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JANGI FARONSA VA PRUSSIYA

Sababho va maqsadhoi jang. Badi dar soli 1866 dar hayati 22 davlati germaniyavy tashkil yoftani ittifoqi davlathoi Germaniyai SHimoly munosibatkhoi bayni Faronsa va Germaniya tezu tund shudan giriftand.

Dar okhirhoi solhoi 60-um rejimi napoleonii Faronsaro buhron faro girift. Imperiyai Duyum digar dar bayni ommai khalq takyagohi boetimod nadosht. Mardum az on norozy bud. In rejim tanho tavassuti jang mustaqar memond. Raqibi jangii Faronsa peshaki malum bud. Jang boyad bar ziddi Prussiya ogoz meyoft. Napoleoni III dar nazdn khud maqsad guzosht, ki bo yak zarbai halokatovar in davlatro shikast doda, ittifoqi davlathoi Germaniyai SHimoliro barham zanad. Bo in roh imkoniyat nadihad, ki Germaniya» yagonai purzur tashkil karda shavad.

CHand sol qabl dar jancholhoi bayni davlathoi Germaniya Faronsa maqomi hakamro ijro mekard. Vale, vaqte ki Prussiya soli 1866 dar jangi ziddi Avstriya golib baromad, vaziyat tagyir yoft. Prussiya bovary hosil kard, ki aknun qudrat dorad davlathoi Germaniyaro “az bolo” tavassuti quvva muttahid sozad. Faronsa boshad, mekhost ki maqomi hakamii khudro bar davlathoi germaniyavy boz az nav barqaror kunad. Faronsa dushmani ashaddii muttahidkunni davlathoi germaniyavy bud. Agar Prussiya va davlathoi digari germaniyavy dar jangi dar peshistoda bar Faronsa golib baromada metavonistand, pas be mamoniat dar davlati yagonai milli muttahidshavii davlathoi Germaniya ba amal omada metavonist. Az in ru, har du taraf ham ba jangi dar peshistoda manfiatdor budand.

SHikasti Faronsa dor ogozi chash 19 iyuli soli 1870 Napoleoni III bo Prussiya jang elon kard. Dar in jang faronsaviho ba galabai oson umed mebastand. Vale lashkari muttahidan davlathoi germaniyavy ba jang tayyorii pukhta dida bud. Hanuz dar muhoribahoi nazdisarhady Faronsa tashabbusro az dast dod. Az avvali jang tashabbusro Germaniya ba dast girift. YAk qismi lashkari Faronsa az sababi behunarii lashkarkashon dar qalai Mete, ki on dar sarhadi

sharqi bud, ba muhosirai lashkari Germaniya aftoda, torumor gardid.

Qismi digari sipohi Faronsa, ki Napoleoni III hamrohi on bud, ba  lashkari dar kalai Mete bamuhosiraaftoda shitoft. In neruhoro lashkari Germaniya dar pastkhamii Sedan “peshvoz’ girift. Dar in jo muhoribai shadide ba amal omad, ki dar natijai on lashkari Faronsa sharmandavor shikast khurd. 2 sentyabri soli 1870 Napoleoii III farmud, ki baroi taslim shudan parchami safed bardoshta shavad. Gayr az hazoron nafari kushtayu yaradorshuda 80 hazor nafar afsaru askaroni Faronsa ba dushman asir aftodand.         «

Dar nazdi Sedan sharmandavor shikast khurdani lashkari Faronsa az pusida raftani Imperiyam Duyumi Faronsa darak medod.

Inqilobi 4 sentyabri soli 1870. Dere naguzashta khabari shikast khurdani lashkari Faronsa ba Parij rasida, qahru gazabi bepoyoni mardumi oddiro ba vujud ovard. 4 sentyabr mardumi poytakhti ba kuchahoi shahr baromada az nav barqaror kardann jumhuri va muhofizati vaganro taqozo kard. Onho dar yakchand soat avval binoi Korpusi Qonunbaror va Ratushai shahri va bad tamomi shahrro ba dast darovardand. On ruz khalq bar hokimiyatn imperator Napoleoii III taliba kard. Faronsa jumhury elon karda shud.

Inqilobi 4 sentyabri soli 1870 dar tarikhi Faronsa inkidobi chorumin bud. Harchand dar on mardumi oddy galaba karda boshad ham, burjuaziyam dar in kor tajribadori Faronsa az on istifoda burda, az ruzi avvali inqilob hokimiyatro ba dast girifta, hukumati muvaqqatiro tashkil namud.

Hukumat khiyonati milli. Hukumati muvaqqatii burjuazii ki 4 sentyabri soli 1870 tashkil eft. kayfiyati vatandustonai mardumro ba hisob nagirifta nametavonist. Baron kamin khudro hukumati “Najoti Milli” nomid.

Vaziri korhoi khoriji Jyul Favr ba khalqi bashuromada elon kard, ki hargpz yagon vajab zamin va yagon sayt kalahoro nakhohad dod. In sukhanho gapfurushii avomfirebonai ruyrost budand. Baron muhofizati Parij sokinoni onro musallah kardan lozim meomad. Vale in kor ba aqidai hukumat manii musallah kardani inqilobro dosht. Hukumati muvaqqaty az in iqdom metarsid. Vay namekhost, ki khalq musallah tuda, ba muborizai ziddi istilogaron barkhezad. Ii quvva metavonist dar qatori istilogaroni Prussiya hukumati muvaqqatiro ham rufta partoyad. Az hamin sabab hukumati muvaqqaty mekhost, ki teztar bo Prussiya zaboi yak kunad. 27 sentyabr lashkare, ki ba on dar Mete general Bazen farmondehy mekard. ba dushman taslim shud. Dar natija 173 hazor nafar afsaru askaronn Faronsa asir aftodand. Prussiyaiho inchuchin lavozimoti harbii ziyode ganimat giriftand. Badi in lashkari 230-hazornafarai Prussiya be yagon mushkilii chiddie ba tarafi Parij harakat karda, onro muhosira namud. Hukumat boshad. baron muhofizat kardani shahr chorae nadid.

18-20 sentyabri soli 1870 hukumati muvaqqaty pinhony bo sarvaziri Prussiya Bismark vokhurda, peshaky dar borai sulh ahdu paymom kard. Bad bo Prussiya Sozishnomai sulhi taslimi ham bast. Dere naguzashta in khiyonat ba khalq malum gardid. Vay hukumati “najoti milly”-ro hukumati “khiyonati milli” nomid.

Muqovimati khalq bar ziddi istilogaron. On jangovarone, ki ba dushman taslim nashuda jon ba salomat burda budand, ba safhoi dastahoi “frantirerho” (“tiradozoni ozod”) dokhil shuda. bar ziddi istilogaron qahramonona mejangidand. Dar aqibgohi dushman dastahoi chirikho tashkil karda shudand. Onho ba sitodhoi dushman hujum mekardand. Az dasti in chirikho har ruz sadho dushmanon kushta meshudand. Istilogaroni Prussiya shahru dehotro otash zada, ba khok yakson mekardand.

Ahvoli Parij nihoyat vaznin bud. Mardumi dar muhosiramonda bahodurona muqobiliyat nishon medod. Dar shahr gurusnagy hukmron bud. Odamon majbur meshudand, ki sagu mush va zogu gurbahoro khurda, az murdan raho yoband.

Hazoron nafar parijiho ba Gordi Milli dokhil meshudand. Mohi oktyabri soli 1870 shumorai on ba 250 hazor nafar rasid.

Hukumati muvaqqaty hamono khiyonati khudro ba khalqi Faronsa idoma medod. Vay okhiri Mohi yanvari soli 1871 bo Germaniya sulhi muvaqqaty bast. Badi chande dar shahri Frankfurta labi Mayn Sozishnomai sulhi Faronsayu Germaniya ba imzo rasid. Hukumati faronsa rozy shud, ki muzofothoi Elzas va Lotaringiyaro ba Prussiya dihad. Bismark aknun namoyandai tamomi Germaniya shud, chunki davlathoi Germaniya voqean muttahid shudand. Dar in bora u ba olamiyon elon namud.

Azoi hukumati Faronsa dar gami mansabhoi khud budand. Baron dar sari hokimiyat mondan sarosemavor ba Majlisi Milli intikhobot guzaronidand. Burjuaziya, kishovarzon va yak qismi tabaqahoi digari aholiro, ki az maqsadu makkorihoi hukumat khub ogahy nadoshtand va ham shohparast budand, istifoda burda, dar intikhobot golib baromad. Majlisi Millii navintikhobshuda bo sardorii Tier hukumati ziddikhalqiro tashkil namud. Hukumatdoroni Germaniya az natijai intikhoboti Faronsa qanoatmand budand. Onho uhdador shudand, ki hukumati Tierro dar Parij muhofizat mekunand va nameguzorand, ki dar in shahr az nav inqilob cap zanad.

Tashkilyobni Kommunai Parij. Muqobiliyat bar ziddi istilogaroni Germaniya va dushmanoni dokhiliro Gordi Milli ba uhda dopgg. Jangovaroni on az baynikhudashon KM Gordi Milliro intikhob kardand. Ba Gordi Milli hukumati Tier yagon khel yorie namerasonid. Vay hatto ba gordchiyon maosh ham namedod. Guzashta az in. Tier farmud, ki Gordi Milli besiloh karda shavad.

Gordchiyon dar balandii Monmartra joy giriftand. 18 marti soli 1871 askaroni hukumaty ba onho hamla kardand. Bongi iztirob zada shud. Mardumi Parij ba po khest. Dastahoi Gordi Milli ba Neruhoi hukumaty zarbai halokatovar zadand. To zuhr dar Parij hokimiyat ba dasti Gordi Milli guzasht. SHurishi khalqy galaba kard. KM Gordi Milli ba hukumati inqilobii mardumi mehnatkashi Parij tabdil doda shud. Hukumati Tier ba Versal gurekht. KM Gordi Milli ba tavri favry ba Kommunai Parij intikhobot guzaronid. Dar on mehnatkashon golib baromadand.

Kommunai Parij dar muddati kutohi mavjudiyati khud ba manfiati mardum chorahoi ziyodero ba amal barovard. Dar bayni onho barham dodani lashkari kuhna va tashkili lashkari nav,

molikiyati jamiyati elon kardan» vositahoi istehsolot, mani jarimayu fonzsitony az maosh, mani mekhnati shabonai nonvoyho, muqarrar kardan» maosh» hadi aqall musodira» korkhonahoi dushmanon» Kommuna va ba ikhtiyori kooperativhoi korgary dodan» onho va gayra. SHuroi Kommuna qaror kard, ki» dar maktab baroi talabagon talimi hatmy bepul meboshad.

SHnkast khurdani Kommuna. Hukumati Tier ba hukumatdoroni Germaniya dar bora» torumori Kommunai Parij zaboi yak kard. Baroy hamin Bismark farmud, ki» asironi harby ba ikhtiyori Tier bargardonida shavand. Ba Tier muyassar shud, ki» sipohashro to ba 130 hazor nafar rasonad. Dushmanon» kommunaro dar Versal bar ziddi Kommunai Parij hamatarafa tayyory medidand. SHuroy Kommunai Parij ba musallah kardani Neruhoi khud mashgul bud. Vale baroi bar ziddi versalchiyon purra ba jang tayyor kardani onho muvaffaq nashud.

Versalchiyon ba Parij 2 apreli soli 1871 hujum kardand. Zan; mard va khurdu kalon ba mudofiai shahr barkhostand. Kommunarho shujoatmandona mejangidand. vale quvvaho barobar nabudand. Ba dushmanoni inqilobi khalqi muyassar gardid, ki daromadgokhhhoi shahrro ba dast darorand. Badi in hujumi aksulinqilobchiyon ba shahr az se samt surat girift.

Ahvoli kommunarho az on sabab vaznin meshud, ki farmondehii Neruhoi musallakhi Germaniya az tarafi sharqii shahr ba versalchiyon roh kushod. 21 may ba versalchiyon muyassar shud, ki tavassuti darvozai Sen-Klu ba shahr zada daroyand va kuchayu mahallahoro pasi ham ba dast darorand. Azoi SHuroi Kommunai Parij ham dar sangarho bar ziddi versalchiyon qahramonona mejangidand. Dar in mavrid zanu farzandonashon ham ba onho yory merasonidand. Janghoi az hama khunin az 21 to 28 may ba amal omadand. On ruzho nomi “haftai khunin”-ro giriftaand.

Versalchiyon kommunarkhoi okhirinro ruzi 28 may dar nazdi devori qabristoni Per-Loshez tirboron kardand. Bo hamin Kommunai Parij shikast khurd. On hamagi 72 ruz davom kard.

Sababhoi shikast khurdani Kommunai Parij. Versalchiyon tamomi khatohoi kommunarhoro mohirona istifoda burdand. Onho dar bayni halq ziddi kommunarho korhoi tabligoti burdand. Versalchiyon kommunarhoro muftkhuru goratgar menomidand. Molikiyatdoroni maydaro az on metarsonidand, ki guyo Kommunai Parij molikiyati onhoro musodira mekard boshad.

Versalchiyon bar ziddi kommunarkho lashkari Germaniyaro istifoda burdand. Dushmanon dar Parij josusoni ziyode doshtand, ki onho ba zarari kommunarkho kor mekardand. Aksulinqilobchiyon imkoniyat doshtand, ki az Banki Parij be mamoniat mablag bigirand. Kommunarho badi dar Parij galaba kardan ba Versal hujum nakardand. Bo in onho ba muttahidshavii aksudinqilobchien va tayyorii hujumi onho ba Parij imkoniyat dodand. Kommunarho mablaghoi bankro baroi poydorii inqilob istifoda naburdand. Onho ba aksulinqilobchiyon rahmdilona raftor kardand. Inchunin Neruhoi kharbii tarafkhoi muqobil barobar nabudand. Bartari ba foidai versalchiyon bud. Inqilobi khalqi asosan dar Parij galaba kard. On dar tamomi Faronsa pahn nagardid. Hamai inho sababhoi nokomii Kommunai Parij gardidand.

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