiyaho, vazn, istifodai sanathoi badeii manaviyu shakli va gayra niz baso jolib va khotirmon ast.

Dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziq barobari arzishhoi hunari- shoiri, adabi-badei, zakhirai lugavi-leksiki besh az in hama, ahamiyati tarbiyavi-akhloqi dorad. Zero pokiyu iffat va ismati insoni dar naqshai avval meistad.

Honanda namunahoi olii akhloqi oshiqonro meomuzad va ibrat khohad girift.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba davroni javoni, ovoni tahsiloti Junaydullohi Hoziq chi medoned?
  2. Sababi ba Movarounnahr omadani Junaydullohi Hoziqro naql kuned.
  3. Munosibati Hoziq va amironi mangit chi guna surat giriftaast?
  4. Merosi adabii Hoziq az kadom navhoi adabi iborat ast?
  5. Sakht va tarkibi devoni Junaydullohi Hoziqro bayon namoed.
  6. Mavzu va mundarijai goyavii gazaliyoti Hoziqro sharh dihed.
  7. Gazali «YOdi ayyome, ki pur az may sabue doshtem»-ro azyod kuned.
  8. Gazaliyoti Hoziq doroi kadom khususiyathoi adabi- badeiyand?
  9. Mazmuni mukhtasari dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-ro naql kuned.
  10. Doir ba sayri tarikhii qissai «YUsuf va Zulaykho» to ejodiyoti Hoziq malumot dihed.
  11. Kadom khususiyathoi farqkunandai dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziqro medoned?
  12. Obrazhoi markazii doston-obrazhoi YUsuf va Zulaykhoro tahlil namoed.
  13. Obrazhoi musbatu manfi, lahzavi va doimii dostonro nombar kuned.
  14. Arzishi adabii dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho»-i Hoziq az chi iborat ast?

 

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