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Juvorimakka – rastanii khuroki, tekhniki va khuroki chorvo

Juvorimakka rastanii yaksola, az oilai khushadorho meboshad. Vatani juvorimakka Amerikai Markazi buda, onro sayyohon ba Avrupo ovardand, ki badtar ba digar mamlakathoi qitai Osiyo pahn gardidaast.

Juvorimakka rastanii rushnoiparvard va garmidust meboshad. Poya, barg va khushaguli nagz inkishofyofta dorad. Hushaguli chorubshaklash dar nugi poya joygir ast. Dar on jo tanho gulhoi narina inkishof meyoband (yane, garddonho tashakkul meyoband).

Juvorimakka

Dar bagali bargho khushaguli suta bo gulhoi modina mesabzad. Badi gardoludshavi dar suta donhoi az jihati andoza gunogun tashakkul meyoband.

Reshai juvorimakka ba khok chuqur rafta, dar davrai rushdu numuyash az qismi poyonii poya reshahoi ilovagii paydoshuda niholi juvorimakkaro ba khok mustahkam nigoh medorand.

Juvorimakka ziroati purqimati khuroki baroi inson va chorvo meboshad. Az don, poya va sutai on ziyoda az 150 mahsuloti gunogun tayyor mekunand.

Dar sohai chorvoparvari juvorimakka hamchun manbai khuroka ma- qomi baland dorad. Dar tarkibi doni juvorimakka miqdori ravgan ziyod ast. Az bargu poyai sabz va sutai nimdunbuli on silos
tayyor mekunand. Silosro ba gayr az bargu poyai sabzash, inchunin az bar- gu poyai khushkash, pas az gunuchini do- nash, niz tayyor kardan mumkin ast.

Juvorimakka ahamiyati makhsusi tekhniki dorad. Az doni on ohar (krakhmal), shira, ord, ravgan, spirt, kislotai (javhari) sirko, kauchuki suni va gayraho istehsol mekunand. Az poya, suta va bargi on kogaz, viskoza, masolehi izolyatsioni, puki suni, navori kino, shiresh va digar masoleh tayyor karda meshavad.

Dar jumhuriamon asosan navi du- ragakhoi VIR-156, VIR-156T, VIR-42, VIR-42M va gayraro parvarish mekunand.

Azbaski juvorimakka ziroati gar- midust ast, tukhmi onro hangomi 10-12°S garm budani khok kisht mekunand. Zamini kishti juvorimakkaro tiramoh ba chuqurii 28-30 sm shudgor karda, ba har yak gektar 10-35 tonna poru va 60-80 kg nurii fosfordor meandozand. Bahoron zamini shudgorshudaro ba qadu bar sikhmola karda, onro 1-2 marotiba mola mekunand. Dar nohiyahoi pakhtakori jumhuriamon kishti juvorimakkaro to sarshavii kishti pakhta va dar vodihoi kuhi to dahai duyumi mohi may ba okhir merasonand.

Hosilnokii doni juvorimakka dar surati purra rioya kardani qoidakhoi agrotekhniki az har gektar 100-120 sentnerro tashkil medihad.

Ta-yyor namudani doni juvorimakka baroi k i sh t. Bo in maqsad tukhmi juvorimakkaro dar sutaash nigoh medorand. Saravval onro khub sanjida behtarinashro intikhob mekunand. Dar suta donhoi solimi nagz pukhtarasida asosan dar qismi mobayni joygir shudaand. Binobar on, baroi kisht faqat hamin donhoro istifoda mebarapd. Baroi az har guna kasaliho muhofizat kardani tukhmi onro bo doruhoi khimiyavi zahrolud mekunand.

Nigohubini juvorimakkaro badi nesh zadani tukhmi va 3-4-barga shudanash az toqa kardani niholho ogoz mekunand. Sipas, bayni qatorhoro 2-3 marotiba narm mekunand, to ki safolaki sathi khok va alafhoi begona barham doda shavad. Inchunin, baroi baland
bardoshtani hosili donu bargu poyai sabz dar davomi nashunamoi juvorimakka ba juvorimakkazor bo tartibi muayyan nurihoi fosforiyu nitrogendor, porui parranda va poruob medihand.

  1. Juvorimakka chi guna ahamiyati khojagi dorad?
  2. Juvorimakka chi khel sokhti reshagi dorad?
  3. Kadom navu duragahoi juvorimakkaro medoned?
  4. Nigohubini juvorimakkazorro chi tavr ba roh memonand?
  5. Az don, poya, barg va sutai juvorimakka chi khel masolehi tekh- niki istehsol mekunand?
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