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JARAYON DAR UQYONUS VA BAHRHO

 Jarayoni obi ukyonusho. Dar uqyonus va bahrho harakat kardani obro odamon hatto dar zamonkhoi qadim mushohida karda budand. Harakat khosi na tanho obi sath, inchunin khosi obi qabathoi qari uqyonus va bahrkho niz meboshad.
Sababhoi harakati ob gunogun ast. Sababi az hama asosii on bod. tafovuti harorat, shurii obi uqyonus va bahrho meboshad. Dar natijai in tafovut dar uqyonusu bahrho selobhoi buzurg hosil meshavand va ba tavri ufuqi bo samti muayyan doimi harakat mekunand, ki onhoro jarayonhoi uqyonusi meguyand. Jarayon in daryoest dar uqyonus. Ammo onho ba daryo purra monand nestand. Samti harakati jarayonkho gunogun ast. Onro ba vositai shishahoi ba ob partofta muayyan mekunand.

Ba in maqsad ba daruni shisha khatchae meandozand, ki dar on koordinati mahali shisharo mahkam karda Partoftan navishta shudaast. Mallohone, kn chunin shishahoro az ob megirand, darhol mefahmand, ki shisharo jarayoni bahri az kujo ba in jo ovardaast. Olimoki Kanada-baroi tadqiq kardani jarayoni Uqyonusi Atlantika ba ob qarib 40 hazor shisha partoftaand.

Olimon jarayonhoi uqyonusiro omukhta, ba khulosa omadand, ki samti harakati jarayonho ba samti bodhoi muntazam vazandy mutobiqat menamoyad. Bodhoi doimy ba ob fishor ovarda, onro majbur msnamoyand, ki ba samti muayyan harakat kunad. YAks az in jarayonho dar sohili sharqii Afrika dar du tarafi khati istivo hosil shuda, tavassuti bodhoi doimie, ki az Afrika ba sui Amsrika mevazand (passati SHimoly), ba tarafi garb jori meshavad. On qad-qadi khati istivo harakat karda, ba sohili Amerikai Januby barkhurda, ba du shokha judo meshavad.

YAk shokhai on az on jo ba sharq barmegardad, qismi digari on ba Haliji Meksika dokhil shuda, az on jo ba sohilhoi sharqii Amermkai SHimoli va bad az on ba sohilhoi Evropa harakat menamoyad. In jarayonro Golfistrim menomand. Obi on garm ast (20°S). Darozii in jarayoni garm 3000 kilometr buda, bo surati 10 kilometr dar yak soat harakazt mekunad. Vasegii anbuhi obi in jarayon az 75 to 120 kilometr tagyir meyobad Gayr az jarayoihoi garm dar Uqyonusi Olam inchunin jarayonhoi khunuk ba monandi jarayoni Labrador, Kanar, Peru va gayra ba samthoi gun-ogun harakat mekunand.

 Pahnshavni nabotot va hayvonot dar uqyonus. Dar uqyonus ba monandi sathi khushki nabotot va hayvonoti gunogun pahn, gardidaand. Muvofiqi aqidai bisyor olimon hayot ham az ibtido dar uqyonus paydo shuda, namudhoi avvaliii rastani va hayvonot az on jo ba khushki baromadaand. Holo dar obi uqyonus az organizmhoi soddatarin to shirkhuron hayot ba cap mebarad. Rastaniho (obsabzho) ba ravshani ekhtiyoji ziyod dorand, binobar in dar chuqurihoi 100 150 metr vase pahn gardidaand. Dar in jo obsabzho va karami bahry to dah metr daroz msshavaid. Hayvonot ba ravshani kam ekhtiyoj dorand, binobar in dar hama qabathoi obi uqyonus hayot meguzaronand.

Onho muvofiki sharoiti khayotguzaroni az sathi obi uqyonus qari on nobarobar taqsim shudaand. Az sathy obi uqyonus to chuqurii yakchand metr organizmhon gumroh, (planktonho) pahn gardidaand. Onho nabotot va hayvonoti khurdtarin meboshand. Hudashon faolona harakat karda nametavomand, mavj va jarayoni ob onhoro az joe ba joe mebarad. In mavjudotro digar organizmho hamchun manbai digar istifoda mebarand, az jumla nahangho. Organizmhoi faol ba monandi nahang, morj, mohi va gayra dar qabati gafsi ob hayot meguzaronand. Dar kari uqyonus nabotot dida nameshavad, faqat baze namudi hayvonot vomekhurand, ki ba chuqurii ziyodi ob mutobiq shudaand. Holo dar uqyonus besh az 10 hazor namudi nabotot va 160 namudi hayvonot zindagi mekunand. Ba onho baze namudi mohiho, kharchangho, kirmho, narmbadankho va gayra mansuband.

Muhofizati sarvathoi uqyonus. Uqyonusi Olam nihoyat azim ast. Binobar in odamon tasavvur mekardand, ki sarvathoi on adonashavandaand. Ammo in tasavvurot nodurust ast. Ziyod shudani talaboti inson ba khurokvory va sanoat ba ashyoi khom (ravgan, pust, muina va gayra) ba on ovarda rasond, ki davlathoi sohili bahr baroi shikori hayvonot va jam kardani nabotot floti makhsus tashkil kardand.
Onho dar qismhoi alohidai uqyonus hayvonoti gunogunro shikor. obsabzkho va karami bahriro jam mekardand. Dar natijai on baze namudhoi hayvonho nestu nobud shudand. Miqdori bisyor namudho kam shud. Masohati sabzishi nabototi bahri ham mahdud gardid. Binobar in baze namudkhoi hayvonot, az jumla nahanghoi kabud, gurbahoi bahri tahti muhofizat qaror dorand.
Solhoi okhir miqdori mohihoi saydshavanda ham kam gardidaand. Baroi ziyod kardani miqdori onho dar bisyor mamlakathoi sohili bahr zavodhoi mohiparvari sokhta shudaaid. Onho az tukhmi mohi mohichaho parvarish karda, ba bahrho cap medihand. Inchunin baroi afzun namudani obsabzho va karami bahry baze mamlakatho dar tunukobai sohili bahrho qitahoi sabz va karamiarvari bunyod namudaand. Parvarishi onho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Karamro hamchun khurokvory va doru istifoda mebarand. Az obsabzho ham khuroki odamon, doru, qogaz, mato, nury, khuroki chorvo tayyor mekunand.
Baroi kam shudani miqdori mavjudoti biologii uqyonusho iflosshavii onho khavfi kalon dorad. Har sol ba obi uqyonu partovhoi korkhonahoi sanoati, moddahoi khimiyavii az sathi khushki shustashuda. moddahoi radioaktivii dar natija ozmoishi yaroqi hastavi (yadroi) hosilgardida va partov sanoatii onho vorid meshavand. Agar in amaliyotkhoi nomatlub peshgiri karda nashavand, khavfi dar qitahoi alohidai uqyonus okhista-ohista nest shudani hayot noguzir ast.

Tadqiqi bahru uqyonuskho. Tamomi uqyonus holo ham pur az shaklhoi to hanuz nomalumi hayotu asrorhoi nihoni ast Olimon uqyonusro omukhta, onhoro oshkor mekunand. Ba in maqsad davlathoi alohida kishtihoi ekspeditsioni tashkil namuda; Maqsadi in ekspeditsiyaho tahqiq va az khud namudani sarvatho uqyonus meboshad, kishtihoi ekspsditsiony bo asbobho hozirazamon tajhizonida shudaand. “Mikhail Lomonosov”. “06 “Akademik Kurchatov”. “YUriy Gagarin”, “Vityaz” az qabl chunin kishtiho meboshand. Baroi guzarondani tadqiqoz da kishtikhoi ekspedntsiony gayr az olimoni sohahoi gunogun ilm, gavvosonu digar kormandon ishtirok mekunand.

Gavvosoya dar chuqurihoi to 100 metr mushohida meguzaronand, aksbardo mekunand, namunai nabotot, hayvonot, tahshinho va digar jonvaronn zeriobiro girifga tahqiq menamoyand.
Baroi dar chuqurihoi ziyodtar tadqiqot guzarondap vositahoi tekhniki istifoda mebarand. Az jumla qari uqyonus ba vositai batiskaf, chuqurii bahrho ba vositai zavraq» zeriobi va batistat tadqiq karda meshavad. Soli 1960 olimy shveysariyavy Jak Pikar bo batiskaf ba qari furukhamidam Mariana furomada, dar on jo mushohida guzarond. Dar qary hamai in vositaho olimon baroi hamatarafa omukhtani uqyonus az stansiyahoi rui yakhhoi shinokunanda, radifoni masnuiy
Zamin, kishtihoi kayhoni niz istifoda mebarand. Natijai tadqiqothoro baroi peshrafgi ilmhoi gunogun, azkhud namudani sarvathoi biology, minerali va harakati bekhatari kishtiho istifoda mekunand.

Savol na suporish

  1. Paydoishi charasni uqyonusi ba chi vobastaasg?
  2. Nabotot va hayvonot dar uqyonus chi tavr pahn shudaand?
  3. Baroi chi nabototi bahry beshtar dar chuqurii 100-150 metr mesabzand?
  4. Az obsabzho chy khel mahsulot istekhsol mekunand?
  5. CHi zarurat paydo shud, ki uqyonus va sarvathoi onro muhofizat namoyand?
  6. Baroi afzun namudani nabotot va namudhoi kamshudai hayvonot chi choraho meandeshand?
  7. Baroi tadqiqi uqyonus az kadom vositakho istifoda mebarand?
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