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DAVRAI HAYZ

hayzDAVRAI HAYZ (Cyslus menstrualis), jarayoni murakkabi biologist, ki hangomi on dar organizmi zan, khususan tukhmdonu bachadon, tagyiroti sikli (davri) ruy doda, bo tarashshuhi khunolud az uzvhoi tanosul khotima meyobad. Tagyiroti siklii organizmi zan bo ishtiroki asbiyai markazi (qishri magzi sar, gipotalamus, gipofiz) jarayon megirad. Gipotalamus muhimtarin qismi magzi sar ast, ki kori uzvhoi darunro tanzim karda, moddahoi makhsus – neyrogormonho hosil mekunad. Neyrogormonho faoliyati gadudi asosii endokrini – gipofizro meangezand. Gipofiz boshad, gormonhoe hosil mekunad, ki kori gadudhoi usorai dokhili, az jumla tukhmdonro metezonad. Dar tukhmdon zeri tasiri gormonhoi gipofiz follikula (ba nom hubobchai Graaf), ki hujayratukhm dorad, pukhta merasad. Dar jarayoni inkishof follikula gormonhoi makhsusi jinsi (estrogen) khorij mekunad (bevosita ba bachadon tasir merasonad). Follikulai pukhtarasida mekafad va az on hujayratukhmi bolig mebaroyad (ovulyatsiya). Dar joi follikulai kafida «jismi zard» hosil meshavad, ki gadudi usorai dokhili buda, gormoni progesteron khorij mekunad. Az tasiri estrogenho va progesteron luobpardai bachadon gafs, raghoi khungardi on vase va purkhun meshavand. Agar bordori ba amal naoyad, hujayratukhm nobud shuda, faoliyati «jismi zard» tadrijan sust va qat megardad; raghoi purkhuni bachadon kafida, khun ba qabati luobparda merezad. Luobpardai narmu varamida az tazyiqi khun mekafad va khunravi, yane hayz ogoz meyobad. Minbad zakhmi luobparda sihat meshavad. Davrai pukhta rasidani hujayratukhm 21 – 35 ruz (aksaran 28 ruz) ast.
Dukhtaron hamon vaqt avvalin bor hayz mebinand, ki alomathoi duyumi balogati jinsii onho (kalon shudani gadudi sina, rasidani mui zeri nof, tagi kash va g.) purra zohir gardand (nig. Balogati jinsi). Ogozi hayzi avval ba vazi salomati, sharoiti ijtimoi va maishi vobasta ast.
Ikhtiloli kori gadudhoi usorai dokhili (gadudhoi jinsi, boloi gurda, gipofiz) boisi nomurattabii davrai hayz megardad. Az in ru, agar dukhtari 15 – 16-sola hayz nabinad, baroi muayyan kardani sababi takhiri inkishofi jinsi va tabobati on, albatta, ba dukhturi markazi mushovirai zanon murojiat kardan lozim ast.
Hususiyati hayz inchunin ba vazi salomatii zan (dukhtar) vobastagi dorad. D. h. dar avval nomurattab boshad ham, minbad muntazam megardad. Bisyor zanho badi muhlati muayyan hayz mebinand va davomoti on niz doimo yak son ast; hayzi onho mutadilu bedard guzashta, ahvoli zan bad nameshavad. Zanhoi digar boshand, pesh az hayz khudro sustu bequvvat his mekunand, tabashon khira va gadudi sinaashon sakht meshavad.
Tagyiroti D. h. va berabtii on az mavjudiyati yagon illat dar organizm guvohi medihad. Az in ru, har yak zan baroi sari vaqt muayyan kardani ikhtiloli D. h. boyad muhlati hayz, davomot va darajai khunraviro dar daftari makhsus muntazam qayd kunad. Nabudani hayze, ki ba homilagi vobasta nest (amenoreya), der-der va ba miqdori kam omadani khun, hayzi serkhunu tuloni (menorragiya) va dardnok (algomenoreya), inchunin khunravii bachadon (novobasta ba davrai hayz) daleli bemorii zan ast (dar in surat u boyad hatman ba dukhtur murojiat kunad). Bazan chand ruz pesh az hayz, gayr az bequvvati, inchunin khiratabi, sakht shudani gadudi sina (in alomatho dar zanhoi solim ham mushohida meshavand), dardi sar, sarcharkhzani, dard kardani atrofi dil, khuruji dilzani, nomurattabii khob ba mushohida merasand. Hangomi paydo shudani in alomatho niz ba dukhtur murojiat kardan lozim ast.
Organizmi zan faqat dar hamon surat mutadil faoliyat khohad kard, ki agar vayro az khurdsoli durust nigohubin va tarbiya karda boshand. Az in ru, dar haqqi dukhtaron chunin gamkhoriho lozimand: qati rioya kardani qoidahoi gigiena, obutobi organizm, gizoi khushsifat, rejimi murattabi mehnatu istirohat, varzishi jismoni, peshgiri namudani bemorihoi siroyati, sarivaqt tabobat kardani onho. Dukhtaron dar davrai balogati jinsi tundmijoz va nisbat ba hodisahoi noguvor baso hassos megardand. CHunin omilho, monandi ikhtiloli asabu ruhi, sharoiti noguvori zindagi, kori vaznini jismoni va fikri, inchunin amrozi siroyati boisi nomurattabii hayz megardand. Az in ru dar in davra nisbat ba dukhtarcha nihoyat bodiqqat va gamkhor boyad bud, uro az har nav nizovu nokhushiho va khastagi emin boyad dosht.
Paydoishi hayzi avval, khususan agar nogahon paydo shavad, bazan boisi ikhtiloli faoliyati asabiya megardad. Binobar in, dukhtarcharo peshaki tayyor karda, ba u mohiyati hayzro fahmondan lozim ast.
Baroi peshgirii ikhtiloli D. h. va dig. bemorihoi zanona rioyai rejimi muayyani gigieni dar asnoi hayz ahamiyati kalon dorad. Hususan toza nigoh doshtani uzvhoi jinsi khele muhim ast, chunki khuni hayz baroi afzoishi mikrobho muhiti musoid meboshad: mikrobho az on ba mahbal, sipas ba bachadon va zoidhoi on guzashta, boisi gazak megardand. (nig. Adneksit, Metroendometrit). Dar asnoi hayz ruze 2 marotiba bo obi shirgarmu sobun mustahab kardan lozim. Qabuli vanna va obbozi (dar bahr, kul, daryo) joiz nest; faqat dar tagi dush obbozi kardan mumkin ast. Har pagoh metavon ba varzishi sabuk mashgul shud. Tahgirak boyad tez-tez ivaz karda shavad; baroi az khunuki va changu gubor emin doshtani uzvhoi tanosul trusii dahoni poyash mahkam pushidan lozim. Hangomi hayz istemoli khuroki tundu tez (zanjabil, sirko, khardal va g.), inchunin pivo va may man ast, chunki onho boisi khunravii fuzun megardand.

M. F. Dodkhoeva

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