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Dostoni «Layli va Majnun» va mazmuni mukhtasari on

Dar ejodiyoti SHohin dostoni «Layli va Majnun» az chand jihat muhim va arzishmand ast. Az yak taraf, paziruftani sunnati adabi va irtiboti u ba ejodiyoti peshiniyon muayyan karda shavad, az tarafi digar, sahmu hissai SHohin dar ejodi masnavihoi ishqi-liriki malum megardad. Inchunin baroi donistani poyai shoiri va hunari ejodii shoir niz dostoni mazkur doroi ahamiyat meboshad.

Layli va Majnun

Agar sababi talifi doston taqozoi zamon boshad, bahonai ejodi doston musibati oilavi-vafoti zavjai shoir ast. CHunonchi:

Ay didai dudmoni[1] ismat[2],

Navbovai[3] bustoni ismat.

Ay khonai sad hazor nozam

V-ey pardai sad hazor rozam.

Ay khufta miyoni khoku khora,

CHusta zi kanori man kanora…

SHamsuddin SHohin dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-ro soli 1305h. (1888m.) baroi khotirai poki hamsari khudro pos doshtan dar tuli yak moh ejod kardaast.

Oid ba muhlati talif, sanai ejod va pisandi umum gardidani on meguyad:

Sad shukr, ki shud pazira[4] in ganj,

Dar soli hazoru sesadu panj.

Dar muddati yak mah andake kam,

In hisni[5] rafe[6] gasht mahkam.

Miqdori abyoti asar besh az 2242 bayt buda, dar tarikhi adabiyot yake az asarhoi baso jolib ba mavzui ananavist.

To Nizomi ishorahoi shoiron ba qahramonhoi markazii on – Layli, Majnun dar ashori shoiron khele ziyod ast. Nizomi avvalin kasest, ki in qissaro ba shakli doston darovardaast. Pas az u Husravi Dehlavi, Hojui Kirmoni, Abdurrahmoni Jomi va digaron chunin doston navishtaand. Doston az faslhoi sunnati ogoz yofta, soni marsiya dar vafoti zavjaash, zerfaslhoi nasihat ba farzand va sababi nazmi kitob meoyad. Bad az in hama asli doston shuru meshavad.

YAke az sarvatmandoni arab Saidi Omiri befarzand bud. Pas az nazru niyoz dar rohi Hudo sohibi pisar meshavad, ki uro Qays nom menihand. Qaysro pas az chand sol ba maktab medihand. Dar maktab dukhtare bo nomi Layli hamsabaqi Qays bud. Layli dukhtari sardori qabilai Najd meboshad. Qays Layliro dust medorad. In ovoza dar har du qabila pahn meshavad:

Mohe, ki nihoda davri ayyom,

Az nisbati zulf Layliash nom.

CHun nomi khudash zi tura donist,

Ozodiyu digarash ravonist.

Aknun, ki mahe bad-on tamome,

Z-on tura kashad siyohnome.

CHun Qays safednom gardad

V-on sayd buruni dom gardad.

CHun kori khirad tamom kardash,

Majnuni zamona nom kardam.

Alqissa ba ham asir gashtand,

Omeza chu shahdu shir gashtand.

Majnun raqami kamol meshust,

Layli varaqi khayol mejust.

Padari Layli pas az shunidani ovozai ishqi onho Layliro az maktab megirad. Qays khud maktabro tark namuda, ba kuhu biyobon meravad. Az in ru, mardum uro Majnun nom menihand. Saidi Omiri ba justujui pisarash baromada uro paydo mekunad. Ba Qays qavl medihad, ki onhoro ba maqsad khohad rasonid. Qaysro ba khona meorad va Layliro khostgori mekunand. Vale padari Layli Majnunro devona meguyad va taklifi khostgoriro rad mekunad. Majnun boz ba kuh meravad. Padarash boz uro paydo karda ba Kaba mebarad. Hangomi ijrai manosiki haj Majnun purshur gardidani ishqi Layliro iltijo menamoyad. Solori qabilai Omiri – Navfal bo Majnun shinos shuda, ba u qavl medihad, ki uro ba murodash khohad rasonid. Navfal voqean Layliro baroi Qays khostgori mekunad, vale padari Layli javobi rad medihad. Navfal ba qabilai Najd hujum mekunad. Qabilai Najd shikast meyobad. Padari Layli mekhohad dukhtarashro nobud sozad, to in ki asir naaftad. Majnun khohish menamoyad, ki jang bas karda shavad. Navfal jangro bas karda ba padari Majnun vada medihad, ki dukhtari zeboe dorad va agar khohand, uro ba Majnun medihad. Bo rozigii tarafayn tuy meshavad va Majnun az jamoli mahbubaash khelo shod meshavad. Layli in khabarro shunida tavvasuti noma ba Majnun va chunin surat giriftani holat gilaho mekunad. Majnun sababgori hamai nokomiho Layliro donista, zavjai khudro sitoish menamoyad. Az baze ishorahoi Majnun dar maktubi javobi Layli khele mutaassir meshavad. Layli bovar mekunad, ki Majnun hanuz ham sodiq ast va uro dust medorad. Binobar on Layli dar nomai javobiash az Majnun uzr mekhohad. In uzrkhohi ba Majnun tasiri sakht rasonida, arusro ba holi khud meguzorad va boz rohi kuhu sahroro pesh megirad.

Saidi Omiri boz ba justujui Majnun rafta, uro meyobad va pand medihad, vale in korash chandon natija namedihad. Padari Majnun maktubi qalbakie navishta ba Layli meorad. U az gami pisari khud vafot mekunad. Majnun ba mazori padar omada zor – zor megiryad. Layli niz baroi tasallii Majnun ba khonai onho meoyad, vale dar roh Ibni Salom uro dida oshiq meshavad. Ibni Salom ba khonai onho khostgor mefiristad. Onho tuy meshavand. Majnun in voqearo shunida, Layliro nakuhish mekunad va Layli ustuvor budani khudro takid menamoyad. Dar in ayyom modari Majnun vafot mekunad. Layli baroi tassali dodani dili Majnun ba nazdi u meoyad. Onho ba ham didor dida khele khub suhbat mekunand. Layli az Majnun judo shuda az gamu dardi Majnun vafot mekunad. Zaydi arab, ki qosidi onho bud, in khabarro ba Majnun merasonad. Majnun hangomi dafn ba qabri Layli daromada, uro ogush namuda jon medihad. Bo hamin doston ba okhir merasad.

 

Tahlili obrazhoi Doston.

Dar dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-i SHohin misli digar dostonho obrazhoi doimi va lahzagi, musbat va manfi amal mekunand. Dar asar obrazhoi markazi: Layli, Majnun volidayni onho va makhsusan, padaroni onho, qosid meboshand. Obrazhoi musbati doston: Majnun, Layli, padaru modari Majnun, Navfal va lashkariyoni u, dukhtari Navfal, qosid, ustodonu hamsabaqho meboshand. Obrazhoi manfii asar: padaru modari Layli, Ibni Salom, sardori qabilai Najd va jonibdoroni onhoyand.

Ibni Salom, Navfal va jonibdoroni onho obrazhoi mashhur, vale lahzagiand, ki dar lahzahoi halkunandai khatti sujet ishtirok namuda, voqearo baso murakkabu tezutund menamoyand.

Majnun hamchun obrazi asosi va halkunanda dar dostoni SHohin khele faol ast. Hatto u dukhtari Navfalro dust medorad va qarib ki barobari bo u khonador shudan, az zindagi qone shavad. Uro nomai Layli ba shur meorad. Az in ru, Layli dar muhabbat ustuvortar ast. Zero pas az tuy ham az Ibni Salom duri mejuyad va ustuvoriyu sadoqati u dar ishq zohir meshavad. U talabi digar yo norizoii digarero az yagon jihat hatto tasavvur ham namekunad. Dar dostoni mazkur obrazhoi padari Layli va padari Majnun halkunanda meboshand. Onho khele faoland. Tanho farq dar on ast, ki yake az rui khohishi farzand amal mekunad (padari Majnun), digare tamoman muqobil (padari Layli).

Dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-i SHohin va munosibati on bo baze
Dostonhoi hamnomi guzashtagonash.

Dar tarikhi adabiyot, ba qavle 147 kas dar in mavzu asar navishtaand, ki hamai onho dar payravii Nizomist. Avvalin kase, ki ba Nizomi javobiya guftaast, Husravi Dehlavist. Az in ru, bo asarhoi in du tan ejodkor takya namudan bisyor qonuniyathoi adabiro muayyan ham mesozad. Malum ast, ki unvoni asarho va sujeti onho dar majmu yak ast. Farqiyat dar lahzahoi judogonai khatti sujet meboshad. Zero ba in mumkin nest. Az in jost, ki SHohin meguyad:

To kay ba samand medihi dav,

K-on harfi Nizomi astu Husrav.

On soni vay ast, tu zi khud guy,

Gard az rukhi khud ba obi khud shuy.

Z-in bekhiradi buvad fuzuntar,

Gar joy ravi ba poi digar.

Albatta, SHamsuddin SHohin hangomi ejodi asar tajribai khubi ejodi dosht. Az in jost, ki qonuniyathoi javobiyaro rioya kardaast. Bo vujudi on shoir baroi jolibiyati asari khesh, baroi fardiyati ejodiyoti khud dar khatti sujeti doston va afzaliyati obrazho baze juziyoti halkunandaro ilova namudaast. Az jumla, lahzai ba sahro raftani Majnun va raho kardani u ohuvonro az bandi sayyod, ozod namudani Majnun gavaznro az dom, Majnunro ba qabilai Layli burdani pirazan va gayra, ki dar dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-i Nizomi dida meshavand, dar dostoni SHohin sarfi nazar shudaand. SHohin hatto dar zindaginomai qahramoni markazi – Majnun lahzai halkunandai digarro ilova mekunad. In lahzai nav khonadorshavii Majnun ba dukhtari Navfal meboshad. Inchunin, lahzahoi digari nodir: vafoti padaru modari Majnun, ba khonai Layli ovardani Majnun lahzahoeand, ki na tanho dar dostoni Nizomi, balki dar dostonhoi Amir Husrav, Jomi, Hiloli va digaron dida nameshavad.

Sababhoi tavofuti lahzahoi judogona dar maqsadi adibon va usuli peshgiriftai onho niz hast. Nizomi dar asarash ba tasvirhoi psikhologi va ruhii obrazhoi Layli va Majnun beshtar tavajjuh kardaast. Az in ru, tasvirhoi u nisbatan tafsil meyoband, juziyoti badei va bayoni holatu ruhiya dar asari Nizomi mufassaltar surat megirad. Dar asari SHohin boshad, hadafi ejodkor nishon dodani lahzai fojeavii ishqi Layli va Majnun bud. SHohin nisbat ba tasvirhoi psikhologi beshtar ba voqeiyati hayoti tavajjuh zohir menamoyad. Albatta, in holatho besabab nabud. U payvasta dar rikobi amir bud. Zavjaash az olami foni barvaqt safar kard. Tarbiyai tifli navzod va gayra SHohinro vodor namuda budand, ki janbahoi voqeiyati tasvirro beshtar purquvvat bisozad. YAne SHohin ba naqshi zamonu muhit va sharoitu holati voqei beshtar tavajjuh zohir menamoyad. Savole pesh meoyad, ki voqeiyathoi tasvir dar kadom lahzaho beshtar ba nazar merasand? Baroi namuna metavon ishora namud, ki Layli va Majnunro bo zuri az ham judo mekunand, Layliro ba kasi digar medihand, Majnunro niz majburan bo dukhtari Navfal khonador mekunand. Onho dar muqobili noadolatiho hej kore karda nametavonand. Inhoro metavon lahzahoi sharhiholii khudi SHohin guft. Amir gayri khohishi SHohin maqsadhoi khudro dar joi avval meguzosht. Vaziyati shoirro komilan sarfi nazar mekard va gayra.

Az in jost, ki mavzui dostoni SHohin sunnati boshad ham, lahzahoi farovoni halkunandai voqei, hayoti va sharhiholi dorad, ki marbut ba ejodkori doston – SHamsuddin SHohin meboshad. Ba in vosita SHohin ba masalahoi siyosiyu ijtimoii zamon, naqshi adlu adolat, munosibati shoiru shohro niz to ba hadde dar asari khud joy dodaast. Az in ru, dostoni SHamsuddin SHohin arzishi adabi – badei va hayoti- voqei niz dorad.

[1]     Dudmon – khonadon; qabila.

[2]     Ismat- pokdomoni, begunohi.

[3]     Navbova- tuhfa.

[4]     Pazira – qabul.

[5]     Hisn – qala.

[6]     Rafe – baland.

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