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JUMHURII TOJIKISTON, SOHT VA RUKNHOI DAVLATDORII ON

Davlatdorii khalqi tojik dar zamoni qadim, asrhoi miyona va davrai nav Ananai davlatdorii tojikon tarikhi besh az duyunimhazorsola dorad, ki tarikhshinoson onro shartan ba zamoni qadim, asrhoi miyona va davrai nav judo kardaand.

Binobar malumoti sarchashmahoi tarikhi hanuz dar hazorsolai III pesh az milod dar janubu garbi Eronzamin davlati Elam vujud dosht, ki dar qatori davlathoi taraqqikardai zamoni qadim – Bobul va SHom (Assiriya) meistod. Dar asri HVI pesh az milod dar sargahi daryohoi Dajla va Furot davlate bo nomi Mitan, dar asri HII pesh az milod dar shimolu garbi Eronzamin davlati Mana ba vujud meoyand. Dar yake az sarchashmahoi mutamadi adabivu tarikhii khalqi tojik – «Avasto» mafhumhoi «dahyu» ba mazmuni viloyat va «dahyusasti» ba manii ittihodi viloyatho duchor meshavad. Manbahoi asotiri paydoishi avvalin nishonahoi mamuriyati davlatiro ba davrai Kayqubod nisbat medihand.

Dar asrhoi H-IH pesh az milod podshohii Bokhtar bo iqtidori iqtisodivu harbiash dar radifi davlathoi Mod va Assiriya qaror dosht. Davrai mushakhkhasi tashakkuli ajdodi khalqi tojik dar hazorai yakumi to solshumorii mo, pesh az hama dar kalamravi

avvalin davlati umumieronii Hakhomanishiho (soli 550 pesh az milod) jarayon yoftaast. Dar in davlat tamomi khalqiyathoi qadimi eroni, ki badan dar asosi onho khalqi tojik tashakkul yoft, – sugdiyon, bokhtariho, takhoriho, khorazmiho, margoniyon, portho, sakho va gayra zindagi mekardand va asosguzoroni in davlat – Kurushi Kabir va Doro budand. In davlat mintaqai khele vasero az Haliji Fors dar janub to daryoi Sir dar shimol, dar sharq az Badakhshon va dar garb to bahri Hazar va SHarqi Nazdik dar bar megirift. Maqsadi lashkarkashihoi Kurushi Kabir, chunonki tarikhshinoson khulosa kardaand, na maqsadi istilogarona, balki dar hayati yak davlati mutamarkaz muttahid namudani khalqiyatho va qavmu qabilaho bud. Sokhti davlatdorii imperiyai Hakhomanishiho baroi hamon davra namunai olii davlatdori ba hisob meraft.

Hokimiyati oli dar dasti shohanshoh buda, hukmi u tagyirnopazir va ijroi on hatmi bud. SHuroi mashvarati vujud dosht, ki masalahoi favquloddai davlatdori, az qabili eloni jangu sulh va intikhobi vorisi takhtu tojro hal mekard. Artishi doimamalkunandaro bevosita khudi shoh idora mekard. Idorai mamuri az se devon yo vazorat – devoni moliya, sud va artish (korhoi harbi) iborat buda, sarvaroni onhoro khudi shoh tain menamud. Tamomi qalamrav ba 24 vohidi marzivu mamuri taqsim meshud, ki onhoro khshatrapiya yo satrapiyaho menomidand. CHunin sokhtori siyosivu mamuri khele samaranok buda, ba tufayli on imperiyai Hakhomanishiho 200 sol arzi vujud kardaast.

Nakhustin Elomiyai huquqi bashar ba Kurushi Kabir taalluq dorad, ki tarikhi 2500-sola dorad. Mahz dar hamin sanadi qadimai huquqi bori nakhust arzishhoi basharie, az qabili man budani jabru sitam, barham dodani gulomi, be pardokhti arzishivoqei nagiriftani moli kasi digar, ozodii intikhobi dinu mazhab, fardiyati jinoyat va jazo, huquqi ozodona intikhob namudani joi zist, khususiyati infirodi doshtani amali jinoyatkorona va sazovori jazo etirof namudani tanho shakhsi sodirnamudai jinoyat va gayra inikos shudaand, ki to hol qimati khudro gum nakardaand. Meyorhoi in Elomiya bo iborahoi «man to ruze, ki zinda hastam» yo «to ruze, ki podshoh hastam» ogoz yofta, sipas andeshahoi arzishmandi marbut ba huquqi inson ifoda karda meshavand.

Iqtibosi zerin az matni Elomiyai Kurushi Kabir ifodakunandai mohiyati nizomi demokratii davlatdori ast: «Man elon mekunam, ki har kass ozod ast, har dinu oinro, ki mayl dorad, barguzinad (intikhob kunad) va dar har jo, ki mekhohad, sukunat namoyad. Va har kasbu korero, ki mekhohad, intikhob namoyad, tanho ba sharte ki haqqi kasero poymol nanamoyad va zarare ba huquqi digaron narasonad» .

Dar in meyor se arzishi demokrati – ozodii dinu mazhab, ozodii intikhobi joi zist, poymol nakardani haqqu huquqi kasi digar inikos yoftaast.

In meyorho mundarijai asosii Elomiyai umumii huquqi bashar az 10-umi dekabri soli 1948-ro tashkil dodaand, ki baroi tamomi kishvarhoi uzvi SMM sarchashmai arzishhoi insoni va rahnamoi huquqi ba shumor meravand.

Az jumlai davlathoi qadimi ajdodoni mo – Bokhtar bud, ki dar asrhoi VII-VI pesh az milod vujud doshta, qismi janubii Tojikistoni imruza va viloyati Surkhondaryoi Uzbekiston, shimoli Afgoniston, khulosa, besh az 27 shahr – davlathoi khurdro dar bar megirift. Kishti galladona, bogu tokparvari, ohangari, zargari, bofandagi va obyorii suni shugli asosii bokhtarihoi qadim budand.

Bokhtar ba muzofothoi khurd-khurd taqsim shuda, hokimoni on dar masalahoi idorakuni sohibikhtiyor budand, az nomi khud pul sikka mezadand va dastahoi harbi niz doshtand. Dar asri IV milodi Bokhtar az jonibi Iskandari Maqduni zabt karda shud va dar hududi on davlati YUnonu Bokhtar ba vujud omad.

Takhminan dar yak zamon bo davlati Bokhtar, yane to avvalhoi asri VI pesh az milod dar hududi imruzai Osiyoi Miyona davlati Sugd arzi vujud dosht, ki to asri IH milodi pobarjo bud. In davlat dar havzahoi Zarafshon va Qashqadaryo voqe gardida, poytakhtash Maroqand (Samarqand) ba shumor meraft.

SHakli davlatdorii Sugd konfederativi bud, yane Sugd az ittihodi shahr – davlathoe iborat bud, ki dar atrofi yak markaz muttahid shuda budand, ba monandi Maroqand, Bukhoro, Nasaf, YAgnob, Maskho (hozira Mastchoh), SHosh (Toshkand), Margiyon (Marge-lon), Dizzak va gayra. SHohi tamomi Sugdro ikhshid menomidand. Tarzu usuli davlatdori dar Sugd khele peshqadam bud. Tashkili korhoi idori va khojagi dar asosi qonunhoi umumidavlati surat megirift.

Tamomi faoliyati idoraho chi dar markaz va chi dar mahalho ba qayd girifta meshud, hujjathoi davlati dar khazinahoi makhsus – boygoniho nigoh doshta meshudand.

Qonunguzorii jinoyati baroi jinoyathoi vaznin va duzdi jazohoi sakhtro peshbini mekard. Masalan, baroi kushtor na faqat khudi jinoyatkor, balki tamomi avlodi uro ba qatl merasonidand, baroi duzdi dastu po meburidand va yo badarga mekardand.

Az kuhi Mug (hududi nohiyai imruzai Ayni) bisyor hujjatho paydo karda shudaand, ki muvofiqi khulosai tarikhnigoron on hujjathoro hokimi Panjakent – Devashtich hangomi hujumi arabho bo maqsadi az nobudshavi emin doshtani ba on jo burda budaast.

YAke az namunahoi ahdnoma emin doshtan nikoh, ki dar sadai HH dastovardi muhimi huquqi oila ba shumor meravad, az hamin kuhi Mug daryoft shudaast.

Ehsosi vatankhohi va jasorati sugdiyon ba darajae bud, ki hatto Iskandar bo urdui beshumorash natavonist onro taskhir kunad. Oqibat u dukhtari yake az ashrofoni bonufuzi Sugd Oksiart – Rukhshonaro ba zani girifta, qahramoni mardumi Spitamenro ba vositai yak guruh massagethoi khoin ba qatl rasonid va soli 327 Panjakent – okhirin panohgohi sugdiyonro ishgol kard.

Dar radifi Bokhtar, Sugd, Horazm va Margiyon Ustrushana (Surushana, Istaravshan) niz davlati qadimi ajdodoni tojik ba shumor meraft, ki dar «Avasto» hamchun kishvari durakhshon zikr shudaast.

In davlat az qadim az jihati jugrofi dar chorrahai korvonguzar voqe gardida, dar davomi 1500 sol samti shimolii «Rohi abreshim» az hududi on meguzasht.

Davrai muhimi tarikhi davlatdorii tojikon ba zamoni Sosoniyon (solhoi 226-651 milodi) rost meoyad, ki 425 sol davom kardaast. In imperiyai buzurg az Haliji Fors to daryoi Omu doman pahn karda bud. Davrai avvalini tashakkuli zaboni adabii imruza – forsii dari va tashakkuli khalqi tojik dar qalamravi davlati Sosoniyon surat giriftaast.

SHahrhoi Bukhorovu Samarqand, Hujandu Marv, Balkhu Hirot gahvorai tashakkuli khalqi tojik, zabon, adabiyot, farhang va davlatdorii milli ba shumor meraftand. Mahz dar in davra Borbadi Marvazi, ki soli 1990 1400-solagii zodruzash dar kishvaramon boshukuh qayd karda shud, guli sari sabadi darbori Sosoniyon bud. Matni purrai «Avasto» niz dar hamin davra tartib doda shudaast.

Davlati Somoniyon – nakhustin davlati mutamarkazi tojikon (solhoi 819-999) ba shumor meravad.

Saromadi in sulolai hukmron – Somonkhudot buda, naberahoi u – Nuh dar Samarqand, Ahmad dar Fargona, YAhyo dar CHoch va Istaravshan va Ilyos dar Hirot solhoi 819-820 hokim tain shuda budand. Tashakkul va ba avji baland rasidani in davlatdori bo nomi Ismoili Somoni (Ismoil ibni Ahmad (849-907) aloqamand ast. Mahz tavassuti mahorati balandi davlatdori, adolatpeshagi va donishu zakovat Ismoil tavonist, ki solhoi 892-907 davlati buzurgero barpo namoyad, ki ba hayati on Movarounnahru Huroson, havzai daryohoi Omu, Zarafshonu Sir (az Afgonistoni Markazi va Hurosoni Eron dar janub, Horazmu Isfijobu Haftrud dar shimol, dar garb to bahri Hazar, dar sharq to Pomiru Oloy) vorid gashtand.

Somoniyon dastgohi mutamarkazi davlatiro bunyod karda budand, ki iborat az 10 devon buda, idorakunii sohahoi gunoguni iqtisodiyot, korhoi shahrvandiyu harbi, khazinai davlati, aloqa va gayraro dar bar megirift va sarvari devonhoro «Hojibi buzurg» menomidand. «Savon-ul-hikmat» – kitobkhonai buzurgi ahdi Somoniyon shuhrati jahoni dosht. Zindagi va ejodiyoti Abuabdullo Rudaki, Ibni Sino, Firdavsi, Balami, Beruni, Zakariyoi Rozi, Muhammadi Horazmi va dahho shakhsiyathoi barjastai ilmu adabi tojik dar hamin ayyom sipari gashtaast. Zaboni davlati – zaboni tojiki buda, hatto badi tanazzuli davlati Somoniyon to asri HIH niz dar tarkibi davlathoi digar hamchun zaboni korguzorii davlati mavridi istifoda qaror doshtaast.

Davrai shuravii rushdi davlatdorii tojikon Davrai digari davlatdorii tojikon az nimai duyumi asri HIH to soli 1991- marhilai navi ehyoi davlati millii tojikonro faro megirad. CHunon ki dar bolo zikr namudem, badi tanazzuli Davlati Somoniyon khalqi tojik az davlatdorii milli mahrum monda bud va dar hududi davlatdorihoi begona zindagi mekard. To zamoni hamroh shudan ba Rossiyai shohi dar hududi Osiyoi Markazi se davlati istibdodii feodali – Amorati Bukhoro, khoniga rihoi Quqand va Hiva vujud doshtand va aholii in davlathoro asosan tojikon tashkil medodand. Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX Rossiyai podshohi ba zabti sarzaminhoi Osiyoi Markazi mashgul shuda, khonigarii Quqandro barham dod va Amorati Bukhoro va khonigarii Hivaro vassali khud elon namud.

Soli 1867 dar zaminhoi ba ikhtiyori Rossiya ham- rohshuda general – gubernatorii Turkiston tasis doda shud. Nohiyahoi shimoli Tojikiston va qismi ziyodi Badakhshon, inchunin viloyathoi Samarqandu Fargona ba general – gubernatori muttahid shuda, Bukhoroi sharqi va qismati garbii Badakhshon ba hayati Amorati Bukhoro vorid karda shudand. Badi shikasti Imperiyai Rossiya va galabai Inqilobi Oktyabr masalai ehyoi davlati millii tojikon bo sababi vazi murakkabi siyosivu ijtimoi, jangi durudarozi grajdani va afzaliyati siyosati pantur kisti, besavodii qismi ziyodi sokinoni in sarzamin va past budani khudshinosii ijtimoi zeri khatari jiddi qaror girifta bud.

Dar hududi Osiyoi Markazi soli 1918 avval Jumhurii Mukhtori SHuravii Sotsialistii Turkiston va soli 1920 jumhurihoi Halqii SHuravii Bukhoro va Horazm tasis yoftand. Mohi oktyabri soli 1924 Ijlosiyai duyumi Komiteti Ijroiyai Markazii IJSHS qaror kard, ki dar in sarzamin bo maqsadi tashkili jumhurihoi milli taqsimoti millivu hududi guzaronida shavad.

Dar natijai in taqsimot bo qarori KIM IJSHS az 27 oktyabri soli 1924 dar qalamravi Osiyoi Markazi JSHS Uzbekiston, JSHS Turkmaniston, Jumhurii Mukhtori SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston dar hayati Uzbekiston, Jumhurii Mukhtori SHuravii Sotsialistii Qazoqiston, viloyati mukhtori Qaroqirgiz (Qirgiziston) dar hayati JSHSFR va viloyati mukhtori Qaroqalpoqiston dar hayati JMSHS Qazoqiston tasis doda shudand.

Hamin tavr, sanai tasisi JMSHS Tojikiston 27-umi oktyabri soli 1924 meboshad. Ba hayati on viloyathoi Dushanbe, Qurgonteppa, Kulob, Panjakent, Uroteppa, Garm (vodii Rashti imruza) va VMKB dokhil shudand va hamon vaqt aholii JMSHS Tojikiston 739,5 hazor nafar va masohatash 135,6 hazor kilometrro tashkil medod.

Boyad guft, ki dar in taqsimoti millivu hududi dar masalai ba nazar giriftani manfiat va talaboti voqeii tojikon ba davlati milli va shumorai aslii tojikon ba kambudihoi jiddi roh doda shud.

Siyosati nodurusti milli ba darajae bud, ki hatto Komissariati korhoi millii JMSHS Turkiston baroi amali namudani taqsimoti milli ba juz shubahoi uzbekivu turkmani, qirgizi va millathoi khurd tashkili shubai tojikiro ravo nadid .

Hamagi se ruz pesh az halli taqdiri millati tojik Tojikiston bo ovozi mashvarati dar hayati CH. Imomov, A. Hojiboev va M. Saidjonov ba komissiyai taqsimot dokhil karda shud va ba namoyandagoni zikrshuda az jonibi panturkiston fishori ziyod ovarda meshud.

Markazhoi farhangu tamadduni khalqi tojik – Bukhorovu Samarqand, sarzaminhoi dar tuli sadsolaho tojiknishin ba etibor girifta nashudand, aholii tojikro dar baze shahrho dar hujjatho sarosar uzbek nishon doda, dar natija huquqi mardumi tojik ba khudmuayyankunii milli poymol karda shud.

26-umi noyabri soli 1924 dar Toshkand maqomi rohbarikunandai Jumhurii Mukhtor – Kumitai inqilobi dar hayati rais – Nusratullo Makhsum va muovinonash – B. Dodoboev va R. Bobojonov tasis yoft va Dushanbe poytakhti jumhuri intikhob karda shud.

Dar tarikhi davlatdorii navi tojikon sanai 28-umi apreli soli 1929 bo qabul shudani nakhustin Konstitutsiyai JMSHS Tojikiston khotirmon ast.

Inchunin dar mohi sentyabri soli 1929 bo qarori Anjumani III SHurohoi JSHS Uzbekiston okrugi Hujand bo nohiyahoi Hujand, Konibodomu Asht va Isfara ba hayati JMSHS Tojikiston dokhil karda shud va bo hamin shumorai aholi ba 1 millionu 200 hazor nafar rasid, ki in baroi tasisi jumhurii mustaqili ittifoqi asos gardid. 16-umi oktyabri soli 1929 Anjumani seyumi favquloddai SHurohoi Tojikiston dar borai tashkili JSHS Tojikiston qaror va izhorot qabul namud va nihoyat bo qarori Anjumani VI SHurohoi IJSHS mohi marti soli 1931 Tojikiston hamchun jumhurii ittifoqi ba hayati IJSHS pazirufta shud.

Az mohi oktyabri soli 1929 to ruzi elon shuda-ni Elomiyai istiqloliyati Jumhurii Tojikiston – 24-umi avgusti soli 1990 – marhilai inkishofi Tojikiston dar hayati Ittihodi SHuravi bud. Bo vujudi nabudani istiqloliyati davlati dar in davra hama sohahoi hayoti kishvar – ilmu maorif, farhang, iqtisodu ijtimoiyot, sokhtmon, tib va gayra inki- shof yoftand. Tahlili mufassali in davraro SHumo metavoned az kitobhoi tarikh mutolia kuned. Az islohoti davra ba davrai huquq tanho hamin dalel shahodat medihad, ki vobasta ba davrahoi taraqqiyoti ijtimoivu iqtisodii IJSHS dar Tojikiston 4 marotiba solhoi 1929, 1931, 1937 va 1978 Konstitutsiya qabul shudaast.

Dar ogozi solhoi 90-um dar sarosari Ittihodi SHuravi junbishi istiqlolkhohi va muboriza baroi bunyodi davlathoi milli avj girift va jomeai Tojikiston niz az in harakati umumiittifoqi dar kanor namond. Tojikiston beshtar ba davlatdorii nav ehtiyoj dosht, zero bad az tanazzuli okhirin davlati mutamarkazi tojikon – Davlati Somoniyon millati tojik hazor sol az davlatu davlatdori mahrum bud. Ba qavli Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston E.SH.Rahmonov «mo dar tuli hazor sol siyosati davlatii hifzi tamomiyati marz va siyosati vahdati milli nadoshtem, zero davlat nadoshtem. Dar chunin vaz davlati mo hamon mahalli mo bud va siyosati davlati mo hifzi yakporchagii mahalli mo va sunnathoi khosi mahalli bud» . Hamin tavr, tarikh imkoniyati khube faroham ovard, ki tojikon dubora sohibi dav lati millii khud shavand va imruz movu shumo dar chunin davlati sohibistiqlol, ki nomash Jumhurii Tojikiston ast, zindagi mekunem.

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