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DEONTOLOGIYA

deontologiyaDEONTOLOGIYA (az yun. deon – zaruri, darkori, vazifashinosi va logiya), ilmest dar borai ijroi vazifa va masalahoi odobu akhloqi kormandoni tib va samaranokii muolija. D.-ro hamchun istilohi ifodakunandai nazariyai akhloq okh. a. 18 faylasufi anglis I. Bentam peshnihod kardaast.
D.-i tibbi jambasti qoidayu talabot oid ba ijroi vazifa, odobu raftor va masuliyati dukhtur nisbat ba hayot va salomatii bemor, munosibati u bo hamkasbon va ahli jamiyat meboshad. «Qasamnomai dukhtur»-i Buqrot ba raftori poku shoistai dukhturon bakhshida shuda to imruz mohiyati khudro gum nakardaast.
D. masalahoi makhfi doshtani sirri kasbii dukhturon, inchunin qonunhoero darbar megirad, ki dar asosi onho hangomi nodurust tabobat kardan yo bar zarari salomatii bemoron amal namudan, dukhturon ba javobgari kashida khohand shud.
Dar tibbi forsu tojik aksari qoidavu nazariyahoi D. hamchun pandnoma yo oini pizishki ba paydoishi avvalin sarchashmahoi tibbi niyogonamon (a-hoi 13 – 6 to m.) aloqamand buda, dar barobari peshraft va taraqqiyoti ijtimoi, ilmu farhang va digargunihoi sokhti hayoti mardumi mo ruz to ruz sertalab va jidditar gardidaand. Muvofiqi on pandnomaho pizishk hamchun shifobakhsh va muhofizi salomati boyad doimo zohiran va botinan pok, odilu mehrubon, faolu fidokor, khushakhloqu khushraftoru khiradmand boshad. Dar in khusus Abualii Sino chunin guftaast: «Pizishk boyad misli boz tezchashm, misli mahbuba latifdast, misli mor hushyor va misli sher daler boshad». Va boz «Tabib boyad halimu khoksor, nakukor, sofdil, begarazu haqguy boshad».
Muhammad Zakariyon Rozi (865 – 925) navishtaast: «SHakhse, ki khudro ba khizmati tib bakhshidaast, pesh az hama, boyad bosavodu khoksor, rostguy va odamdust boshad…». Ali binii Al-Abbos Al-Majusii Ahvozi (vaf. s. 994) dar «Pandnoma yo oini pizishki»-ash menavisad: «…Pizishk boyad pok va khushzabon va nakuravish boshad va az har nopoki, palidi va gunoh duri juyand. Nisbat ba zanon chi bonu va chi kaniz naboyad az nazari bad nigoh kunad».
Ba tashkhisu muolijai bosamar hamon vaqt metavon noil gasht, ki agar dar kollektivi muassisai tabobati hamdigarfahmi hukmron boshad, talaboti D. qati rioya karda shavad. Mariz boyad ba dukhtur bovar doshta boshad, ba u umed bandad. Hususan shinosoii avvalin bo marize, ki ba qabuli dukhtur omadaast yo dar bemorkhona bistari gashtaast, ahamiyati kalon dorad. Bo bemor munosibati sard va beetinoi kardan lozim nest. Mutobiq gashtan ba sharoiti bemorkhona boyad baroi u garon naboshad; kormandoni tibro zarur ast, ki az lahzahoi avval ba u gamkhori zohir namoyand, korhoi parastoriro khub ba roh monand. Boyad nafaqat kormandoni tibbi, balki khudi bemor niz ba shifoi komil bovar doshta boshad, u his namoyad, ki baroi tabobat dukhturon hama kori az dast meomadaro mekunand.
Dukhtur boyad hangomi suhbat bo mariz vazi ruhi, zakovat, malumot, kasbu kor va shakhsiyati uro ba etibor girad. Marizro gush kardan lozim ast; boyad harakat namud, ki hissi tars va nooromi az dili u raf shavad. Dar mavridi suhbat bo bemor ba ohangi guftugu diqqat dodan muhim ast, zero mariz az har sukhan, ishora va harakathoi dukhtur khulosai zaruri mebarorad. Dukhtur hamon vaqt ba dunyoi botinii mariz metavonad vorid gardad, ki agar munosibati u haqiqatan ham dilsuzona boshad.
Parastoron boyad tozayu ozoda, zeboyu khushsurat, chehrakushod boshand. Bo bemoron rasmiyatparasti kardan lozim nest, zero in guna raftor ba munosibati samimii bayni kormandoni tib va marizon khalal vorid mesozad.
YAke az talabothoi asosii D. mahfuz doshtani sirri bemor ast. Mariz az bemorii khud ba haros aftoda, ba kormandi tib siri dilashro mekushoyad. Az in boyad digaron ba hej vajh ogoh nayoband. Zarurati mahfuz mondani sirri bemor dar qonunguzoriho niz darj shudaast. Kormandi tib huquq dorad faqat on malumotero ifsho sozad, ki agar ba salomatii digaron khatar doshta boshad (mas., malumot oidi bemorihoi siroyati, sust budani bosira dar ronandagoni naqliyot va g.); dar in mavrid dukhtur boyad az surati hol maqomoti marbutaro ogoh sozad.
Az bemorii vaznin ogoh shudani bemor, odatan, samarai muolijaro past mekunad. Binobar in dar hujjathoe, ki ba mariz doda meshavand bisyor vaqt nomi bemorii vazninro qayd namekunand (az qaziya faqat yake az kheshovandoni nazdiki uro ogoh menamoyand). Munosibat bayni kheshovandoni bemor va kormandoni tib niz masalai muhimi D. mahsub meshavad. Ba har hol munosibati onho boyad ba manfiati bemor surat girad.
Kodeksi baynalkhalqii D.-ro Jamiyati umumijahonii dukhturon dar Jeneva (s. 1949) qabul kardaast.
Ad.: Pisarev D.I., Osnovnie problemi vrachebnoy etiki i medisinskoy deontologii, M., 1969; Nuraliev YU.N.,Voprosi vrachebnoy etiki v proizvedeniyakh tadjiksko-persidskikh uchyonikh medikov, «Zdravookhranenie Tadjikistana», 1977, № 2.

YU.N. Nuraliev.

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