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DANDON

zubDANDON (Dens, odontos), uzvest baroi gazidan va khoidani gizo. D.-ho inchunin dar talaffuzi baze ovozho ishtirok mekunand. Hayvonot D.-ro gayr az khoidan, baroi muhofizat, hamla va sayd niz istifoda mebarand.
Dar jarayoni tahavvul D. ba tufayli tagyiroti pulakchahoe, ki tani hayvonoti obii muhradorro ruypush mekardand, ba vujud omadaast. D.-i mohiho konusshakl buda, D.-i pesh, ashk va kursii shirkhuron nisbatan kalontarand. D.-hoi peshi hayvonoti khoyanda, D.-hoi ashki hayvonoti vahshi, D.-hoi kursii hayvonoti alafkhur khub inkishof yoftaand. D.-i ashki baze jonvaron nishonai farqkunandai jinsi ast. Mas., D.-i khuk, morj va fili nar barjasta va kalon meshavad. Miqdor va shakli D.-i maymunhoi odamshakl ba D.-i odam monand ast.
Dar jogi boloyu poyoni odam D.-ho nimdoira joygir shudaand. Ham qatori boloi va ham qatori poyoni 16-toi D. dorad: 4 dandoni pesh, 2 dandoni ashk, 4 dandoni kursii khurd va 6 dandoni kursii kalon. D.-i kursii seyumro D.-i aql niz menomand. On az hama dertar (dar sinni 16 – ¬ 25 – solagi) mebaroyad. D.-i pesh va ashk yaktogi, D.-i kursi du-setogi resha dorad. Munosibati qatori D.-hoi boloi va poyoniro hangomi ozod gazidan (yane vasli jogi boloyu poyon), khobishi dandonho yo okklyuziya menomand.
D.-i odam du khel meshavad: D.-i shir va D.-i doimi. D.- hoi shir dar tifl inkishof yofta, dar sinni navrasi (13 – 14 – solagi) ba D.-hoi doimi ivaz meshavand. D.-i shir ba D.-i doimi monand, ammo hajman khurdu reshaash kutoh ast. Jogi boloyu poyon 10-toi D.-i shir dorand: 4 dandoni pesh, 2 dandoni ashk va 4 dandoni kursi. Az 6 to 14-solagi yak qism D.-hoi shir yakjoya bo D.-hoi doimi vazifai khudro mushtarak ijro mekunand. Dertar, tadrijan tamomi D.-hoi shir bo D.-hoi doimi ivaz meshavad. Dar in muddat jogi bolo va poyon inkishofi khudro idoma medihad; D.-i kursii doimi bori avval dar 6-solagi inkishof meyobad.
Rushdi dandon dar davrai paydoishi janin dar batni modar (dar haftai 6 – 7 – umi homilagi) ogoz yofta, minbad to sinni 18 – 20 -solagi ba anjom merasad. Janini D.-hoi doimii pesh, ashk, kursii khurd dar mohi 5-umi haml paydo meshavad. Janini D.-hoi doimii boqi dar miyonai soli avvali tavalludi kudak (D.-i kursii kalon), dar 4 – 5 -solagi boshad, janini D.-i kursii kalon (az on jumla D.-i aql) ba vujud meoyad.
Baroi rushdi D.-i kudak tagziyai murattabi modar (hamchunin kudaki shirmak) muhim ast. Istemoli benizomi gizo, bemorihoi muzmin, , norasoii vitaminho namakhoi minerali va mikroelementho (kaltsiy, fosfor va g.) dar gizoi modar, kudak va bachagoni khurdsol boisi ikhtiloli tashakkuli boftahoi sakht va osebhoi digari D. meshavand.
Sokhti dandon. Har yak D. gilofak, gardana va resha dorad. Gilofaki D. dar kovokii dahon namoyon ast. Gardana (qismi boriktari D.) bo milk pushida shudaast. Reshai D. dar lonachai dandon joygir meshavad. Az surokhii okhiri resha ba juyaki resha va kovokii D. ragu asabho dokhil shuda, magz (pulpa)-i D.-ro hosil mekunand. D. az boftahoi sakht iborat buda, jismi asosii onro dentin tashkil medihad. Rui gilofaki D. bo mino (siri dandon) va reshayu gardana bo sement pushida shudaast. Siri D. az boftahoi nihoyat sakht iborat buda, dar tarkibash taqr. 96% moddahoi gayriorganiki, dentin boshad, taqr. 72% moddahoi minerali dorad. Miqdori mineralho dar tarkibi D.-i doimi nisbat ba D.-i shir khele ziyod ast.
Barovardani dandon. D.-hoi shir va doimi muvofiqi sinnu sol pay dar pay mebaroyand: D.-hoi peshi jogi poyon va jogi bolo dar 6 – 8-mohagi; D.-i ashki poyon va bolo dar 8 – 12-mohagi; D.-i kursii shir dar 12 – 16 – mohagi; D.-i ashk dar 16 – 20-mohagi; D.-i kursii kalon dar 20 – 30-mohagi. Dar intihoi dusolagi hamai 20 D.-hoi shir mebaroyand. Barovardani D. hodisai fiziologi buda, odatan, boisi bemorii kudak nameshavad. Bazan ayyomi dandonbarori mumkin harorati badani kudakon baland shuda, ikhroji ziyodi obi dahon (az sababi angezishi gadudhoi obi dahon), khorishi milk, kom va voraho, betoqati, mayli gazidani qoshuq, girdi piyola va digar chizho zohir gardad. In nishonahoi umumi ba ogozi bemorihoi gunoguni bachagona niz khos meboshand. Dar chunin mavridho boyad ba dukhturi dandon murojiat namud.
Badi baromadani D.-i doimi reshahoi D.-i shir tadrijan nest meshavand. Inkishofi reshai D.-i pesh, kursii khurd, kursihoi kaloni boqimonda dar 10 – 16-solagi ba anjom merasad. Gilofak, gardana va reshai D.-hoe, ki az inkishof mondaand, pusida (karies) nest meshavand.
Vazifai dandonho. D.-ho dar hazmi avvali gizo (bo tufayli khoida mayda kardani gizo va bo shirai gadudhoi dahon, ki fermenti amilaza dorad, omekhtani on) ishtirok mekunand. On baroi hazmi gizo dar meda khele zarur ast. Hangomi illati D.-ho va qisman yo purra nabudani onho hazmi gizo khalal yofta, boisi bemorihoi uzvhoi dokhili megardad.
Bemori va osebhoi dandon. Ikhtiloli rushdi D.-ho, ki onro anomaliya menomand, gunogun ast: noqisii kosmetiki (shakli nodurust, tagyiroti hajm va rangi D.); berabtii khoish (az sababi nabudani in yo on dandon, nodurustii juftgirii dandonho, nabaromadani dandon dar muhlati muqarrari, inkishof nayoftani dandoni ashk va kursihoi kalonu khurd), tasiri homilagi (hangomi paydoishi janinhoi D.); fosilai az haddi muqarrari ziyodi bayni D.-hoi pesh (diastema), qusha baromadani D., az hududi vorahoi jogi bolo yo poyon ba tarafi pesh yo qafo baromadani D. va g.
Ba der va yo barvaqt baromadani D.-ho illati uzvhoi daruni (bemorihoi rudayu meda, varami shush, rakhit va g.) sabab shuda metavonad. Agar dar jarayoni paydoishu inkishofi janini D. dar organizmi kudak mubodilai moddaho khalal yobad, pas boftahoi sakhti D. az inkishof memonand. CHunin nuqsi inkishofi D.-ro gipoplaziya menomand. On beshtar dar D.-hoi pesh va kursii kaloni doimi padid meoyad. Azbaski siri D.-hoi giriftori gipoplaziya, odatan, khele tunuk ast, sathi nohamvori on doghoi qahvarang paydo mekunad. In qabil D.-ho dard nakunand ham, beshtar mepusand. Baroi tabobati gipoplaziya ba dukhturi stomatolog murojiat namudan lozim ast.
SHikastan, kafidan va bejo shudani D.-ho sababhoi gunogun dorand. D.-hoi osebyofta sakht dard mekunand, voraho varamida khunshor meshavand. In hama yorii tajilii stomatologiro talab mekunad. Odathoi zararnok (gazidani qalam, bo dandon kandani rishta, shikastani pista, donak, chormagz va g.) sababgori osebi D. va nuqsi kosmetikii D.-i pesh meshavand. D.-i osebyofta tadrijan ba karies duchor omada, voraho va pardahoi luobii javfi dahon iltihob paydo mekunand.
Dar korgaroni muassisahoi khimiyavi va baze laboratoriyaho zeri tasiri kislotayu ishqor, hamchunin duru daroz istifoda burdani kislotai khlorid, ki hangomi bemorii gastrit tain karda meshavad, rangi siri D. tagyir meyobad; onho dog paydo karda, ba tasiri khunuki va sardi hassos megardand. CHunin ashkhosro zarur ast, ki hatman ba stomatolog murojiat namoyand.
Bemorihoi dandon. Karies mamultarin illati D. buda, dar natijai ikhtiloli kori uzvhoi daruni, tagziyai nomurattab (mas., farovonii shirini va baraks, kamii safeda dar tarkibi gizo, istemoli kami mahsuloti shiri, narasidani mikroelementho va g.) va rioya nakardani qoidahoi behdoshti D. ba vujud meoyad. Ba paydoishi illati D.-ho tahnishasthoi narm (moddahoe, ki dar gardanayu gilofaki D. tahshon shudaand) musoidat mekunand. Agar ba D.-ho ba tavri boyadu shoyad nigohubin nakunand, tahnishasthoi narm ba sangi dandon mubaddal gashta, boisi iltihobi voraho (nig. Stomatit) megardand. Kariesi D. sari vaqt tabobat karda nashavad, tadrijan pulpit (iltihobi magzi dandon) inkishof meyobad. Mumkin ast orizai digar – periodontit ham ba vujud oyad va D. oqibat nobud shavad. Ham D.-hoi doimi va ham D.-hoi shiri giriftori karies meshavand, vale D.-hoi shir zudtar oseb mebinand. Iltihobi boftahoi atrofi D.-i shir ba janini D.-hoi doimi zarar merasonad. Agar D.-i shir ba baromadani D. – i doimi khalal vorid sozad, pas boyad ba dukhturi stomatolog murojiat kard. Kandani D.-i doimi baroi organizmi odam befarq nest. Az in ru dukhtur chunin D.-ro faqat hamon vaqt mekanad, ki agar tadbirhoi digari tabobati naf nabakhshand yo gilofaki D. to darajae vayron shudaast, ki iloji protez kardan nest. Badi kandani D., joi osebdidai jog va reshahoi on (dandonkhona)-ro tadrijan boftaho pur mekunand. Dertar in boftaho hal shuda, sababgori noustuvorii reshai D.-hoi hamshafat megardand.
D. boz chunin illatho dorad: flyuoroz (sababi on ziyodii ftor dar obi baze mavzeho ast), khurdashavii D.-ho, nodurust budani khobishi dandonho, hassosiyati az etidol ziyodi boftahoi sakhti D.
Hangomi flyuoroz organizmi odam az miqdori ziyodi ftor (dar tarkibi obi nushoki mavjud ast) zahrolud va mubodilai moddaho berabt shuda, qabl az hama D.-ho oseb meyoband. Dar asnoi flyuoroz siri dandon jigarrang gashta, qirrayu sathi on khurda meshavad. Bo maqsadi peshgirii flyuoroz muassisahoi sanitariyu epidemiologi tadbirhoi zaruri (az ob dur kardani ftor) meandeshand, D.-i kudakonro tabobat mekunand.
D.-hoi baze javonon (20 – 25-sola) teztar khurda meshavand. Sababi in asosan nodurustii juftgirii dandonho meboshad. Dar in mavrid dukhtur tavre tabobat mekunad, ki nuqsi juftgirii dandonho raf gardad. Agar lozim shavad, shakli D.-hoi fitshudaro tavassuti koronka barqaror menamoyand.
Nigohubini dandon. Ba D.-ho tavassuti chutkai dandon, khoka, khamira va mahlulhoi makhsus (baroi chayqondani dahon) nigohubin mekunand. CHutka yakjoya bo khoka yo khamiraho baroi az boqimondai moddahoi gizoi va tahshoni namakhoi minerali toza kardani D. khizmat mekunad. Baroi in az chutkahoi durusht, narm va makhsus (muvofiqi tavsiyai dukhtur) istifoda mebarand. Muhlati istifodai chutkaho 4 moh ast. CHutka baroi har kas boyad alohida boshad. Onro badi istifoda toza shusta va sobun zada dar yagon zarf nigoh medorand. Pesh az istifoda sobuni onro toza meshuyand. Baroi onhoe, ki dar gardanai D.-ashon sang paydo shudaast, khokahoi doroi glitserofosfat («Jemchug») yo bikarbonati natriy («Osobiy») tavsiya meshavad.
Hamirahoi dandonshuii «Colgate», «Prezident», «Radonta», «Colgate Total»,«Blend-a-med», «Nassim», «Mexidol», «Blanx» va g. D.-horo khele khub toza mekunand. Hamirahoero, ki dar tarkibashon ftor dorand, faqat bo maslihati dukhtur istifoda mebarand. Baze khamirahoi dandonshuii mamul, mas., «Pomorin», metavonad boisi angezishi voraho, khunshori az milki dandon, allergiya shavand. Az in sabab pesh az istifodai onho bo dukhturi stomatolog maslihat boyad kard.
Iksirhoi D. dar mavride istifoda meshavand, ki nigohubini D. bo vositahoi mamul imkonnopazir boshad (bemorihoi pardahoi luobii dahon, illathoi D. badi jarrohi va g.). Iksirhoi D. niz khosiyati bezararsozi, rafi buy va solimgardonii D.-ro dorand.
Odathoi zararnoki toza kardani D. bo suzan, chubi durusht, ishqor, kislotaho va dig. moddahoi khimiyavi sababgori oseb yoftani on megardand. Agar hangomi toza kardani D. dard va yo digar alomathoi iltihob paydo shavand, ba dukhtur murojiat kardan lozim ast.
Qoidai istifodai chutkahoi dandonshui chunin ast: pasu pesh va pahlui D.-horo bo harakati amudii chutka, qismi boloii gilofaki D. va D.-hoi kursiro boshad, bo harakati ufuqi toza mekunand. D.-horo dar davomi 1– 3 daqiqa meshuyand va bo obi sof mechayqonand. Pagohi onhoro bo khoka yo khamira, begohi yo pesh az khob boshad, bo yak khudi chutka toza mekunand. Ba bachagon shustani D.-ro az 2 – 3 -solagi meomuzonand. Bo in maqsad dar bogchahoi bachagon va sinfhoi ibtidoii maktab oid ba nigohubini D. mashguliyatho guzaronda meshavand.
Baroi onhoe, ki D.-ashon illat yoftaast va yo stomatit (iltihobi luobpardai dahon) dorand, tavsiyahoi nigohubini D.-ro dukhturi stomatolog medihad. Baroi az boqimondai khurok toza kardani D. dandonkhiloli chubin yo plastmassiro istifoda mebarand.
Rioyai qoidahoi nigohubini D., tabobati sarivaqtii dardi on va amrozi uzvhoi dokhili, murattabii gizoi zanoni homila va tifli shirmak behtarin omili solimii D. meboshand. Baroi peshgirii illathoi D. har kas boyad sole du marotiba az muoinai dukhturi stomatolog guzarad va tavsiyahoi uro purra ijro kunad.
KL
Rasmi 1. Dandonhoi doimii jogi bolo va luobpardai kom (namud az poyon): 1 – chinhoi kundalangi kom; 2 – pistonaki peshdandon; 3 – dandonhoi pesh; 4 – dandonhoi ashk; 5 – dandonhoi kursii khurd; 6 – dandonhoi kursii kalon.
Rasmi 2. Dandonhoi doimi va reshai onho (namud az rost): 1 – javfi jogi bolo (javfi Gaymor); 2 – dandonhoi kursii khurd; 3 – dandonhoi ashk; 4 – dandonhoi pesh; 5 – surokhi manah; 6 – dandonhoi kursii kalon; 7 – jogi poyon.
Rasmi 3. Sokhti dandon (naqsha): 1 – mino (sir); 2 – dentin; 3 – pulpai dandon; 4 – milki dandon; 5 – sement; 6 – periodont; 7 – ustukhon; I – gilofaki dandon; II – gardanai dandon; III – reshai dandon; IV – juyaki reshai dandon.
Rasmi 4. Muhlati baromadani dandonhoi shiri (naqsha).

S. K. Saburov.

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