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DAROZUMRi

darozumriDAROZUMRi (Longaevitas), zuhuroti ijtimoiyu biologiest, ki odam nisbat ba davomoti miyonai hayot khele ziyod umr mebinad. Holo odami sinash az 90, dar baze tadqiqoti gerontologi va statistiki boshad, az 100 sol guzashtaro darozumr meguyand. Muhaqqiqoni gunogun asosan misolhoi mavjudai D.-ro ba nazar girifta, haddi umri odamro taqr. 100 – 150 sol meshumorand. Vale boyad ilova kard, ki sinni aniqi darozumronro muayyan kardan mushkil ast, zero onho solashonro bazan ziyod nishon doda, ba khato roh medihand.
Darajai darozumri misli davomoti miyonai hayoti inson dar kishvarhoi mukhtalif gunogun ast. Dar mamolike, ki dar natijai mushkiloti jang bisyor aholiro talaf doda, zarari kaloni iqtisodi didaandu salomatii sokinon bad shudaast (Polsha, YUgoslaviya, Bulgoriya, Vengriya, Germaniya, YAponiya va g.) nishondodhoi D., odatan, past meboshad. Hamchunin dar chande az kishvarhoi ru ba taraqqii Osiyo va Afrika darajai D. baland nest.
Darozumri dar zaminai mekhanizmhoi mutobiqat, ki jarayoni fiziologii pir gashtanro tamin mekunad, asos yoftaast. Dar darozumron tagyiroti faoliyati fiziologi barobari sinnu sol munazzam ba vujud meoyad, holati chande az uzvhoi organizm (tarkibi morfologi va biokhimiyavii khun, baze az nishondodi dilu ragho, gadudhoi endokrini, asabiyai markazi) az rui bisyor nishona (parametr)-ho bo organizmi shakhsoni sinnashon javontar mushobeh meboshand. Hamin tavr, piri dar in guna odamon sust jarayon meyobad.
Darozumron ruhan qavi va botamkin meshavand. Baroi onho solim nigoh doshtani nerui fikri va jismoni, faoliyat va qobiliyati kori khos ast; onho hamesha serharakat buda, hofizai khub dorand, ba ruydodi atrof maroq zohir mekunand. Qobiliyati harakati qanoatbakhshi onho boqi monda, odamdustu khayrkhohand, ba har nav stress ustuvor meboshand. Ashkhosi darozumr ba bemoriho, az jumla ba amrozi siroyati, kamtar giriftor meshavand. Onho inchunin serfarzand buda, davrai farzand yoftanashon tulonist. Taqr. 44% mardho va 31% zanhoi darouzmr solimand.
Bisyor gerontologho bar onand, ki umri daroz dida, qobiliyati hayotii kheshro nigoh doshta tavonistani odamon khususiyati irsi dorad. Inro, chandon daqiq naboshad ham, tanosubi bayni bardavomii umri volidon va avlodi onho isbot mekunad. Baroi davomoti umr omilhoi ijtimoi va tarzi hayoti aholi niz ahamiyati kalon dorand.
Az rui tadqiqot malum gardid, ki ba odamoni umri tuloni dida nafaqat nishonahoi makhsusi solimi, balki tarzi hayoti khususi niz khos ast. Ba onho hayoti yakrang, mubodilai durusti mehnat va istirohat, tarki odathoi zararnok (tamokukashi, masti va g.), istemoli bomeyori gizo, hayoti oilavii osudayu dorudaroz khos meboshad. Aksari onho tamomi hayoti khudro dar dehot oromona, dar muhiti odati guzarondaand. Taqr. az 2/3 hissai darozumron dehqon buda, nisfi onho bo tashabbusi khud dar pirsoli ham mehnat mekardand, chunki az rui odat mehnat qismi tarkibii hayoti onho gashta bud.
Tadqiqi masoili D. az omuzishi omilhoi muhiti zist, guzarondani tadqiqoti biologiyu genetiki va tahlili tarzi hayoti aholi iborat ast. Sababi tuloni gardondani davrai qobiliyati kori va tamini pirii faol, dar javoni peshi rohi bisyor bemorihoro giriftan va durust tabobat kardan ast. Dar yak davrai nisbatan kutoh ba vujud omadani tagyiroti jiddi oid ba D. shahodat medihad, ki bo rohi behtar kardani sharoiti hayot va andeshidani tadbirhoi zaruri davlati ba zuhuroti mazkur metavon tasir rasond. Hukumati jumhuri dar borai nekuahvolii mehnatkashon gamkhori zohir namuda, baroi baland bardoshtani behbudii moddi, saviyai madani, sharoiti maishi, takmili umuri tibbi va ijtimoi ba aholi tadbirhoi sudmand meandeshad. In ba purra qone gardondani talaboti jismoniyu manavii odamoni miyonsolu solkhurda va peshgirii pirii barmahal musoidat mekunad.

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