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DEZINFEKSIYA

dezinfeksiyaDEZINFEKSIYA (Desinfectio; az dez … va lot. infectio – siroyat), gandzudoi, besiroyatgardoni, mahvi angezandai bemorihoi siroyati (bakteriyaho, virusho va g.). Ba manoi vaseash mafhumi D. dezinseksiya (mahvi hasharotu kanahoi baroi odam zararrason) va deratizatsiya (mahvi khoyandahoi zararrason)-ro niz darbar megirad.
D. se khel meshavad: jori, nihoi va jilavgir (profilaktiki). D.-i joriro muttasil dar khonai zisti bemor, D.-i nihoiro badi ba bemorkhona burdan (az digaron judo kardan) yo shifo yoftani mariz va D.-i jilavgirro pay dar pay baroi bezarar gardondani gandaob, partovgohho, joyhoi serodam (vokzal, hammom, bozor va magozaho), ki khavfi pahn gashtani amrozi siroyati vujud dorad, meguzaronand.
Baroi D. vositahoi mekhaniki, fiziki va khimiyaviro istifoda mebarand. Bo lattai nam toza kardani khona, afshondani libos va kurpavu bolin, bo changkashak toza kardani changi khona va libosho, shamol dodan, safed va rang kardani khona, shustani dast vositahoi mekhanikii D. mahsub meshavand. Bo in roh qarib 50 – 75%-i mikrobho mahv megardand. Hushkonidan, nuri oftob, afkanishoti ultrabunafsh (lampai simobiyu kvartsi), otash (suzondani akhlot, partovho, ashyoi nodarkor, tafsondani chizhoi filizi) va obi jush vositahoi fizikii D. meboshand. Dar kamerahoi gandzudoi bugi ob va havoi garm, dar avtoklavho boshad, bugi obro istifoda mebarand. Kislotaho, ishqorho, ohaki khlornok, khloramin, fenol, krezolho (lizol, naftalizol), formalin, sulema va g. vasoiti khimiyavii D. buda, dar namudi mahlulhoi gunogun ba kor meravand (formalin dar holati gaz ham istifoda meshavad).
Hangomi baze amrozi siroyati D.-ro dar khona meguzaronand. Dar vaqti bemorihoi siroyatii ruda (isholi khunin, tifi hasbavi va bargardanda va g.) kosavu tabaqi bemorro dar mahluli 1%-i soda, libosi tag va lavozimoti bistariro dar mahluli 2%-i sodayu sobun yo mahluli yagon vositai shuyanda 15 daq. mejushonand. Ba peshobu najosati bemor ohaki khlornoki khushk meposhand, bad omekhta karda 1 soat nigoh medorand va sipas ba kanalizatsiya yo chohi akhlot merezand.
Ashyoi nigohubini bemor (garmkunak, kleyonkai tag, khaltai rezinii yakh)-ro bo lattae, ki dar mahluli 0,5%-i khloramin yo benzilkhlorfenol tar karda shudaast, toza mekunand. Kurpavu bolin va libosi ruyro bo chutkae, ki ba in mahlul tar karda shudaast, toza boyad kard. Vanna, hojatkhona va dastshuyakro bo mahluli 0,5%-i ohaki khlornok (yo khlorbetanaftol), farshi khonai bemorro boshad, bo lattai ba mahluli 1%-i khloramin (yo 0,5%-i khlorbetanaftol yo benzilkhlorfenol) tarkarda pok mekunand.
Dar asnoi bemorihoi siroyati (tifi hasbavi va tifi bargardanda) bemor va parastoron az bezarargardonii sanitari meguzarand; libosho va kurpavu bolini bemorro ba kamerai dezinfeksioni mefiristand. Hangomi gripp kosavu tabaqro 2 – 3 marotiba bo obi jush meshuyand (yo dar mahluli yagon moddai shuyanda mejushonand). Ruymolcha va sachoqi bemorro jam karda, dar mahluli yagon vositai shuyanda jushondan lozim ast. Honai zistro tez-tez shamol doda, farshro ruze 2 – 3 marotiba bo lattai dar mahluli 0,2%-i khloramin tarkarda pok mekunand.
Hangomi bemorihoi surkhcha va khanozir khonaro muntazam shamol doda, farshro bo lattai nam pok kardan muhim meboshad.
Dar davrai bemorii guluzindonak va makhmalak boshad, kosavu tabaq, bozichahoi rezini va filizii berangro 15 daq. mejushonand; libosi ruy, joypush, rumolcha va sachoqro jam karda, dar mahluli 2%-i sodavu sobun tar mekunand (sipas 15 daq. mejushonand). Honaro muntazam shamol doda, ba farsh mahlulhoi 0,5%-i khloramin yo 3%-i peroksidi gidrogen bo sulfonol meposhand yo bo lattae, ki ba yake az in mahlulho tar karda shudaast, pok mekunand. Asbobu anjomi khona, dastaki dar va zertakhtai tireza bo hamin latta pok karda meshavad.
Dar asnoi bemorii sil az se yak qismi tufdoni bemorro bo ob pur va 10 g ohaki khlornoki khushk hamroh mekunand (badi yak soat onro mepartoyand); ba tufdon to nisf mahluli 3%-i khloramin rekhta, badi bo balgam pur shudani on, soate nigoh medorand va sipas ba kanalizatsiya merezand. Kosavu tabaqro dar mahluli 2%-i sodayu sobun 15 daq. mejushonand; libosho va joypushro dar hamin mahlul yo mahluli yagon moddai shuyanda tar karda, sipas 15 daq. boyad jushond. Honaro muntazam shamol doda, bo lattai tar (obi jushi sobundor) toza mekunand.

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