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DERMATOLOGIYA

dermatologiiaDERMATOLOGIYA (Dermatologia; az dermato… va …logiya), yak sohai ilmi tib, ki bemorihoi gunoguni pust va vobasta ba on amrozi muy va nokhunro meomuzad. D. umumi va juzi meshavad: D.-i umumi anatomiya va fiziologiyai pust, qonuniyati umumii inkishofi amrozi pust va asosi muolijai onhoro tadqiq menamoyad. D.-i juzi amrozi alohidai pust, muy va nokhunro omukhta, rohhoi peshgirii onhoro daryoft mekunad. D. mikologiyai tibbiro niz darbar megirad. On zanburughoi paraziti baroi odam va hayvonoti khonagi kasalovar (nig. Bemorihoi zanburugii pust)-ro meomuzad. D.-ro dar maktabhoi oli va miyonai tib talim medihand.
D. bo venerologiya, pediatriya, endokrinologiya, ginekologiya, jarrohi va dig. ilmhoi tibbi robitai zich dorad. Hangomi omuzishi masalahoi D. nafaqat usulhoi klinikii tadqiqot, balki usulhoi tadqiqi gistologi, gistokhimiyavi, mikrobiologi, biokhimiyavi niz istifoda meshavand.
Dermatoz nom bemorii pust az zamonhoi qadim malum ast. Tavsifi baze amrozi pust va rohi tabobati onho dar dastkhathoi misriyonu kitobhoi solnomavii baze khalqhoi digar vomekhurand.
Tarikhi D. az du zina iborat ast.
Zinai avval az zamonhoi qadim to a. 16-ro darbar megirad. Dar in davra faqat dar borai chand bemorii pust dar adabiyoti CHin malumot doda shudaast: juzom (makhav), gar, pes, shukufai tar yo qubo, mohipusti, muyrezi va g. Dar Hinduston ilmi tib taraqqi karda bud, bemoriho ba guruhho tasnif meshudand. Bino ba malumoti manbahoi hindi beshtar az 20 kheli illati suzokmonand, 14 navi amrozi luobparda, 18 kheli juzom mavjud bud. Dar in sarchashmaho nafaqat bemorihoi gunogun, balki tarzi muolijai onho niz ovarda shudaast. Dar papirushoi Misri Qadim dar borai amrozi rimnoki pust, khorish, ozakh, juzom, qubo va g. malumoti farovon mavjudand.
Dar ravnaqi D. sahmi pizishkoni YUnon, khususan Buqrot baso buzurg bud. u bisyor masalahoi ilmi tibro jambast kard, doir ba sabab va tariqi paydoishi bemoriho, muolija va peshgirii onho rushani andokht. Buqrot bemorihoi pust (makhav, muyrezi, khorish, amrozi zamburugi va g.)-ro medonist; u sababi paydoishi bemorihoro bo digargunihoe, ki dar badan rukh medihand (endogeni), hamchunin bo tasiri omilhoi beruni (ekzogeni) vobasta mekard. Paydoishi baze bemoriho, az jumla amrozi pustro ba chahor khilt nisbat medod: khun, safro, savdo va balgam. In aqida ba ahamiyati namoyon sohib bud, zero dar muddati 2000 sol dar ilmi tib farziya (nazariya)-i khilti hanuz mavqei barjasta dorad. Dar bayni pizishkoni Rum metavon az Sels yodovar shud, ki dar borai bemorihoi zanburugi, shukufai falsi, amrozi rimnoki pust (sikoz) va g. malumoti amiq dodaast.
Dar ravnaqi D. sahmi olimoni Osiyoi Markazi niz kalon ast. Mas., Zakariyoi Rozi (864 – 925), Ali Abbos, Abualii Sino (980 – 1034) va g. Onho dar borai rishta, amrozi obilanoki pust, sagles, gulafshon, juzom va g. malumoti jolib dodaand.
Zinai duvvumi tarikhi inkishofi D. davrahoi murattab sokhtani bemorihoi pustro darbar megirad (badi a. 16). Bori nakhust olimi itoliyovi Merkuriasis s. 1571 dasturamalero oid ba bemorihoi pust navisht. S. 1776 olimi majori Plenk, tasnifoti bemorihoi pustro peshnihod va onhoro ba 14 guruh taqsim namud. In peshnihodro minbad olimoni anglis (Villan, Batemon va dig.) dastgiri kardand. Tasnifoti mazkur dar ilmi D. ahamiyati kalon dosht. Zero az in vaqt sar karda unsurhoi yakum va duvvumdaraja aniq shudand, guzarondani tashkhisi tafriqi imkonpazir gasht. Donistani unsurhoi yakum va duvvumdaraja imkon dod, ki bemorihoi pust az rui alomat farq karda shavand. Az hamin vaqt D. hamchun ilmi mustaqil, ki usulhoi muoinai khudro dosht, judo gardid. Hamin tavr, a. 19 dar Avrupo D. ba muvaffaqiyathoi kalon noil gasht. Tasisi chahor maktabi asosii D. (anglisi, faronsavi, olmoni va rusi) daleli in fikr ast.
Dar Tojikiston D. bo tashkil shudani kafedrai bemorihoi pust va jimoii DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino taraqqi kard. Tashkilotchi va rohbari avvali kafedra prof. A. YA. Prokopchuk bud. Mutakhassisoni kafedra doir ba bodkhurda, reshi pashsha, fotodermatoz, neyrosifilis va dig. bemoriho pajuhish anjom dodand. Masalahoi sili pust, mikozhoi amiq, psoriaz, tavlidi khun hangomi baze dermatozho vobasta ba sharoiti iqlimi jumhuri, tabobati kurortii amrozi pust, khosiyathoi shifobakhshi chashmahoi mineralii Tojikiston mavridi tadqiqu omuzish qaror giriftand. Janbai digari pajuhishi dermatologhoi tojik ahamiyati loyqahoi shifobakhsh dar muolijai dermatozhoi muzmin dar kalonsolon va kudakon, sifilis, gustarish va jarayoni klinikii dermatozhoi allergi, shukufa, omoshoi qablisaratoni va saratonii pust, piodermiya, makhav, zuhuroti pustii domana, tabkhol va siroyati papillomavirusi mahsub meyoband. Dar rivoju ravnaki D.-i tojik sahmi olimoni varzida Prokopchuk A.YA., Perkel I.D., Rahmatov B.R., Ishoqov S.I., Isoeva E.T., Zoirov P.T., Isoeva M.S. va bisyor digaron nazarras ast.

P.T. Zoirov.

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