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Debocha Ustod Rudaki

Besh az dusad sol ast, ki dar sarosari jahon roje ba ruz­goru   osori   Ustod   Rudaki   tadqiqot   burda   meshavad.  Agar   asarhoero,  ki roje  ba   sharhi  holu merosi  adabii  Abuabdulloh Jafar ibni Muhammad ibni Abdurahmon ibni Odam Rudaki  navishta shudaand, gird ovarem, sadhovu hazoron nomguy meshavad. Vale aksari onho ba illati khele kam boqi mondani merosi adabii    shoiri   buzurg,  takrori   maqolotu  kutubi  peshin  meboshand va kami andar kam nuktahoi tozaro faro megirand, zero az Ustod Rudaki  hamagi dar khududi  1050 bayt boqi mondaast. Bar    zammi in,  dar   tahqiqu  pajuhishi  ruzgoru  osori Ustod   Rudaki    asarhoe mavjudand, ki osori  salafi khudro jambast namuda, chun marhalahoi navin shinokhta meshavand. Ba andeshai man, az kulli asarhoe, ki dar tuli 200 soli okhir talif gardidaand, se asari zerin jolibi tavajjuhi khos meboshand.

YAkum. Soli 1873 khovarshinosi mashhuri olmoni Herman Ete avvalin shuda az bayni muhaqqiqoni uropoi bakhshida ba masoili ruzgoru osori Rudaki  bo nomi «Rudaki  — shoiri Somoniyon» kitobe ta­lif namuda, az 24 makhaz 52 pora abyot va ashori parokandai shoirro, ki jaman 238 baytro faro megirad, gird ovarda, onhoro ba olmoni niz bargardonda, az ruyi tasvirhoi shoironai onho, ki aglab az timsolhoi ravshani ba chashm didashavanda iborat budand, ba kuri modarzod budani Ustod Rudaki  shak ovarda, peshnihod namuda bud, ki guyandai chunin ashor naboyad kuri modar­zod boshad.

Duvum.   Donishmandi purkoru pukhtakori  eroni  Said   Nafisi solhoi  1930—1934 doir ba  masalahoi zindagi va osori Rudaki  iborat az se jild bo nomi «Ahvol va ashori Abuabdulloh Jafar ibni Muhammad Rudakii Samarqandi» asari mufassale navishta, dar davomi solhoi   1309   shamsi   (1930   melodi)   –   1313   (1934   melodi)   ba   tab rasond,   ki  dar   Rudakishinosii  jahon  maqomi   arzandaero  molik ast.

Ustod  Nafisi dar jildi avvali asari khud ba vazi siyosi,   ahvoli  khojagi,  manzarai   farhangi dakhl    karda,   hamchunin vazi  siyosi-iqtisodi    va   jugrofii   zamoni   Rudakiro    jambast namuda¹,    jildi duvumi  onro ba   zistnomai Rudaki     va  masalahoi marbut ba on, az qabili ba ham omekhtani ashori Rudaki va Qatron, makhsus gardonda, dar jildi savum guftori dar haqqi Odamushshuaro erodkardai buzurgoni adabiyoti forsu tojik, ahli kitobi arabu turk, tarjumai navishtahoi khoriji roje ba Rudakiro dar Urupo gird ovarda, az 78 manba 832 bayti Rudakiro jam karda, kitobi arzandaero dar borai Rudaki talif namud, ki poyai tamomi tadqiqoti minbada peromuni sardaftari adabiyoti forsu tojik qaror girift.

Savum. Soli 1958 dar Ittihodi SHuravi, Eron va baze kishvarhoi digar 1100-min solgardi zodruzi Abuabdullohi Rudaki tajlil karda shud. Ba in munosibat dar Tojikiston masalai omukhtan, justuju va tahqiqu tahlili zindagi va merosi adabii boqiguzoshtai Ustod Rudaki suratu harakati beshtare paydo karda, bakhshida ba sanai mazkur yak silsila asarhoi purarzishe ba vujud omadand, ki monografiyai akademik Abdulgani Mirzoev «Abuabdullo Rudaki»(Dushanbe, 1958) muhimtarini onhost, ki soli 1966 (ba zaboni forsi) dar Tehron va soli 1968 (ba zaboni rusi) dar Maskav niz ba tab rasid.

Marhum Abdulgani Mirzoev tamomi akhboru asnodi dar makhazhoi forsi, arabi va turki doir ba ruzgoru osori Ustod Rudaki mavjudbudaro faroham ovarda, az jihati tanqidi omukhta, malumoti mufassali adabiyoti ilmii urupoiyon, rusho, sharqiyon va soyiri kishvarhoro tahlil namuda, ba khulosahoi amiqi ilmi rasid. Soli 1341 shamsi (1961) dar Tehron nashri duvumi asari Said Nafisi bo takmilu ilovaho tahti unvoni «Muhiti zindagi va ahvolu ashori Rudaki» az chop baromad, ki dar zimni on 1048 bayt az ashori Ustod Rudaki az 93 manba gird ovarda shudaast.

Soli 1968 professor Abdurahmon Tohirjonov bo nomi «Rudaki» ba vositai nashriyoti Donishgohi davlatii Leningrad risolaero chop kunond, ki «Hayotu ejodiyot. Tarikhi pajuhish» nom zersarlavha doshta, bo maqoli arabii «al-haqiqatu bint-al-bahs» yane «haqiqat dukhtari bahs ast» shuru meshavad.²

Azbaski dar in asarho har dafa kulli asarhoi peshin bo kamoli jiddiyat az nigohi tahlilu tahqiqu tanqid meguzarand, in amr moro az tahlilu jambasti digarborai asarhoi to kunun roje ba Ustod Rudaki nigoshtashuda beniyoz megardonad.

Alhol ahli tahqiq roje ba Rudaki az manbahoi khattii asrhoi X—XV ba tojiki va arabi guftori shuaroi muosiri u —  Abuziroai Gurgoni, Daqiqi (vaf. 977), Tavhidi (vaf. 1010), Firdavsi (vaf. 1020), Unsuri (vaf. 1039), adiboni badina – Nosiri Husrav (vaf. 1088), Rashidii Samarqandi (asri XI), Amir Muizzi (vaf. 1126), malumoti «Tarikhi Siston» (asri XI), akhboroti Aruzii Samarqandi dar «CHahor maqola» (soli talif — 1157), Abubakri Samoni dar «Kitob-ul-ansob» (1113— 1167), Muhammad Avfii Bukhoroi dar «Lubob-ul-albob» (so­li talif — 1221), «SHarhi YAmini» (asri HSH), Hamdullohi Qazvini dar «Tarikhi guzida» (soli talif — 1330), guftahoi Hofizi SHerozi, SHamsi Fakhri Rozi (asri XIV), navishtahoi Ahmad ibni Ali ibni Umari Manini dar sharhi «Tarikhi Utbi» (ibtidoi asri HSH), YOquti Hamavi (1179—1229) dar «Mujam -ul-buldon», Najotii Nishopuri dar «Basotin -ul-fuzalo» va «Rayohin -ul-uqalo fi sharhi «Tarikh -il-Utbi» (soli talif —1309), Abdurahmoni Jomi dar «Bahoriston» (asri XV), Davlatshohi Samarqandi dar «Tazkirat-ush-shuaro» (soli tal. —1487)-ro dar dast dorand, ki har qadar mukhtasar va gohe takrori yakdigarand, baze jihatkhoi zindagi va ejodiyoti Ustodro ba tavri khudrushan megardonand. Vale tamomi navishtahoi badina aynan va yo bo tahriru talkhis az manobei mazkur iqtibos shuda,  chizi tozae nadorand.

Soli 1965 dar Dushanbe bo nomi «Rudaki» fehriste nashr gardid, ki 1235 nomguyro faro megirad va dar on hamai navishtahoe, ki dar Tojikiston oid ba masalahoi gunoguni ruzgoru osoru afkori Ustod Rudaki to soli 1965 dar ruznomavu majallaho va kitobhoi judogona ba tab rasidaand, gird ovarda shudaand³.

Badi in ham barrasii muhiti zindagi, tarikhi zamon, jarayoni hayotu ejodiyot va sunnathoi poyaguzoshtai Ustod Rudaki davom kard. Soli 1970 dar Dushanbe, dar nazdi Akademiyai ulumi Jumhurii Tojikiston, Anjumani «Solonai Rudaki» tasis gardid, ki sole yak bor  konfaronsi ilmi barpo mekard. CHunin jalasahoi anjuman dar shahrhoi Dushanbe, Hujand, Panjakent, Kulob va soyiri shahrhoi digar barguzor shudand va az mavodi konfaronsho majmuae tahti unvoni «YOdbudi Ustod Rudaki» nashr gardid. Soli 1977, badi vafoti Abdulgani Mirzoev, faoliyati anjuman qat gardid, ammo pajuhishi masoili ruzgoru osori Rudaki hamon davom mekard, ki dar in soha korhoi anjomdodai professor Rasul Hodizoda va lugatshinos Amon Nurov qobili zikr ast4.

Beshubha, tarikhi 1100- solai pasini adabiyoti klassikii tojik bo nomi bunyodguzori on Ustod Rulaki sakht marbut ast. Ustod Rudakiro muosironash va sukhanvaroni badina bo unvonhoi iftikhorii qofilasolori nazmi forsi, sohibqironi shoiri, ustodi shoironi jahon, sultoni shoiron, Odamushshuaro. muqaddamushshuaro, muqaddimai shuaro va amsoli inho yod mekunand. Hamin etirofi umum ast, ki imruz Ustod Rudakiro sardaftar va asosguzori adabiyoti forsii tojiki menomem. Guruhe gumon mekunand, ki asosguzor va sardaftari adabiyot budani Ustod Rudaki,  guyo, manoi onro dorad, ki vay boyad nakhustin kase boshad, ki avvalin bor ba tojiki sher guftaast. In aqida dar davomi 800 soli akhir payvasta takror shudaast, ki saheh nest, zero qabl az Ustod Rudaki  ham sheru adabiyoti tojik vujud dosht. Asosguzor va sardaftari adabiyot budan aslan manii qabl az digaron asar navishtanro nadorad. Ustod Rudaki  bo khidmathoi buzurgash ba in maqomi shoyistai tarikhi sohib shudaast, ki in risola baroi rushan kardani baze jihathoi on navishta gardid.

Azbaski zindagi, ejodiyot, talosh. zebopisandi, maishat, akhloq va darkhosthoi Ustod Abuabdullohi Rudaki  bo paydoish, muborizahoi ozodikhohona,  nabardhoi   mafkuravi,   komyobiho  va   rushdu     takomuli rishtahoi iqtisod, madaniyat, farhang va tanazzulu suquti Davlati Somoniyon sakht marbut ast, zarur meshumorem, ki bori digar ba tarikhi in silsila nigarem.

Roje ba zamoni saltanati Somoniyon, paydoish, taraqqi va suquti onho donishmandoni rishtai tarikh, az jumla Lui Dyubu, Tosimbur, V. V. Bartold, A. Semyonov, L.Bosvort, B. G. Gafurov, N. Nematov, Javodi Haravi5, Ahror Mukhtorov va bisyori digaron beshtar tavaqquf namudaand, ki mavridi tavajjuhi hamagonand. Soli 1986 gulchini navishtajoti kamina «Dar safi buzurgon» ba tab rasid, ki maqolai mufassali bo nomi «Sultoni shoiron» 6 dar avroqi on chopshuda asosi risolai hoziraro tashkil medihad.

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