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DEGAZATSIYA

degazatsiyaDEGAZATSIYA (Degasati; az de … va frans. gaz – gaz), bezarar gardonidan yo bartaraf kardani moddahoi zahrogin (MZ) az mahalhoi zahroludshuda. D.-ro bo maqsadi ziyon narasidan ba odamon amali megardonand. Mahal, sokhtmon, havo, ob, khurokvori, saru libos va hamai ashyoi zahrolud D. karda meshavand.
Bo maqsadi D. az usulhoi mekhaniki, khimiyavi yo fizikiyu khimiyavi istifoda mekunand. Mas., bo obi garmu sobun shustani MZ, kor farmudani mavodi shustani (soda, khokistar) va halkunandaho (benzin, karasin, atseton va g.), hamchunin istifodai filtrho (moddahoi zahriro jabbida megirand) rohi mekhanikii D. hisob meyobad. Dar rafti on tarkibi MZ vayron nameshavad.
Dar asnoi ba kor burdani usulhoi khimiyavi mavodi bezarargardon bo MZ ba reaksiyai khimiyavi daromada, dar natija moddahoi kamzahr yo bezahr hosil mekunand. Ohaki khlornok, namaki gipokhloriti kaltsiy, dikhloraminho, mahlulhoi ishqor va g. az hamin qabil meboshand. Usuli khimiyavii D. khele mamul ast.
Baroi rafi MZ-i mavzei zahrolud bugro ba kor mebarand yo on joro mesuzonand (usuli fizikii D.). D. tabii niz meshavad. On dar natijai batadrij bukhor gardidani MZ az mahalli zahrolud yo tasiri mutaqobili MZ va rutubati havo ba vujud meoyad. Dar in surat muhlati tasiri MZ metavonad ba fasli sol, obu havo, ashyoi zahrolud va dig. omilho vobastagi doshta boshad. Mas., dar garmoi tobiston az mavzee, ki bo gazhoi iprit va lyuizit zahrolud gashtaast, metavon badi 10 – 12 soat be vasoiti muhofiz guzasht, vale zimiston tasiri MZ to ob shudani barfho boqi memonad. Agar dar sharoiti khona vasoiti bezarargardonii makhsus naboshad, pas havoi bino toza karda shuda, bisoti khonaro pok mekunand, ashyoro mejushonand, bo sobun, benzin, karasin meshuyand; hamchun vositai D. mahluli soda (mas., sodai khurdani) va khokistarro niz istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Havoi binohoero, ki dar markazi siroyati khimiyavi mondaand, faqat badi D.-i mahal va hamai obekthoe, ki dar hududi on voqeand, toza mekunand.
Mebel bo lattae, ki dar mahluli khokai libosshui, sobun va benzin tar karda shudaast, toza karda meshavad. Farshi khonaro bo mahluli 2 – 3-foizai soda yo mahluli 5-foizai khokistar meshuyand. Zahroludii obu gizoi dar istifodai shakhsi budaro, odatan, namesanjand. Obero, ki dar zarfhoi kushoda (chalak, degchai sirdor, satil) nigoh doshta shudaast, mepartoyand; obi quburro badi ogoh kardani aholi biduni sofkorii khimiyavi istifoda burdan mumkin ast. CHoh va obanborhoi khurdero, ki dar mintaqai zahrolud joygirand, D. boyad kard. D.-ro, odatan, qismhoi makhsusi mudofiai grajdani ba amal mebarorand. Huroki dar zarfi besarpush budaro mepartoyand. Gizo yo obero, ki dar zarfhoi sirdori sarpushida nigoh doshtaand, qabl az istemol boyad 30 daq. jushonid. Gizoi tayyori kogazpech, mas., non, har guna hasib va g.-ro tanho badi khub shamol dodan istemol mekunand. Dar aksi hol hamai mahsuloti gizoi partofta meshavad. Hamchunin gusht, yarma, makaron, birinj va dig. ozuqavoriro faqat badi bezarar gardondan ba khurok meandozand. Ravgani shisha va konservhoro badi D.-i beruni zarfho istemol mekunand. Libos dar mahluli 2-foizai soda 30 daq. jushonida meshavad.
Dar vaqti D. boyad protivogaz, kombinezonu dastpushaki rezini va peshdomani klyonkagi pushand. D. juzi va kulli meshavad. D.-i juzi favran badi hujumi khimiyavi tanho dar on mahalle, ki odamon saru kor dorand, guzaronda meshavad; onro, odatan, khudi odamoni zarardida meguzaronand (paketi shakhsii ziddi khimiyaviro istifoda mebarand). D.-i kulli bo maqsadi purra bezarar gardonidani mahal va odamon anjom mepazirad. Baroi ijroi D.-i juzi qismhoi mudofiai grajdani jalb karda meshavand. SHakhsone, ki bo D. mashguland, boyad libosi muhofiz pushand, badi khotima yoftani on hatman az nazorati sanitari guzarand.

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