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JIHODHOI MUSULMONON BO SARVARII MUHAMMAD

Bad az bunyodi masjid dar Madina on jo markazi siyosi. Targiboti dini islom gardid. Dar yak muddat kutoh aholii Madina va atrofii on Muhammadro hamchun paygambar pazirufta, islomro qabul kardand.

Muhojiron, ki vatanashon Makka bud, dar orzui on budand., ki ba on shahr, ba nazdi kheshu aqraboi khud bargardand. Az in jihat nigaronii onho ba sui Makka beshtar meshud. Ammo sardoroni Makka ham orom namenishastand va ba mudofiai shahr omodagi megiriftand.

jihodMuhammad /s/ va muhojiron namekhostand, ki bo mardumi Makka jang karda, khunrezi kunand. Zero ki beshtari onho avlodu kheshu aqraboi onho budand. Az in jihat Paygambar, ki sarlashkari ahdi islom bud, pesh az ogozi jang ba Makka vakiloni khudro firistoda az onho talab kard, ki islomro qabul namoyand. Dar Makka tarafdoroni Muhammad ziyod budand va kadome az onho allakay dini islomro qabul karda budand, ammo ashrofoni Makka talabhoi Paygambarro qatiyan rad kardand. Bad az on Muhammad ba muqobili kofiron gazo elon kardand.Gazo yo jihod dar rohi Hudo va ba muqobili onhoe, ki musulmononro az dini khud megardonand. Dar zamoni Muhammad gazohoi ziyode rukh dodand.

jihod

Avvalin gazo jangi Badr bud. Badr mahallest dar nazdikii Makka. Jangi Badr dar soli duyumi hijrat rukh dod va dar on Paygambar shakhsan ishtirok dosht. Dar in jang az tarafi musulmonon 314 va az tarafi dushman ziyoda az hazor nafar ishtirok kardand. Pesh az ogozi jang Muhammad bo lashkariyonash murojiat karda guft:

“…Agar az shumo bist tan sobir boshand, bar dusad tan galaba kunand va agar az shumo sad tan sobir boshand, bar hazor tan az onho, ki kofirand, chira shavand, zero onho guruhe nodonu nofahmand…” Sukhanoni Paygambar onhoro ruhbaland namud va vaqte, ki Muhammad ba hamla kardan amr dod, ongoh, nogahon ba guruhi peshsafi Qurayshiyon, ki hanuz intizori hamla nabudand, hujum kardand. Bar rafti zadukhurd khudi Muhammad sarvari mekard. Dar safhoi peshi musulmonon pahlavononi nomdor amaki Paygambar hazrati Amir Hamza va pisari amakash hazrati Ali mejangidand. Tavajjuhi onho bar on bud, ki sarkardagoni lashkari Qurayshro nest kunand, to lashkar be sardor monad.

Vaqte ki sarkardagoni Makka va sarvaroni lashkar Abujahlu Umayya kushta shudand askari qurayshiho ru ba gurez nihodand. Lashkari Muhammad onhoro takib karda, asir megiriftand, chunki az ogozi jang Paygambar ba lashkariyon amr doda bud, ki odamoni avlodi Hoshim va baze sarkardagoni qabilai Qurayshro nakushand. Paygambar nekii onhoro, ki dar haqqi u karda budand, faromush nakarda bud. Vaqte ki Muhammadro dar Makka taqib mekardand bani Hoshim va baze az sarkardagoni qurayshiho pushtibonii uro mekardand va ba jangi muqobili Muhammad ham majburan omada budand.

Makkiyon shikast khurda ba shahrashon gurekhtand, qisme az onho kushtayu asir shudand. Lashkari Muhammad on shab dar Badr mondand. Murdagoni Qurayshro az maydon jam karda, guronidand va bad az on ba Madina bargashtand.

Dar arabho qoidae bud, ki vaqti jangho chi ganimateaz maydoni jang va az dushmani maglubshuda ba dast meovardand, moli khudashon megasht. Muhammad amr dod, ki lashkariyon tamomi ganimatashonro suporand. Bad az on bo sarvaroni ansoron, muhojironu sarlashkaron ganimathoi jamshudaro odilona ba lashkariyon, oilahoi askaroni shahidshuda va digar odamoni bechorayu darmonda taqsim kardand.

Va in tartib dar zamoni hazrati Muhammad va bad az vay ham muddate amal mekard. Muhammad bo tarafdoronash ba Madina bargashtand. In jang nishon dod, ki Paygambar sarlashkari mohir ham budaast. Etiqodi mardum ba u boz ham beshtar gardid.

Qurayshihoi Makka orom nagiriftand va baroi intiqom va shikast dodan ba tarafdoroniMuhammad tayyori medidand. Soli digar onho ba se hazor askar ba Madina ravon shudand. Muhammad bo askaronash, ki hamagi haftsad nafar budand dar domanai kuhi Uhud ba dushman vokhurdand. Jang sar shud. Musulmonon hujum karda safhoi avvalro rakhna kardand, ammo nogahon yak guruh dushmanon az darae pinhoni baromada ba aqibgoh hamla kardand. In hamlai nogohoni quvvai lashkari Paygambarro ba du guruh judo kard va sababi shikast khurdani onho shud.

Dar in jang haftod nafar az musulmonon, az on jumla hazrati Amir Hamza, shahid shudand. Hazrati Muhammad ham dar hamin jang majruh gashtand. Makkiyon galabai khudro mustahkam nakarda, khudashon az tarsi on ki quvvahoi nav hozir shavand, zur jam shuda ba Maka bargashtand.

Dar soli panjumi hijrat lashkari Maka ba itifoqi yahudiyon boz ba sui Madina ravon shudand. In khabarro shunida, hazrati Muhammad bo nazdikoni khud mashvarat karda bo lashkari khud ba beruni shahr baromadand va dar atrofi Madina khandaqho koftand. Vaqte, ki dushmanonashon ba handaqho rasidand, ahli islom onhoro bo tirho istiqbol kardand. Dushmanon az khandaq guzashta natavonistanva bad az muddate tirandozi kardan, boz pas gashta raftand. Dar in jang har du taraf ham az khandaq naguzashtand va in jang dar tarikh bo nomi jangi khandaq boqi mondaast.

Dar soli shashumi hijrat Muhammad bo panjsad nafar taraf-doronash ba niyati ziyorat ba Makka raftand. Ashrofoni shahr ba ziyorati onho rukhsat nadodand va hatto ba jang tayyori didand. Ammo yak guruh makkiyon ba bayni onho daromada, mohi marti soli 628 sulh bastand. Muvofiqi in ahdnoma dar muddati dah sol ahli Madina bo Makka jang namekunand va mardumi Madina metavonand har sol omada Kabaro ziyorat kunand.

In sozishro sulhi Hudaybiya menomand. Ammo bad az 1,5 mohi bastani sulh mohi may lashkari Muhammad ba qalai Haybar hujum kard. Haybar devoru darvozahoi mustahkam dosht va ba askaroni paygambar taslim shudan namekhostand. Askaroni Muhammad dah ruz onro muhosira namudand va oqibat muhofizoni qalaro shikast dodand. Tarafdoroni Muhammad az qala ganimati ziyode ovardand. In galaba etibori Paygambar va tarafdoroni dini islomro dar bayni qabilahoi arab va davlathoi atrof boz ham afzud. Tarafdoroni Muhammad ba tadrij ziyod megashtand. Odamon az qabilahoi atrof guruh-guruh omada, dini islomro qabul mekardand.

Suporish va savolho.

  1. Az bobo, padaraton khokhish kuned dar borai hazrati Muhammad ba SHumo qisae naql kunand va onro dar sinf hikoya kuned.
  2. Sababi ziyod gardidani tarafdoroni hazrati Muhammad dar chist?

 

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