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DINI NASRONI

NASRONIYAT yake az dinkhoi sernufuzi chakhoni buda, payravoni ziyode dar khama gushayu kanori dunyo dorad. Paydoishu pakhnshavii on khosi davrai muayyani tarikhi buda, ba faoliyati gurukhkhoi mukhtalifi ichtimoi alokamand ast.

Makoni paydoishi on muzofotkhoi sharkii Imperiyai Rim ast. Imperiyai Rim az Misru Baynanakhrayn sar karda, to sokhilkhoi Ispaniya va Britaniyaro dar itoati khud dosht. In davlati azim khalkkhoi gunogunro bo kham omekhta karda, az bisyor chikhat rokhi tarikhii kanori Bakhri Miyonazaminro baroi biser asrkho dar ikhtiyor dosht. YAke az chikhatkhoi mukhimi on sinkretizm, omekhtashavi va payvastshavii unsurkhoi gunoguni kismi SHarki bo chakhoni YUnonu Rim meboshad. SHaklkhoi gunogun, darachakhoi muvofiki inkshofi madaniyat, sokhtorkhoi ijtimoi-iktisodi, nizomkhoi siyosi, dinkhoi gunogun dar davlati buzurg dar munosibati murakkabi bo kham alokamand, ba khud kabul kardani chikhatkhoi gunoguni yakdigar va kham inkori yakdigar karor doshtand.

nasroni

Paydoishi dini nasroni dar Imperiyai Rim ba khamin davrai tarikhi aloqamand ast, duchori tabaddulotkhoi buzurgi tarikhi gashtaast. Dar in davra chumkhurii Rim ba Imperiyai Rim tabdil meyobad. Rimro muborizahoi Gunoguni siyosi-ijtimoi, shurishi dehqonon bo sardorii Spartak, diktaturahoi YUliy Sezar, Antoniy faro megirad va zinai navi inkishofi davlat ba vujud meoyad, ki dar on munosibathoi navi jamiyati paydo shudainkishof meyoband. Paydoishi imperiya beshtar ba davrai hukmronii Gay YUily Sezar Oktavian yo khud imperator Avgust, ki ba Sezar senat in nomro doda bud, rost meoyad. Gay YUily Sezar, dar soli 29 to melodba janghoi grajdani khotima doda, ba sari hkimiyati meoyad va sulh dar Rim bar karor megardad.

Avgust tamomi hokimiyati davlatiro ba khud tobe sokhta dar idorakunii davlat tagyiroti jiddi ba amal meovard. Ba qavli muarrikhi Rimi qadim Tasit asosi targiboti davlati ba tagyiroti amiq duchor gashta, az qarorhoi dastojamii peshtara chize boqi namemonad. Az davrai Avgust sar karda, sokhti jumhuriyavii davlat az bayn meravad. Ba in tagyirot digargunihoi ijtimoi sababgor meshavand. Quvvahoe, ki jumhuriro ba vujud ovarda budand, nufuzu tasiri khudro gum karda, mavqeashonro ba quvahoi nav medihand.

Ziddiyati bayni gulomdoron va gulomon, bayni sarvatmandon va shahrvandoni ozodi bechiz.yu bayni shahrvandoni barobarhuquqi Rim va shahrvandoni behuquqi girdu atrof, ziddiyati bayni tabaqahoi gunogun dar senat ba shikasti tarzi hukmronii jumhuriyavi sabab gashtand. Dar rohi inkishofi davlati va shakli hukmroni Avgust in ziddiyathoro ba nazar megirift va ba tashkili yak tarzi hokimiyati mutlaq asos guzosht. Tarikhshinosii imruza imperiyaro ba du davra taqsim mekunad-prinsipat va dominat. Davrai avval, ki ahdi Avgust niz ba on

dokhil meshavad va se asr tul mekashad, davrae bud, ki hokimiyati imperator hamchun hokimi mutlaq bo libosi hukmronii jumhuriyavi pushonida shuda bud va minbad on ba dominat, shakli oshkoroi hukmronii mutlaq meovard, yak qator tagyirotho dar munosibathoi gunoguni huquqi, dar hayoti ijtimoi, dar afkori mardum vobasta ba shakli navi hukmroni ba vujud meoyad. Az jumla metavon yak andoza ziyod shudani huquqi shahrvandoni gushayu atrofro nombar kard. Azbaski imperator hokimi mutlaq gasht, munosibati omma niz ba vay digar shuda, ba u quvvai makhsusi favquttabiatro nisbat medodand. Uro dar qatori khudoyon meparastidand.

Az jumla dar asarhoi khud Vergiliy Avgustro dar bayni burjhoi osmon joy medihad va meguyad, ki Aqrab /nomi burj/ boyad on taraftar ravad, to ba burji nav joy dihad. Huquqi nohiyahoi gushayu atrof meafzoyad, mavqei lashkar hamchun quvvai ijtimoi-siyosi khele mustahkam meshavad.

Ba ziddiyathoyu muborizahoyu siyosiyu dokhili nigoh nakarda, siyosati zabtkorii imperiya davom mekunad, mamlakatu sarzaminhoi nav ba imperiya tobe karda meshavand va hududi on khele vase megardad. Dar davrai nisbat ba davrai jumhuriyat ba gulomon diqqati beshtar doda meshavad, masalai gulomon masalai asosii imperiya megardad. Harchand dar davrai avali imperiya shurishhoi kaloni gulomon ba vujud naomada boshad ham, ziddiyati gulomon khele tezu tund megardad.

Istismor va behuquqii gulomon duchand meshavand. Agar pesh ba masalai gurekhtan va yo ozodshavii onho davlat dakholat namekard, holo baraks, davlat bo tamomi qudrati khud manfiati gulomdoronro himoya karda, dar istismor va bargardondani onho ba gulomdoron yori merasond. Masalan, qonun barovarda shuda bud, ki agar gulomdor az tarafi gulomon kushta meshud, dar haqqi tamomi gulomoni in gulomdor, khoh ba ba in kor shari k boshad, khoh naboshand, hukmi qatl sodir megadid. Baroi misol metavon guft, ki 400 gulomi Pedaniya Sekund /zanu bachahoyashon ham/ bo hamin jinoyat kushta shuda budand. In guna hodisaho khele ziyodand. Bisyor digar qarorhoi davrai imperiya ham bar ziddi gulomon bo jazodihi onho dakhl doshtand. Nigoh doshtani lashkari ziyod, dastgohi vasei davlat bar dushi khalqi mehnati aftoda bud. Andozho ruz az ruzafzun megashtand. Digarguniho va tagirotho dar hayoti ijtimoi inikosi khudro dar hayoti manavii mardum, jahonbini, afkori onho niz yoftand.

Ziddiyathoi gunoguni ijtimoi, dushvoriho, kulfatu azobe, ki ba dushi khalqi mehnatkash, gulomon aftoda bud, zulm va istibdodi bekhad notavoniyu noumedi ommaro pobandi har gunna hurufot mesokht, hatto namoyandagoni sinfhoi dororo ham giriftori khud mekardam.

SHakli navi davlat-mutlaqiyat, jihatho va masalahoi navi vobasta ba gulomon aqidaho va munosibati navero dar masalai munosibati jamiyat bo shakhs va shakhs bo jamiyat ba vujud ovardand va aloqai peshtararo az bayn burdand. Meyorhoi akhloqii jamiyati, ki pesh budand, meyorhoi qadimai akhloqii neku bad va gayra, agarchi tamoman az bayn narafta ham, ba tagyiroti qadi duchor gashtand. Guruhhoi nave, ki dar idorakunii davlat ishtirok mekardand, dar senat az muhofizakorii peshtara ozod budand. Va gayra az in chizparasti, mojarojui va gayra ba juzi amali in guruhi odamon tabdil yofta budand.

Tagyiroti fikri, akhloqi na tanho dar bayni azoyoni senat, balki dar digar guruhhoi jamiyati niz ba amal omad. Dar tabaqahoi bolo yak nav kambudi manavi, kholigi va mahdudiyat his karda meshud. Dar bayni tabaqahoi poyonii jamiyat-hunarmandon, az gulomi ozodshudagon meyorhoi digari bahodihii arzishhoi akhloqi, dini tashakkul meyobad. Hamin tavr dar bayni in guruhhoi aqidae paydo meshavad, ki boigari, najod, mansab nametavonad sababi saodati on jahoni gardad, balki nekukori va kambagali, rahmdili soddagi va gayra dar on jahon hayoti khushbakhtonaro tamin mesozad.

Kambudi manavi /kholigii manavi/ na tanho dar akhloq, balki dar in ham mushohida megardad. Dinhoi peshtarai Rim tamoman bequrb shuda budand. Dar natija nufuzi talimotkho va raviyahoi navi goyavi, faslafi dar Rim beshtar gardidand. Az jumlai onho talimoti Seneka /stoisizm-ravoqiya/ va Filoni Aleksadri bud.

Ba gayr az in nufuzi khudohoi dinu etiqodi Eron-Mitraizm, va gayra, ki dar imperiya khele ziyod meshavad, goyai tavhid niz dar Rim mamul megardad. Hamin tavr dar imperiya Rim zaminahoi ijtimoi, goyavi baroi dini tavhid nasroni paydo shud.

Mintaqai paydoishi dini nasroni muzofoti Rim-YAhudiya donista meshavad, ki dar arafai solshumorii melodi markazi ziddiyathoi ijtimoi va siyosi gardidaast. Az soli 63 to melod sarlashkar Komney Baytulmuqaddasro ishgol namuda, YAhudiyaro tobei Rim gardonid. Dar YAhudiya muborizahoi siyosi, goyavi dar dokhil avj megirand. Navisanda Iosif Flaviy se guruhi asosi: sadduqiyon, farisiyon, esseniyonro nom burdaast. Sadduqiyon az tabaqai ruhoniyon, ashrofoni zamindor iborat budand. Va dar bayni mardum tasiri ziyod nadoshtand.

Farisiyon, ki az tabaqahoi gunogun iborat budand, quvvai buzurgi siyosiro tashkil medodand. Guruhi seyum essenho az rui az rui etiqodi khud az dini mamuli yahudi farq mekardand. Onho rohi inkishofi manbahoi tarikhiro ba omadani Maseho vobasta medonistand. Baze essenho ba biyobon ruy ovarda, zindagii darveshonaro pesh girifta budand. Hamin tavr bad az on ki YAhudiya ba Rim tobe karda meshavad, vaziyati murakkabi ijtimoi-siyosi boz ham murakkabtar megardad.

Qullai in muborizahoi siyosi shurishe bud, ki baroi pakhsh kardani on baroi imperiyai Rim 7 sol lozim shudHodisai dar in jo rukh doda, ki dar nazari mardum guyo, ki az okhiri Dune khabar medod, intizori ba Maseho, ki bo yorii on quvvai Rimro shikast dodan mumkin ast, akidakhoi gunoguni bo kham rakobatkunandaro ba vuchud meovardand. YAk gurukh dar nazdi kukhi mukaddasi Goriziya cham meshavand.

Ba nazdi kukh bazekho bo silokh meoyand. Prokarutari YAkhudiya Pontiy Pilat askar firistoda dar on jo chamshudagonro kisman katl va kisman parokanda mesozad. Soli 1947 podaboni chavon dar shimoli garbi Bakhri Mayit dastkhatkhoi kadimaro paydo namud. Durtar az on dar 10 gori digar niz dastkhatkho yoft shudand. Az mukhtavoi in dastkhatkho chunin chiz barmeoyad, ki baroi essenho umumiyati mekhnat, umumiyati mol khos ast. Onho nisbat ba molu mulk tanaffur doshtand. Rasmu oinkhoi dini nasroi – az kabili guslu tamid dar chamoati Kurmon duchor megardand. In bozyoftkho guvokhi medikhand, ki akidakhoi ba dini nasroni nazdik dar in makhal vuchud doshtaast.

Tasiri yakhudiyat ba nasroniyat va umumiyati onkho khele ziyod ast. Kitobkhoi mukaddasi paygambaron, biser rasmu oinkho, unsurhoi talimot baroi khar du din umumi meboshand. Nasroniyat dar asri okhir to melod va dar ibtidoi solshumorii melodi dar Rim pakhn meshavad.

Solshumorii melodi ibtidoi khudro az tavalludi Isoi Maseh megirad. Avvalin nasronikho gulomon va kambagalon budand. Dar jamiyati nassroniho havvoriyon – shogirdoni Isoi Maseh rokhbari mekardand, badtar az digar tabakakhoi ichtimoi kham a afrode ba in jamiyat dokhil meshavand.

Minbad ruhonihoi kasbi kashishkho, uskufkho ba chamoatkhoi nasroni  rokhbari menamoyand. Dar ibtidoi asri IV khukumati imperatori ba nasroniyat tavajjuh zokhir mekunad. Imperator Konstantin bo farmoni khud dini nasroniro dar avval yake az dinkhoi imperiya va badtar dini rasmii on elon mekunad.

Soli 325 anchumani umumii nasronikho dar Nikey davat meshavad, ki shuroi umumichakhoniro elon menamoyad. Nasroniyat ba digar kishvarho, berun az khududi imperiyam Rim niz pakhn gardida, nufuzi buzurge paydo mekunad va ba yake az dinkhoi umumijahoni tabdil meyobad.

Aslhoi nasroniyat dar etiqodnomae, ki dar soli 381 elon shuda az 12 asl iborat ast, muqqadas shumurda meshavand. 8 asli avval ba etiqod ba khudoi yagona davat mekunad, khudoe, ki dar se mahsar-khudo-padar, khudo-pisar va khudo-ruh /ruh-l-quds/ /taslis/ zohir meshavad. Padar – khudo kholiqi olamu odam, olami suvari va gayrisuvari va khudo-pisar-Isoi Maseh ast. Ruhi muqqadas chizest, ki az Hudo – padar sar mezanad. Talimoti muhim etiqod ba surati digar zokhir shudani Hudost, muvofiki on Isoi Maseh az Mariyam mukaddas tavallud meshavad. Mavkei mukhimro talimot dar borai omurzish /omurzishi gunokhkho/ ishgol mekunad. Isoi Maseh khudro baroi omurzishi gunokhi odamon kurbon karda, rokhi rastakoriro ba har yak fard nishon medikhad.

Suporish va savolkho.

  1. Oid ba dini Nasroni va Iso-paygambar chi khel malumot doshted
  2. Manoi «Qodir»-ro chi tavr dark mekuned?
  3. CHaro dini Nasroni avval dar bayii gulomonu kambagalon pahn gasht?
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