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Digargunihoi iqtisodi va jamiyatiyu siyosii Afgoniston

Istehsoloti hamin davrai Afgoniston mohiyati naturali dosht. Asosi hayoti iqtisodii mamlakatro misli peshtara kishovarzi tashkil mekard. On ba mehnati dasti asos yofta bud. Dar ogozi asri XX peshrafti pakhtaparvari mushohida karda meshavad. Afgoniston onro ba Hinduston va Rusiya mebarovard. Dar in davra markazhoi nisbatan kaloni tijoratiyu kosibii mamlakat Kobul va Qandahor ba hisob meraftand. Kobul markazi mamurii Afgoniston ham bud.

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Tarzi sarmoyadorii iqtisodiyot ba Afgoniston nihoyat der vorid shud.

Amir baroi in kor sharoit muhayyo kard, mavqei tojironro mustahkam namud, to tijorati khorijiro vase kard, maktabhoi avvalini zamonavi va matbaa sokht. Sarfi nazar az in Afgoniston misli peshtara davlati aqibmondai feodali mondan girift.

Badi soli 1901 vafot kardani Abdurahmonkhon ba takhti amirii Afgoniston Habibullokhon menishinad. U baroi peshrafti farhangii mamlakat chorajuihoi ziyod kard. Az on jumla litsei avvalin – Habibiyaro kushod, ba darboriyon farmud, ki libosi evropavi ba bar kunand.

Az davlathoi hamsoya, alalkhusus az Hinduston ba Afgoniston goyahoi maorifparvarii burjuazi vorid meshudand. Dar in mamlakat tashakkuli goyahoi burjuazi nisbat ba khudi burjuaziyai milli teztar ba amal meomad.

Tashabbuskor va rohbari kharakat baroi konstitutsiya va islohot direktori litsei Habibiya Abdulgani bud. Dar atrofi u namoyandagoni javoni ziyoiyoni afgon, asosan omuzgoron va tarbiyagiraidagoni litsey muttahid shudand. In harakat dar tarikh bo nomi “javonafgonho” malum ast. Ideologi javonafgonho Mahmudbek Tarzi bud. U muddati ziyode dar Iroq va Suriya dar hijrat zindagoni karda, dar in mamlaka malumoti khub girifta, ba adabiyoti turki va evropavi shinos shuda, goyahoi peshqadami on zamonro qabul namuda, hayoti khudro, badi ba vatan bargashtan baroi dar Afgoniston tatbiq kard on goyaho mebakhshad. Mahmudbek Tarzi bo ijozati Habibulloh ba Afgoniston bargashta, ba faoliyati siyosi mashgul shuda, sokhti jomeai oyandai Afgonistonro asosnok mekunad.

Tarafi purquvvati talimoti Tarziro talimoti ziddimustamlikavii u tashkil mekard. U mustamlikadoriro mahkum karda, mardumro davat mekunad, ki baroi istiqloliyati vatani khud barkhezad. Davati ziddi siyosati mustamlikadorii Tarzi dar bedorii millii afgonho ba maqomi baland sohib ast. M. Tarzi dar zeri tasiri goyahoi Sayid Jamoliddini Afgoni bud. U ham chun Jamoliddini Afgoni mekhost, ki dar islom asosi muborizai ziddiimperialistiro yobad. SHakli dinii ideologiyai millii Tarzi zamina va asosi tarikhi dosht. On afgonhoro baroi muborizai ziddianglisi muttahid mesokht.

Javonafgonho dar tatbiqi goyahoi khud ba hokimoni Afgoniston umed mebastand. Onho gayr az amir nerui digar namedidand, ki dar mamlakat digargunihoi iqtisodiyu siyosi va ijtimoi ba amal barovarda tavonad. Mutlaqiyat maorifparvar – chunin bud idealogiyai ijtimoii javonafgonho.

Vaqte javonafgonho didand, ki Habibullokhon ba tatbiqi islohoti konstitutsioni qodir nest, ba barodari khurdii amir, shogirdi Mahmudi Tarzi – Amonullokhon umed bastand.

Dar barobari javonafgonho “pirafgonho” ham budand. In jarayonro khonho, ashrofoni kaloni afgon va muhofizoni tartiboti kuhna jonibdori mekardand. Onho ba muqobili hama guna navgonihoe mebaromadand, ki huquq va imtiyozhoi onhoro khalaldor mekardand. “Pirafgonho” dar shakhsi Angliya tahdid ba tartiboti feodalii mamlakatro dida, mekhostand, ki darhoi Afgoniston baroi khorijiyon ’’pushida” boshand. Madaniyati evropaviro dar Afgoniston suiqasd ba islom hisob mekardand. Az hamin sabab mukholifi hama guna islokhotn burjuazi budand. In neruhoi kuhiagaro (konservativi) dar atrofi Nasrullokhon muttahid shuda budand.

Dar arafai Jangi yakumi jahoni “pirafgonkho” ba doirahoi hukmroni Germaniya va Turkiya nazdik shudand. Bo feodalhoi Turkiya onhoro mavqei goyavi nazdik mekard. Agar goyahoi Mahmudi Tarzi ba muborizai zidai imperializm ravona shuda boshad, pas “pirafgonho” misli sultoni Turkiya ba joi avval goyai dar atrofi Turkiya muttahid kardani musulmonhoro guzoshta budand. Bo Germaniya boshad, “pirafgonho”-ro tijorat nazdik mekard. Az tijorat bo in davlat khonhoi qabilahoi afgon pashtuho daromadi kalon ba dast medarovardand.

 

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