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DARYO VA QISMHOI ON

Rud bo du zarb (nav) ast, yake tabiat va digar sanoi. A,mmo rudi sanoi nest, ki rudkadahoi u bikandaand az bahri obodonii shahrero yo kisht va barzi nohiyatero.
… rudi tabii on ast, ki obhoe buvad buzurg, ki az gudozi barf va chatmahoe, ki az kuh va rui Zamin bikshoyad va biravad va kheshtanro roh bikanad… to ba daryo (bahr) pacad yo ba batiha.
“Hudud-ul-olam ”

1. Daryo va qismhoi on. Daryo obi ravonest, ki ba majroi muayyan jory meshavad va ba yagon bakhhr, kul va daryoi digar merazad. Baze darsho ba yagon bahr va kul namerezand (Misol ored)- Miqdori daryoho nihoyat ziyod ast. Hamai onho bo kulho shabakai obii (gidrografii) materikhoro tashkil medihand. Qismi ziyodi onho daryohoi khurd msboshand. Az jumla dar Tojikiston az 500 daryo va shokhob 4 daryo ziyoda az 500 kilometr va 15 daryo az 100 to 500 kilomegr darozi dorand. Darozii daryohoi boqimonda az 10 kilometr beshtar meboshad. Har yak daryo az joe cap meshavad. Joi sarshavii daryoro sargah, sari ob menomand.

daryo

Sargah chunin joest, ki az on dars ogoz meyobad. Daryohoi hamvori az botloq, chashma va kulho, daryohoi kuhi asosan az piryakhho cap meshavand. Az jumla daryohoi kaloni Tojikiston az piryakhho ibtido megirand. Hangomi chori shudan onho vobasta ba relefi mahal (hamvori, teppa, adir, kuh) pechu tob khurda, sadho kilometr masofaro tay menamoyand. Dar rafti harakati daryo ba on boz daryochaho khamroh meshavand, ki onhoro shokhob meguyand va tamomi onho yakjoya shabakai daryoro tashkil medihand. Dar daryohoi serob agar moneahoi zerioby naboshand, kishtiho shino mekunand. Agar shumo bo kishti ba Rafti jarayoni daryo shino kuned, tarafi rosti kishti sohili rost, tarafi chapi on sohili chap msshevad. Sohil az ibtido (sarshavy) to intihoi daryo davom mekunad. Hamie, ki muvozi ba sohil tul kashidaast. vodii daryo nomida meshavad. Qismi CHuqurtari YODY ki dar baymi du sohil voqe gardidaastu az on jori meshavad. Majroi daryo nom dorad. Vay az sarshavy to Rezishgohi daryo davom mekunad. On joe, ki daryo ba halij, kul, va daryoi asosi rafta merezad, rezishgoh, nom dorad. Daryoi Vakhsh ba Amudaryo, daryoi Sir ba Bahri Aral merezad.

2. Havzai daryo va obtaqsimkunak. Har yak daryo bo shokhobhoi az masohati muayyani sathi Zamin ob jam mekunad. In ob
az hisobi obshavii piryakh, barf, boridani boron va obhoi
zerizamini hosil shuda, az masokhati vase ba daryoi asosi va shokhobhoi on merezad. Masalan, masohate, ki Amudaryo bo shokhobhoyash az on ob megirad, qarib 470 hazor kilometri murabbaro tashkil medihad. Daryoi purobtarini rui Zamiy Amazonka boshad, az masohagi 7 million kilometri murabba ob megirad. Masohati khushkie, ki az on tamomi obi jorishavanda ba daryoi asosi va shokhobhoi on msrszad, havzaa daryo nom dorad. Havzai daryoi asosy dar yak vaqt khavzai shokhobhoi on hisob meshavad.
Dar rui Za.min havzahoi daryohoi khurdu kalon nihoyat ziyodand va bo ham nazdik joygir shudaand. Onhoro az yakdigar tegai kuhho, adiru teppaho va qismi balandi hamvoriho judo mekunand. Hale, ki havzai daryohoro az yakdigar judo mekuna obtaqsimkunak nom dorad.

3. Bosita va khususiyati jarayoni daryoho ba relef, Ba nazar chunin menamoyad, ki boyad anbuhi ob (seli ob) az sargah to rezishgokh rost jori shavad.
Ammo, tavre ki mushohida mekunem, yagon daryo dar rui Zamik jrost chori nameshavad. Baroi chy? Baron on ki reyaefi rui Zamin yak khel nest. Az hamin sabab relefi mahale, ki az on daryo jori na faqat ba samt, inchunin ba surati jarayoni obi daryo merasonad. Masalan, daryoi Panj to ba daryoi Vakhsh hamroh, shudan chandin marotiba ba kuhho barkhurda, samti jarayoni khudro digar mekunad (Az kharita on kuhhoro nishon dihed).
Surati jarayoni obi daryo ham ba relef vobasta meboshad. Har qadar nishebii majroi daryo ziyod boshad, hamon kadar obi daryo bosurat jori meshavad. In khususiyat ba qismi boloobi daryohoi kuhi khos ast. Daryohoi Tojikiston, ki kuhy meboshand, nishebii onho dar masofai yak kilometr dahho kilometrro tashkil mekunad. Az hamin sabab obi onho dar boloob nurtugyon, jarayonashon tez buda, qari vodiro beshtar chuqur mekunand. Binobar in dar boloobi on daryoho vodiho tang va chuqur meboshand. Nishebii daryohoi hamvori on qadar ziyod nest.
Daryohoi khamvory az daryohoi kuhy inchunin bo khususiyagi qari vody farq mekunand. Qari vodii daryohoi hamvory az jinshoi kuhii sokhtashon gunogun iborat ast. Jinshoi kuhii narmro jarayoni obi daryo ba osoni, jinshoi kuhii sakhtro ba dushvori shusta mebarad. Dar natija dar baze kitahoi qari vodii daryo chinskhoi kukhii sakht (sangi khoro ohaksang, varaqsang) ostonahoro hosil mekunand. Bazan ostonahoro sangtudahoi zeriobi ba vujud meorand.

Hangomi az ostonaho guzashtani daryo obi on tugyon karda, sado barovarda har taraf posh mekhurad. In ba jarayoni daryohoi kuhi shabohat dorad. Ostonaho dar daryohoi kuhi ham nihoyat ziyodand. Onho ba kishtigardi khalal merasonand. Az hamii sabab aksari daryohoi Tojikiston kishtigard nestand, faqat masofai nachandon kaloni daryohoi Amu va Panj kishtigard meboshand (40-45 kilometri on ba qalamravi Jumhurii Uzbekiston taalluq dorad).

Dar mintaqai kuhho obi daryo az zinai rostfaromada jori shuda. sharshara hosil mekunad (rasmi 58). SHarshara na faqat dar mintaqai kuhho, inchunin khangomi mavzei teppanoki guzashtani daryo niz hosil meshavad. Dar Tojikiston sharsharai az hama baland dar sargahi Iskandardaryo voqe gardidaast. In sharshara barobari az Iskandarkul jory shudani daryo hosil shudaast. Dar nazdi sharshara stansiyai elektriki sokhtan mumkii ast. SHarsharai Iskandardaryo hamagy yakchand metr balandi dorad. Ammo dar daryohoi olam sharsharahoe mavjudand, ki nihoyat balandand.

SHarsharai Viktoriya dar daryoi Zambezii Afrikai Janubi voqe gardida, balandii on 120 metr, barash 1800 metr ast. Harji ob qarib 1400 metri mukaab dar yak soniya meboshaD. Dar on isltohi barqii nachandon kalon sokhta shudaast. Dar Amerikai Janubi dar havzai daryoi Orinoko sharsharai Angel voqe gardidaast. Balandii on 1054 metrro tashkil medihad.

SHarshara ham bo mururi zamon shusta va vayron meshavad. SHarsharai Niagara, ki dar Amerikai SHimoli dar daryoi Hinom voqs gardidaast (balandii on 51 metr), solsto 1 metr shusta shuda, ba aqib meravad. Hisob kardaand, ki agar shustashavp bo khamin surat idoma yobad. sharshara dar muddati nisbatan kutokh az bayn meravad.
Ostonaho qismhoi kamobi sangi yo kharsangy dar majroi daryo meboshand, ki jinshoi sakhti kuhi hosil mekunand . Aksar vaqt dar nazdi ostonaho istgohhoi barqi bunyod karda meshavand. Masalan, istgohi barqii Norak dar daryoi Vakhsh, Dneproges dar daryoi Dnepr, istgohi barqii Bratsk dar darsi Angara va gayra.

Savol va suporish

  1. CHi guna obro daryo meguyand?
  2. SHabakai daryo chist?
  3.  Qismkhoi daryoro nombar karda, az kharita nishon dihed.
  4. CHy guna joyro khavzai dare menomand?
  5. Obtaqsimkunak chist?
  6. Samt va surati jarayoni obi daryo ba chy vobasta ast?
  7. Daryohoi hamvory az daryohoi kuhi bo kadom khususiyatkhoyashon farq mekunand?
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