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JINSHOI TARKIBI QISHRI ZAMIN

Mineralho va chinshoi kuhi. Dar qishri Zamin yakchand hazor mineral va jinshoi kuhi pahn gardidaand. Paydoishi onho ba yakdigar vobasta meboshad. Dar zeri tasiri hodisahoi beruni (garmi, khunuki, borishot, obhoi ravon, bod) va tagyirothoe, ki dar dokhili qishri Zamin (harorat va fishoru tazyiq) ba amal meoyand, mineralho az yak shakl ba shakli digar tabdil meyoband. Dar natija mineralho va jinshoi kuhii gunogun hosil meshavand, ki har yaki onho bo tarkibi khimiyavi, sokht, sakhti, zudshikani, rang va digar khosiyatho az yakdigar farq mekunand. Mineralho yakjinsa meboshand. Masalan, kalsit, kvars, almos, grafit, sulfur (kibrit), tilloi khudruy. Jinskhoi kuhi asosan gunogunjinsa meboshand. Masalan, sangi khoro az se mineral tarkib yoftaast: shpati sahroi, kvars, abraq. Odatan masohati kaloni qishri Zaminro jinshoi kuhi ishgol menamoyand. Onhoro az jihati paydoish ba se guruh-taqsim mekunand: magmatiki, tahshini va metamorfy.

Jinskhoi magmatiki. Harorati qishri Zamin dar chuquri meafzoyad. On dar qabati mantiya ba darajae merasad, ki tamomi moddahoi dar on jo buda boyad ba moe mubaddal shavand. Ammo chunin hodisa rukh namedihad. Baroi on ki fishori jinshoi kuhii qishri Zamin nihoyat ziyod ast. Binobar in tamomi moddaho dar mantiya dar holati chaspanda, tafson, chandir (yozanda) memonand. Barobari afzudani fishori dokhili dar qishri Zamii tarkish paydo meshavad va to sathi on merasad. Dar natija dar dokhili Zamin fishor past msshavad va moddahoi chandiri tafson moe shuda, ba bolo harakat mekunand. Onro magma (tafga) menomand.

Jinshoi kuhiero, ki pas az khunuk shudani oi hosil meshavand, jinshoi kuhii magmatiki meguyand. Ba jinshoi kuhii magmatiki sangi khoro, bazalt, diorit, pemza (sangi jilbur) va gayra dokhil meshavand.

Jinshoi kuhii tahshini. In namudi jinshoi kuhy dar natijai az havoyu ob tahshin shudani moddahoi gunogun hosil shudaand. Onho az jihati tarzi paydoish ba se guruh judo meshavand: chinshoi kuhii shikasta. organiky va khimiyavi.

Aksariyati jinskhoi kuhie, ki kuhhoro tarkib dodaand, az kari Zamin ba sathi Zamin baromadaand. Dar fazoi kushod bo tasiri garmi, sardy, rutubat, mavjudoti zinda, ob, bod muntazam vayron va pora shuda, az nishebii kuhho ba poin jory gardida, har jo-har jo qabati gafsi jinskhoi kuhii shikastaro hosil mekunand. SHakl va hajmi onho gunogunand. Az zarrahoi khurdtarin to sangporahoi kalonro duchor shudan mumkin ast. In jinshoi shikastaro obhoi ravon burda ba zeri daryoho. uqyonusho, bahrho va kulho mekhobonand. Bad onkho tahti fishori qabathoi nav fishurda shuda, ba jinsi tahshini sakht mubaddal megardand. Az jumla gil ba varaqsang, peg ba regsang regu shagal ba konglomerat (jinsi tahshini az omekhtai gil, peg va shagal hosilshuda) tabdil meyobad.

Paydoishi in jinshoi kuhiro poragi menomand. Dar shaklgirii onho changu guborhoe, ki az havo ba sathi khushki, uqyonuskho, bahrho, kulho mefaroyand, niz ishtirok menamoyand.

Paydoishi jinshoi tahshini khimiyavy ba ob vobasta meboshad. chunki ob bisyor moddahoro hal mekunad. Dar natijai on mahlulhoi moddahoi gunogun hosil meshavand. Onho takhshin shuda, jinshoi tahshini khimiyaviro hosil mekunand. Az jumla bo hamin roh namakhoi gunogun, gaj, tufi ohaky paydo shudaand.

Jinshoi tahshini organiki az jinshoi tahshini shikasta va khimiyavi farq mekunand. Dar paydoishi onho boqimondahoi nabototu hayvonot naqshi asosiro mebozand- Badi az bayn raftan boqimondai onho dar kari kulho, bahrho va uqyonusho jam shuda mekhobad va sathi onhoro moddahoi tahshiny faro megirand. Tahti fishori tahshinhoi az boloi boqimondai organizmho khobida oikho az yak shakl ba
shakli digar meguzarand. Az sadafaki organizmhoi maydai bahri bur, az boqimondahoi ustukhoni hayvonkhoi kalon va bazs rastaniho (obsabzho) ohaksang hosil msshavad. Qismi ziyodi boqimondahoi rastaniho ba torf va angishtsang tabdil meyoband. Mergel (jinsi tahshini ohakiyu gili) ham paydoishi organiki dorad.

Jinshoi kuhii metamorfi. Qishri Zamin asosan az jinshoi tahshin va magmatiki tarkib yoftaast. Onho dar chuqurii qari Zamin tahti fishori jinshoi dar bolo jamshuda va harorati baland tagyir meyoband va az yak shakl ba shakli digar meguzarand. Dar natija az jinshoi kuhii tahshin va magmatiki jinshoi kuhii nav hosil meshavand, ki bo khususiyathoi khud farq mekunand. CHunonchi, regsang ba kvarsit, ohaksang ba marmar, varaqsanghoi gili ba varaqsangi giliyu abraki, khorosang ba gnsys (khorosangi zich) tabdil meyoband. Jinshoi kuhiero, ki dar chuqurii ziyod takhti fishor va harorati baland tagyir meyoband, jinshoi metamorfi menomand. Hudi hodisai tagyiryobii jinshoi kuhiro metamorfoza meguyand. Metamorfoza kalimai yunoni buda, manoi on tagyiryobi ast.

Jinshoi metamorfi va magmatiky ham betagyir namemonand. Onho ham bo mururi zamon dar natijai baland shudani qitakhoi alohidai qishri Zamin va sathi onro shustani obhoi ravon ba sathi Zamin mebaroyand. Onho bo tasiri garmyi, khunuki va rutubat vayron shuda, jinshon shikastai tahshinro khoinl menamoyand.

Farqiyati chinshoi kuhi. Jinshoi kuhi az yakdigar na faqat az jihati paydoish, inchunin bo sokhtu tarkibi khud fark mekunand. Tarkibi jinshoi magmatiki va metamorfi donashakl (khorosang), bulury (kvarsit. marmar) meshavand. Jinshoi tahshin aksar vaqt ba shakli qabat-qabat mekhoband. Dar bayni qabathoi onho boqimondahoi nabotot va hayvonot mushohida karda meshavand. Dar qabati tahshinho inchunin zarrahoi tillo, almos, platina va gayraro didan mumkin ast. Onho dar natijai jinshoi magmatikiro vayron kardani obhol ravon hosil shuda, bo takhshinkho yakjoya khobidaand.

Savol ka suporish

Litosfera az qishri Zamin chi farq dorad? 2. Litosfera chist? 3. Odamon qishri Zaminro bo chi maqsad va bo kadom usulho meomuzand? 4. Mineralho az jinshoi kuhi chi farq dorand? 5. Jinshoi kuhii magmatiki va tahshiny chy tavr hosil shudaand? 6. Jinshoi kuhii takhshiny ba chand guruh judo meshavand? 7. Jinshoi kuhii metamorfi chy tavr paydo shudaand? 8. Matni paragrafro khonda, dar jadvali 1 nomi jinshoi magmatiki va takhshiiro navised.

Jadvali 1

Namudkhoi jinshoi kuhi

Magmatiki Takhshnny
dar kari zamin khobnda ba run zamnn baromada jnnskhon gay riorgannki chnnskho» organik 1 y
jnnskhon shnkasta chnvskhon khimnyavi
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