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Davlati Temuriyon

Dar okhirhoi asri XIII imperiyai buzurgi CHingizkhon ba yakchand davlati mustaqil taqsim shud. Dar Osiyoi Markazi, ki ajdodoni pisari duyumi CHingizkhon – CHagatoy hukmroni mekardand, dar navbati khud dar asri XVI ba yakchand qism taqsim shudand. Haftrud va Turkistoni SHarqi davlati makhsus – Mugulistonro tashkil namudand. Dar Movarounnahr nishonhoi davlati nav ba vujud omadand. Solhoi 60-um dar poyonobi daryohoi Sir va Amu davlati mustaqili Horazm bo markazash shahri Urganj az nav tashkil yoft.

temuriyon

Dar bayni khonhoi Muguliston va Movarounnakhr baroi hokimiyat va zaminho doimo muboriza meraft.  Qabilahoi mugulu turki chorvodori bodiyanishini Osiyoi Markazi ba zindagii muqimi va kishovarzimeguzashtand. Dar barobari in omezishi mugulu turkho bo khalqi mahalli surat megirift. Samarkand ba markazi muboriza bar ziddi zurovarii khonhoi Muguliston tabdil yofta bud.

TEMUR DAR MUBORIZA BAROI HOKIMIYAT.

Aslu nasabi Temur az qabilai mugulii barlos bud. In qabila dar Movarounnakhr az ogozi asri XIV zindagi mekard. Barlosho monandi qabnlaqoi digari muguli bo qabilahoi turki omezish               yofta, zabon va urfu odathoi khudro gum karda budand. Temur niz az qabili hamin mugulho bud.

Soli 1361 Temur allakay hamchun farmondehi nomii dastai kaloni musallahi az jumlai azoyoni qabilahoi barlosho va qabilahoi digar tashkilkarda malum bud. Temur ba khizmati khoni Muguliston Tugluq-Temur dokhil shuda, ba u dar ishgoli Samarqand yori rasond. Hdmchun mukofot baroi khizmatash Tugluq-Temur uro hokimi shahri Kesh tayin namud.

Vale Temur ba in vazifa qanoat nakarda, ba khizmati amiri Balkh – Huseyn raft. Huseyn dushmanni Tugluq-Temur bud. Onho yakjoya shuda, bar ziddi Tugluk-Temur jang kardand, vale shikast khurdand. Badi tayyorii hamatarafa ba Temur va Huseyn muyassar shud, ki Movarounnahrro az dasti Tugluq-Temur kashida girand. Vale soli oyanda az mugulho boz ham shikast khurda, majbur shudand, ki ba Balkh firor kunand. Hamon sol dar yake az muhoribaho Temur az poyash tir khurd. Az hamin vaqt sar karda, u nomi “Temurlang”-ro megirad.

SHURISHI SARBADORON.

Soli 1365-1366 dar Samarqand bar ziddi Tugluq-Temur shurishi Sarbadoron sar mezanad, ki ba on Mavlonozoda nom donishjui yake az madrasahoi shahr rohbari mekard. Ba Sarbadoron muyassar shud, ki mugulhoro az Samarqand pesh karda, hokimiyatro ba dast darorand. Sarvarii Samarqand va girdu atrofi on ba ikhtiyori Mavlonozoda, Abubakr va Hurdaki Bukhoroi guzasht. Mugulho khostand, ki ba Samarqand nogakhon hamla ovarda, Sarbadoronro torumor kunand, vale shikast khurdand. Badi in Sarbadoron hokimiyati khudro bo tezi dar tamomi Movarounnahr pahn kardan giriftand. Az in lahzai munosib Temlf va Huseyn istifoda burdand.

BA HOKIMIYAT SOHIB SHUDANI TEMUR.

Huseyn va Temur bo rohi firebu nayrang az Balkh ba Samarqand meoyand. Hamin tavr bo fireb rohbaroni shurishi Sarbadoronro dastgir va qatl kardand. Onho tanho Mavlonozodaro zinda dar zindon nigoh medoshtand. Dar davlati dar Movarounnahr tashkilkardai Sarbadoron Temur va Huseyn hukmron shudand, vale amir Huseyn dar maqomi avval bud. Ba chunin martaba Temur rozy shuda nametavonist. Baroi hamin u lahzai muvofiq mekoft, to ki hokimi yagonai Movarounnakhr shavad. Dere naguzashta baroi hokimiyat dar bayni onho ziddiyat ba amal omad va on ba zadukhurdi musallahona mubaddal gardid. Soli 1370 Temur dar yake az zadukhurdho askaroni Huseynro torumor karda, khudi uro asir girift va bad uro ba qatl rasonda, khudro amiri Movarounnahr elon kard. Hamin tavr, davlati Temur ba vujud omad.

ZABTKORIHOI TEMUR.

Temur ba hukmronii  tanho Samarqand qanoat namekard, avval hokimiyati khudro dar Movarounnahr mustahkam kard va bad soli 1372 ba poyonobi daryohoi Amu va Sir – ba Horazm lashkar kashid. Pas az lashkarkashii 5-um soli 1388 u Horazm va poytakhti on shahri Urganjro, ki dar

Avrupoi SHarqi va Osiyoi Markazi markazi kalontarini tijorati bud, fath namuda, ba khok yakson kard. Temur aholii in shahrro bo zuri ba Samarqand kuchonda, farmud, ki shahri urganjro vayronu kharob va bad shudgor karda, jav korand.

Badi ba dast ovardani Horazm Temur dar tuli chandin soli digar bar ziddi Tukhtamish muboriza burd. Tukhtamish avval khoni Urdai Safed va bad khoni Urdai Tilloi bud. Dar natijai se lashkarkashi (solhoi 1389, 1391 va 1395) Temur nihoyat Urdai Tilloiro torumor kard. Dar rafti in lashkarkashiho shahrhoi kaloni Urdai Tilloi – Saroy Berke va Akhitarkhonro otash zad. Tobistoni soli 1395 az janub ba sarzamini Rus ham zada daromada, to shahri Elets rasida, ba shahri Maskav tahdid kard. Vale uro az rayash tanho khabari nooromii Osiyoi Markazi gardond.

Dar solhoi 80 va 90-umi asri XIV Temur ba Eron, Baynannahrayn va davlathoi digar ham lashkar kashid. U tavonist, ki avval Huroson, Afgoniston va Qafqozro zabt namuda, bad Hindustonro ishgol namoyad. Dar rafti in lashkarkashi Temur shahri Dehliro gorat kard. Dar ogozi asri XV Baynannahrayn ham ba Temur taslim shud. Pas az in lashkarkashii khudro dar samti Suriyayu Osiyoi Hurd davom doda,

Soli 1402 artishi yake az lashkarkashoni buzurgtarnni zamon – sultoni Turk Boyazidro torumor karda, khudi uro asir girift.

 Badi lashkarkashii bomuvaffaqiyati bisyorsolai khud Temur bo ganimati buzurg va shanu sharafi beandoza baland ba Samarqand bargasht. U ba in zabtkorihoi khud ham kone nashud. Badi tayyorii nachandon ziyod Temur ba CHin lashkar kashid. Vale soli 1405 nogahon dar Utror vafot kard.

ZOLIMII TEMUR.

Temur dar tarikh yake az shakhsiyathoi zolimtarin mahsub meshavad. CHand misol meorem. Hangomi lashkarkashi ba Eron bo farmoni Temur sari 70 hazor odami osoishta az tan judo karda shuda va az sari onho manora sokhta shudaast. Soli 1398 Temur dar Hinduston farmud, ki 100 hazor asir qatl kardashavad. Sababi asosin in amr on bud, ki ba joi dur burdani asiron mushkil budaast. Dar shahri Bagdod tanho dar yak ruz 90 hazor kas qatl karda shudaast. Hangomi zuhur yoftani kushishi kamtarini muqovimat Temur mefarmud, ki chunin odamon zinda guronda shavand. Mardumi shahri Sabzavori Hurosonro niz hamin tavr jazo dod. Farmud, ki az odamoni zinda devor sozand. Bo farmoni Temur badi chande dar in shahr az jasadi odamon va khisht devori vase va baland sokhtand. In dalelho dar borai berahmiyu zolimii Temur shahodat medihad.

 TALOSHI TEMURIYON BAROI HOKIMIYAT.

Temur dar zarfi 35 soli hukmroniyash davlathoi ziyodro zabt karda, imperiyai buzurgero tashkil dod. Bad az vafoti u avlodash dar tuli yakchand sol baroi hokimiyat dar bayni khud mukholifat kardand. Temur hanuz dar vaqti zinda budanash davlatashro dar bayni pisaronash – Jahongir, Umarshaykh, Mironshoh va SHohrukh va naberahoyash Muhammadsulton, Pirmuhammad, Ibrohim va Ulugbek taqsim karda bud.

Badi vafoti Temur muhlati ziyode naguzashta bud, ki aksariyati Temuriyon khudro mustaqil elon kardand. Pisari Mironshoh va naberai Temur hokimiToshkant, Halilsulton bo tezi lashkar gun karda, ba tarafi shahri Samarqand rahsipor shud. Pisari Jahongir va naberai Temur Pirmuhammad, ki uro Temur jonishini khud elon karda bud, niz azmi zabti Samarqandro kard. Lekin Pirmuhammad peshtar omada, poytakhti davlati Temuriyon – shahri Samarkandro sohib shud. Pirmuhammad az tarafi shakhsi nomalum badi chande ba qatl rasid.

Ba muboriza baroi hokimiyat dar davlati Temuriyon natanho azoyoni in sulola, balki namoyandagoni sulolahoe, ki Temur az hokimiyat mahrum karda bud, ilova shudand. Baroi hamin Temuriho majbur budand, ki khdm ba muqobili onho va ham ba muqobili hamdigar muboriza barand. Dar Garb va SHimolu Garbi Eron namoyandagoni sulolai Turkmanni Qaraquyunlu, dar Turkiston boshad, amir Hudodod va shaykh Nuriddin isyon bardoshta, haqu huquki khudro talab mekardand. Vaqte ki dar sohilhoi daryoi Amu dar bayni lashkarhoi pisaramakho Halilsulton va Pirmuhammad jang meraft, Hudodod dastahoi askari mugulho va kalmiqhoro yakjoya namuda, ba Movarounnahr hamla kard. Ba u muyassar shud, ki Samarqandro ba dast darovarda, Halilsultonro asir girad.

BA HOKIMIYAT SOHIB SHUDANI SHOHRUH.

Badi kushta shudaii Pirmuhammad vaziyati sulolai Temuriyon boz ham murakkabtar shud. Hanuz dar vaqti dar qaydi hayot budani Temur pisari khurdii u – SHohrukh hokimi Hirot bud. U dar in jo tamomi nishonahoi davlatdoriro dosht. Az on jumla, dar ikhtiyori u lashkari kalon ham bud. Bad az vafoti Temur SHohrukh ba nizohoi sulolavie, ki dar shahri Samarqand sar zada budand, kordor nashud, garchande ki vorisi rasmii toju takhti Temur bud. Inak badi qarib 4 soli khomushi SHohrukh dar borai khud darak doda, lashkar cham namud va bar ziddi Hudodod lashkar kashida, uro torumor kard. Uro tavassuti qotile ba qatl rasonid va Halilsultonro az asorat ozod kard. SHohrukh Halilsultonro az huquqi vorisii takhtu toji Temur mahrum sokhta, hokimi Ray tayin kard. Idorai Samarqand va umuman Movarounnahrro SHohrukh ba pisari 15-solai khud – Ulugbek suporida, rohi Eronro pesh girift. U farzandoni Jahongir, Umarshaykh va Mironshohro az hokimiyat dur karda, Ibrohimsulton nom pisarashro hokimi SHeroz va pisari digari khud – Suyurgotmishro hokimi Kobul, Gazna va Qandahor tain kard.

Qabilahoi Qaro-quyunlu zamini khudro, ki Temur zabt karda bud, az nav sohib shuda, hududhoi onro vasetar kardand. SHohrukh se marotiba bar ziddi Qaroquyunlu lashkar kashidaast, vale ba muvaffaqiyati kalon noil nashuda, bo u sulh bast va idorai Ozarboyjonro ba Jahongir nom yake az namoyandagoni in sulola suporid.

Dar zamoni hukmronii SHohrukh, ki in soli 1406 ogoz yoftaast, garchande davlati Temuriyon zaminhoi ziyodi khudro az dast doda boshand ham, hanuz iqtidorashro purra az dast nadoda bud. Sarzamini Temuriyon, ki dar ikhtiyori SHohrukh bud, dar amal ba du davlat taqsim shud – Movarounnahr (markazash shahri Samarqand) va Huroson (markazash shahri Hirot). Dar Movarounnahr Ulugbek va dar Huroson boshad, khudi SHohrukh hukmroni mekard.

OSIYOI MARKAZI DAR ZERI HOKIMIYATI ULUGBEK.

Garchande Ulugbeki navjavon hukmroni Samarqand boshad ham, dar amal hokimiyat dar dasti murabbii u, hamsafi Temur SHohmalik bud. Badi ba takhti Samarqand nishastani Ulugbek yake az sipahsoloroni Temur ba Samarqand lashkar kashid. Ulugbek majbur shud, ki firor kunad. SHohrukh az nn khabar voqif shuda, bo lashkari sershumor ba Samarqand omad va isyongaronro torumor karda, hokimiyati Ulugbekro az nav barqaror namud. Vale bo in vaziyati Ulugbek khub nashud. Az in ru, Ulugbek az padarash talab kard, ki uro az pushtibonii SHohmalik ozod kunad. Hamin tariq, SHohrukh Ulugbekro, ki in vaqt 17-sola bud, hukmroni mustaqili Movarounnahr tain namud.

Sarfi nazar az on, ki Ulugbek hokimi Movarounnahr hisob meshud, hokimiyati oli dar in jo ham dar dasti SHohrukh bud.

Ulugbek dar Movarounnahr hukmroni karda, qarib har sol bahri ziyorati padarash ba Hirot meraft. Ba Ulugbek lozim meomad, ki goh bar ziddi hokimoni sarkashi mahalli va goh bar ziddi tajovuzkoroni muguli muboriza barad. U dar in muboriza na hama vaqt golib mebaromad. Bore uzbekoni bodiyanishin lashkari Ulugbekro torumor karda, shahru dehoti Movarounnahrro gorat kardand. SHohrukh az in bokhabar shuda, bo lashkari purzur bo tezi ba on jo omada, ba pisarash yori rasond. Hokimiyati uro az nav barqaror karda, gunahgoroni shikastkhuriro bo kaltak jazo dod. Ulugbekro az khokimiyat dur karda, bad az gunohash guzashta, khokimiyatro dar Movarounnahr az nav ba u bargardond. Bad az in Ulugbek fahmid, ki qobiliyati lashkarkashi nadorad, minbad ba lashkar sarvari namekard.

VAFOTI SHOHRUH VA QATLI ULUGBEK.

Soli 1447 SHohrukh dar Hirot vafot kard. Ulugbek qaror dod, ki muddate dar Hirot istiqomat kunad. Dar hamin vaqt uzbekoni bodiyanishin ba poytakhti Ulugbek – shahri Samarqand hamla kardand.

 U majbur shud, ki bo tezi ba Movarounnahr bargardad. Dar roh lashkari dushman ba lashkari Ulugbek barkhurd. Dar muhoriba Ulugbek askari ziyod talaf dod. In shikast obruyu etibori uro kohond.

Dar darbor va bayni ayonu ashrofu ruhoniyon mukholifoni Ulugbek bisyor budand. In ashkhos margi Ulugbekro mekhostand. Ba onho muyassar shud, ki Pisari Ulugbek Abdulatifro bar ziddi padar ba isyon vodor sozad. Dar muhoribai lashkari padaru pisar Ulugbek shikast khurda, az takhti podshohi makhrum gardid va okhirhoi mohi oktyabri soli 1449 bo farmoni Abdulatif kushta shud.

DAVLATI TEMURIHO DAR AHDI ABUSAID.

Abdulatif orzu mekard, ki sohibi takhtu toji padar shavad. Vale in orzui u jomaiamal napushid. Abdulatif badi shash moh az jonibi harbiyon qatl karda shud. Badi qatli Abdulatif muboriza baroi hokimiyat dar bayni azoyoni sulolai Temuriyon az nav avj girift. Va nihoyat, ba Abusaid nom shakhs, ki ba khonadoni Temuriyon taalluq dosht, muyassar shud, ki bo yorii peshvoi uzbekoni bodiyanishin Abulkhayrkhon dar Movarounnahr hokimiyati Temuriyonro az nav barqaror kunad. Abusaid dar davlati Temuriyon solhoi 1451-1469 hukmroni kardaast. Dar in solho hududhoi davlati Temuriyon qarib purra az nav barqaror karda shud. U hokimiyatro dar Hirot va tamomi Huroson ba dast darovard. Dar ahdi Abusaid qalamravn davlati Temuriyon az kuhhoi Tiyonshon to Bagdod va az dashthoi Qirgiz to sohilhoi daryoi Hindro dar bar megirift.

BARHAM HURDANI DAVLATI TEMURIYON.

Badi vafoti Abusaid davlati Temuriho bebozgasht ru ba tanazzul nihod. Dar Soli 1469 dar Movarounnahr hokimiyat ba dasti farzandoni Abusaid va dar Huroson ba dasti avlodoni Umarshaykh guzasht.

Namoyandai mashhuri in khonadon Sulton Husayni Boyqaro dar Hirot ba hokimiyati Temuriyon sohib shuda, dar on jo muddate chand hukmroni kard.

Dar okhirhoi asri XV SHayboniho ba qalamravi  davlati Temuriyon va khususan, ba Movarounnahr muntazam hamla ovarda, onro kharob mekardand. In tokhtutozho makhsusan, bad az vafoti Abulkhayrkhon purzurtar shudand. Pisari u Muhammad SHaybonikhon dar nazdi khud vazifa guzosht, ki orzuyu omoli boboyashro oid ba zabti davlati Temuriho va tashkil namudani davlati SHayboniho ba ijro merasonad. U soli 1501 shahri Samarqandro az Bobur nom Temurii okhirin kashida girift. Hamon sol davrai barham khurdani davlati Temuriyon hisobida meshavad.

SULTONII DEHLI

TASISI SULTONII DEHLI. Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi va avlodoni u borho ba Hinduston lashkar kashida, onro gorat karda budand. Badi soli 1151 az tarafi Guriyon girifta shudani shahri Gazna Gaznaviyon ba Hinduston firor kardand. Dar Gazna hokimiyat ba dasti Guriyon guzasht.

Soli 1175 hokimi Gazna – Muhammadi Guri ba Hinduston lashkar kashida, muzofoti Panjobro ishgol namud. Solhoi 90-umi asri XII u mintaqakhoi bayni daryohoi Jamnayu Gang va muzofoti Baigolaro ham zabt kard.

Bad az on ki Muhammadi Guri vafot kard, joi uro Qutbiddini Oybek girifta, aloqaashro az Gazna tamoman kand va dar shimoli Hinduston davlati sohibistiqlol tashkil namud.

 Davlati navtasisi Qutbiddin ba khud nomi “Sultonii Dehli”- ro girifta, dar asrhoi HSH-HU yake az davlathoi kalontarini SHarq bud.

Sultonii Dehli dar in davra vase shud. Ba on gayr az Hindustoni SHimoli, inchunin Hindustoni Markazi va aksariyati davlathoi  pahnkuhi Dakan niz dokhil shudand. Onhoro sulton Alovuddini Hilji zabt karda bud. Sulton Muhammadi Tuglak qarib tamomi Hindustonro zabt namuda, orzu dosht, ki Eryun va CHinro niz zabt kunad. Sultonii Dehli sarfi nazar az buzurgii qalamravi khud purzuru markaziyatnok nabud.

SOHTI DAVLDTI. Sultonii Dehli davlati feodali bud. Tamomi zaminho molikiyati sulton hisobida meshudand. SHakhsone, ki az joyhoi digar omada, khizmati artishro ba jo meovardand. az sulton zamini muvaqqati – “iqto” megiriftand. Feodalhoi kaloni mahalli zaminhoi merosi doshgand. Bad az vafoti onho zamini merosi ba farzandonashon meguzasht. In feodalho nnchunin muzofothoi khudro idora karda, qarib tamoman mustaqil budand. Ba sulton tankho yak miqdori muayyan andoz mesuporidandu bas. Feodalhoi miyona va khurdi hindiham zaminhoi kamtari merosi doshtand. Bo mururi zamon omadagoni balandmartaba niz sohibi zaminhoi merosi meshudand.

Qismi zaminho dar ikhtiyori ruhoniyon, dayrho va ibodatgohkhoi dini hinduiya, ruhoniyon va masjidhoi islomi budand. Zaminhoi muassisahoi dini “vaqf” nomida meshudand.

 Dar Sultonii Dehli usuli zamindori islom bud. Dar Sultonii Dehli misli peshtara shumorai khojagihoi dekhkonii jamoaho nisbat ba namudhoi digari khojagidori bartari doshtand.

Zamindoroni kalon ba khojagihoi khud bevosita mashgul iameshudand. Onho zaminhoyashonro ba dehqonon ba ijora doda, az onho hosili sof va yo daromadi pulimegiriftand.

Dar solhoi mavjudiyati Sultonii Dehli dar Hinduston shahrhoi bisyori nav bunyod shudand. Dar in shahrho odatan qarorgohhoi sultonhoyu voliyoni onho joygir budand. YAke az chunin shahrho Dehli bud.

SHahrhoi janubii Hinduston beshtar dar sohilkhoi bahrho bino yofta budand. Goa, Kalkuta va Bombay az hamin qabil shahrho meboshand. Dar shimolii sultoniniz shahrhoi kalon ba misli Agra, Panipat, Lohur va Multon mavjud budand. Toji- roni sultoni az in bandaru shahrho masnuoti ziyodu gunoguni kosiby va pesh az hama, gazvoru mahsuloti attorii hindiro muttasil ba bozorhoi mamlakathoi Osiyoyu Avrupo va Afriqoi SHimoli burda mefurukhtand.

 Az on mamlakatho ba Hinduston asp, qalagi, mis va pulhoi tilloyu nuqragin meovardand.

OGOZI TANAZZULI SULTONII DEHLI.

Dar okhirhoi asri XIV Sultonii Dehli davlati markaziyatnok nabud. Dar on jo davlathoi  sershumori musulmoniyu hindu beist bar ziddi hamdigar jang mekardand. Sulton ba muqobili hokimoni muzofothoi Bangola, Sind, Oris va Gujarat jang karda, onhoro ba khok yakson kard. Soli 1366 sulton Firuz bad az pakhshi shurishe, ki dar Gujarat sar zada bud, farmud, ki mardumi mahalhoi asosii shurish kir karda shavand. Dar solhoi 70-um va 80-um boshad, Sultonii Dehli chunon zaif shud, ki on digar amniyati muzofothoro tamin karda nametavonist.

Dastahoi alohidai mugulho to ba shahrhoi kaloni sultoni – Lohur va Dehli omada rasidand.

LASHKARKASHII TEMUR BA SULTONII DEHLI.

Temur az vaziyati munosib istifoda burda. tiramohi soli 1398 bo lashkari 120-hazoriafarai khud ba Sultonii Dehli hamla ovard. Sulton peshi rohi lashkari buzurgi Temurro girifta natavonist. Bad az giriftani Dehli Temur az daryoi Hind guzasht va shahru dehahoi Panjobryu pai ham girifga, onhoro talayu toroj mekard. U ba musulmonu hindu rahm namekard, onhoro ba qatl merasond. Poytakhti sultoni – shahri Dehli talayu toroj karda shud. Dahho hazor sokinonn Dehli kushta shudand. Qismi onho firor karda, qismi digar asir aftodand. Kosibon va binokoronn guldasti Hinduston zuran ba Samarqand firistoda shudand. Temur badi yak sol bo ganimati buzurg ba Samarqand bargashta, ba khotiri galaba bar Sultonii Dehlifarmud, ki dar in shahr masjidi buzurgi jome sozand.

SULTONII DEHLI DAR ASRI XV.

Temur Hindustonro goratu ba khok yakson karda, bo in kirdori khud ba hokimiyati be in ham tanazzulyoftan Sultonni Dehlizarbai margovar zad. Temur dar nazdi khud maqsad naguzoshta bud, ki Hindustonro ba imperiyai buzurgash hamroh sozad. U Hindustonro ba holi khud guzosht. Bad az raftani Temur dar shimoli Hinduston muboriza dar bayni feodalhoi musulmon va hindu boz ham tezu tundtar shud. Digar na sulton va na yagon hokimi digari shimol yo janub nametavonist Hindustonro muttahid sozad. Dar asl shimoli islomi va janubi hinduiya dar muqobili hamdigar meistodand.

Dar tuli asri XV Sultonii Dehli allakay hamchun davlati buzurg vujud iadosht. On yake az davlatchahoi qatorii Hinduston ba shumor meraft, sarfi iazar az on ki hokimi shahri Dehli misyai peshtara doroi unvoni sultonii buzurgi Dehli bud. Davlati nisbatan kaloni in mintaqai Hinduston Bangola bud. Vale on ham dar Hindustoni SHimoli vazifai hukmronro ijro karda nametavonist. Dar chunin holat Sultonii Dehli va tamomi Hinduston dar nazdi hamlahoi navi mugulu turkho tob ovarda natavonist.

BARHAM HURDANI SULTONII DEHLI.

 Badi az tarafi SHayboniyon barham zadani davlati Temuriyon namoyandai okhirini in sulola, vorisi takhtu toj va naberai Temur – Bobur soli 1526 bo lashkar va jonibdoroni khud rohi Hindustonro pesh girift.

Pesh az ba Hinduston hamla kardani Bobur Afgoniston va yak qismi Eroni SHarqi, shahrhoi Kobul va Gaznaro ba dast darovard.

Bobur az hamin jo bo lashkari 20-hazornafarai iborat az turkho, tojikon va pushtuho ba Hindustoni SHimoli lashkar kashid.

Dar Hinduston muhoribai halkunanda dar hamvorii nazdi shahri Panipatai voqe dar shimoltari Dehli 21 apreli soli 1526 ba amal omad. Dar in muhoriba sultoni okhirini Sultonii Dehli – Ibrohimi Ludi kupgga shud. Badi in Bobur Dehliro zabt namuda, khudro shohi Hinduston elon kard. Soli oyanda hokimoni muzofothoi musulmon va hindu lashkari 100 – hazornafara gun karda, bar ziddi Bobur ba jang daromadand, vale dar muhoribai nazdi Kanvagi voqe dar nazdikii shahri Agra torumor karda shudand. Bo hamin Sultonii Dehli barham khurd.

IMPERIYAI TEMURIYONI HIND

TASISI IMPERIYA.

 Ba Bobur va zuriyothoi u lozim omad, ki darnimjazirai Hinduston va dar masofai sadho kilometr durtar az on, davlati khudro vase kunand. Hududhoi imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind Afgonistoii SHarqi, Sind, Kashmir va dar Hindustoni Janubi to daryoi Gadavri tul kashida bud. Sababi in qalamravi  buzurgro ishgol kardani Temuriyoni Hind on ast, ki dar asri XVI Sultonii Dehli digar hududhoyashro muhofizat karda nametavonist.

ISLOHOTI AKBAR.

Imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind dar zamoni hukmronii naberai Bobur – Akbar, ki Solhoi 1556-1605-ro darbar giriftaast, davrai gul-gulshukufii khudro az sar meguzaronid. Dar nn solho hududhoi on dar natijai ishgoli muzofothoi Hindustoni SHarqi – Bangola, Orns, Gujarat, Kashmir,sultonii Handna va Ahmadnagar boz ham vasetar shud. Akbar yake az markazhoi kalontarini tijorat dar SHarq – shahri Qandahorro ham az Eron kashida girift.

Akbar shohi durandesh va odil bud. Ba sari hokimiyat omada, u dar mamlakat islohot guzaronad. Islohot qarib hamai sohahoi hayoti mamlakatro dar bar megirift. Dar rafti amali namudani islohot u aholii mahallii khinduro ba nazari etibor nagirifta nametavonist. SHohi nav baze ashrofoni hinduro ba vazifahoi kalon tayin kard. Pushtibonii tojironi hindunaslro shakhsan ba uhda girift. Dar mamlakat taqiboti onhoe, ki payravoni dini hinduiya budand, kat karda shud. Aholii hindu az andozi jizya ozod karda shud. Akbar soli 1593 dar borai ijozat ba faoliyati hamai dinho amri makhsus barovard. Muvofiqi in amr hinduyonro zuran ba dini islom gardonidan man elon karda shud. Hindukhoi majburan musulmon kardashuda hatto metavonistand ba dini peshtarai khud bargardand.

Nizomn andozsitoni tagyir doda shud. Dar mamlakat vohidi yagonai chenkunii zamin jori gardid. Muvofiqi in chenak zaminhoi mamlakat az iav chen karda, masokhati umumii onho muayyan karda shud.

Akiun hangomi muqarrar kardani andoz sifati zamin, yane hosilnokii khok ba nazar girifta meshud. Mardumi kishovarz muvofiqi sifati zamin seyaki hosilro bo darnazardoshga narkhhoi miyonai 20 soli okhir ba khazinai davlat andozi puli mepardokhtand.

Islohoti Akbar idorai davlatiro niz dar bar girift. Mamlakat ba 15 muzofot taqsim karda shud, ki onhoro voliyoni shoh idora mekardand. Vazorathoi Imperiyai Temuriyoni Hindro chun dar davlati Somoniyon devonho menomidand. Sarvari devonho nakhustvazir bud. Oid ba sohahoi gunoguni mamlakat chushidekhvonho mavjud budand. Masalan, devonhoi moliya, andoz, jagir, darbor, korhoi sokhtmon, lashkar, ustokhonaho, vaqf va gayra.

IMPERIYAI TEMURIYONI HIND DAR ASRI XVII. Ba Akbar muyassar shud, ki imperiyai Temuriyoni Hindro dar oromiyu rushdu numu nigoh dorad. Pisari Akbar – CHahongir soli 1605 ba takhti podshohi nishasta, u ham jiddu jahd ba kharj dod, ki imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind boz ham taraqqi kunad.

Dar zamoni hukmronii naberai Akbar – SHohijahon hududhoi davlati Temuriyoni Hind dar Hinduston boz ham vasetar shudand. Ahmadnagar, Golkand va Bijapur niz tobeiyati khudro az SHohijakhon etirof kardand. Sarzamini Marakhashtra ham chandin muddat ba hayati  davlati Temuriyoni Hind dokhil gardid.

Dar zamoni hukmroiii SHohi jahon imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind kamtar pesh raft. Jagir – doroni kalon harakat mekardand, ki mustaqil boshand. Janghoi sershumori SHohijahon kharojoti kalonro takozo mekardand. Baroi paydo kardani mablagi  zaruri avlodoni Akbar, az on jumla, SHohijahon ijorai zaminro az nav jorinamudand. Aknun jagirdorho khudashon andozgundor shudand. Dar natijai in jagirdorho sarvatmand va hokimiyati onho az boloi kishovarzon boz ham purzurtar shud. In holat ba obruyu etibori hokimiyati shoh tasiri manfi rasonid.

Gayr az in, zindagii bo karru farri shohhoi Temuriyoni Hind, darboriyon, jagirdorhoi buzurgtarini musulmon va hokimoni mahallii hindu haddu kanor nadosht. Farqi sathi zindagi dar bayni tabaqahoi hukmron va ahli zahmat toraft beshtar meshud. Bo vujudi in, dar zamonn hukmronii SHohijahon va Avrangzeb, Imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind mavqei peshqadami khudro az dast nadoda bud. Dar solhoi hukmronii Avrangzeb hududhoi Bachapur va Golkondaro iiz darbar gnrnft. Ba u muyassar shud, ki khujumi artishi ishrkati anglisii “Ost-Indiya”-ro bartaraf namuda, ba on tovoni jang bor kunad.

Avrangzeb bar khilofi ajdodoni khud farmud, ki az mardumi gayrimusulmon andozi jizya sitonida shavad. U kushish ba kharj medod, ki mamlakhatro muvofiqi meyorhoi shariati islom idora kunad. Javoban ba zulmu taqiboti Avrangzeb dar zeri rohbarii peshvoi khud SHavaji maratho shurish bardoshta, soli 1674 davlati sohibikhtiyori Makharashtraro tasis namudand. Dar in davra rachputho niz bar ziddi Temuriyoni Hind baromadand. In yakchand misol shahodati on ast, ki Imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind dar nimai avvali asri XVII purquvvat boshad ham, dar nimai duyumi on to andozae ru ba tanazzul nihoda budaast.

MADANIYATI IMPERIYAI TEMURIYONI HIND. Madaniyati Hinduston dar zamoni hukmronii Temuriyoni Hind ba komyobihoi kalon sohib shud. In komyobiho alalkhusus ba adabiyoti va sanati memori dakhl dorand.

Az jumlai adiboni mashhuri Temuriyoni Hind Abulfazl bud. U asarhoi khudro bo zaboni tojiki menavshnt. Dar bayni shoironi sershumor barodari Abulfazl – Fayzl az usulhoi shernavisii forsi vase istnfoda meburd. Tulsi Das az jumlai shoironi marufi shshuzabon bud. Bedil, Zebunisso, Kalim, Husravi Dehlavi niz shoironi mashhuri badinai forsigui Hinduston budand.

Sanati memori komyobihoi boz ham buzurgtar dosht. Qasri Akbarshoh dar Dehli az jumlai buzurgtarin inshooti memoril in davlat buda, devorhoi on 20 metr baland va az sangi taroshida sokhta shudaast. Qasri digari Akbarshoh dar dashti nazdikii shahri Agra meboshad.

YAke az osori buzurgtarini memorii musulmonii Temuriyoni Hind maqbarai Tojmahal dar Agra ba shumor meravad. Tojmahal az marmari safed sokhta shuda, doroi gumbazi safed va manorai sernakshu nigor meboshad va az jumlai yake az haft mujizai olam ba shumor meravad.

Inshooti digari buzurgi binokori “Masjidi mujiza” nom dorad, ki dar shahri Dehli sokhta shudaast. Dar in masjid dar yus vaqt to 100 hazor nafar musulmonho namozi juma guzopgga metavonistand.

SHohhoi Temuriyoni Hind binohoi ziyodi bokhashamati jamiyatii digar niz sokhta budand, az on jumla, onhoe, ki baroi devonho muqarrar shuda budand.

YAke az sababhoi asosii peshravii adabiyot va memorii davlati Temuriyoni Hind on ast, ki shohhoi on va alalkhusus Akbar va SHohijahon adibon va memoronro shakhsan sarparasti mekardand.

LUGAT

Jizya – onhoe, ki payravi dini islom nabudand, chunin andoz mepardokhtand.

Jagirdor – zamindoroni kalone, ki zaminhoi khudro ba dehqonon ba ijora medodand.

“Ost-Imdiya” – shirkati Angliya buda, dar ikhtiyori khud lashkar doshta, ba Hinduston hamla karda bud.

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