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Buhron dar mamlakathoi Evropa (Jangi yakumi jahon)

Dar davrai jang hukumathoi mamlakathoi ishtirokchii jang ozodihoi demokrati – ozodii majlisu girdihamoiho, ozodii sukhan, faoliyati maqomoti namoyandagii khalq va muassisahoi digari demokratiro mahdud kardand. Onho davlatro tavassuti siloh idora mekardand. CHunin hukumatho tanho ba manfiati sarmoyadoroni kalon va oligarkhiyai moliyavi khizmat karda metavonistand. Tabaqahoi digari aholi be himoyai davlat monda budand.

Iqtisodiyogi mamlakathoi ishtirokchii jang ba rohi harbi darovarda shuda bud. Ziyoda az 70 foizi sanoati kalon va nisfi sanoati sabuk ba nafi jang mahsulot mebarovardand. Istehsoli molhoi niyozi mardum nihoyat kam shud. Ahvoli khalqi zahmatkash chi dar jabha va chi dar aqibgoh khele vaznin bud va on ruz to ruz badtar meshud. Bo sababi vaziyati vaznini taminot va besaru somonii davrai jang hannotiyu porakhuri va duzdiyu goratgari avj girift. Ba zammi in qimati ahvoli be in ham vaznini ahli mehnatro boz ham toqatfarsotar kard. Etirozi mardum bar ziddi jang toraft meafzud. Dar solhoi 1914-1917 dar mamlakathoi ishtirokchii jang shumorai korartoftagon bemaylon ziyod meshud. Korpartoiho dar CHekhiya, Avstriya, Ruminiya, Rusiya va mamlakathoi digar ba amal omadand.

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Mohi yanvari soli 1918 yak qismi sotsial-demokrathoi Germaniya, ki khudro guruhi “Spartak” menomidand va ziddi jang budand, ba harakati ziddihukumatii khalq rohbari kardand. 28 yanvar takhti rohbarii onho dar Berlin korpartoii ommavii muqobiloni chang doir gardid, ki dar on qarib nim million kas ishtirok kard. Korpartoihoi siyosi muzofothoi Saksoniya, Bavariya, Reyn- Vestfaliya va baze muzofotu shahrhoi digari sanoatii Germaniyaro ham faro giriftand. Dar korpartoihoi siyosii mohi yanvari soli 1918 ziyoda az yak million nafar muqobiloni jang ishtirok kardand. Onho bas kardani jang, non va ozodihoi demokrati talab mekardand.

Dar okhirhoi soli 1916 va avvali soli 1917 dar Rusiya ham buhroni inqilobi ba amal omad. Vazifahoi on az sarnagun kardani hukumati podshohi, barpo namudani jumhurii demokrati, ba khalq dodani ozodihoi demokrati va az jang barovardani Rusiya iborat budand.

23 fevrali soli 1917 in inqilob dar Peterburg ogoz yoft. 3 mart podshohi Rusiya Nikolayi II az noiloji az Bahri toju takht dast kashid. Dar Rusiya inqilofi burjuaziyu demokratii Fevral galaba kard. Mohi avgusti soli 1917 Rusiya jumhuri elon karda shud.

Vale hokimiyati jumhuri dar Rusiya der davom nakard. 25 oktyabri soli 1917 dar Peterburg tabadduloti inqilobi ba amal omad, ki dar natija dar Rusiya dar shakli shuroho diktaturai proletariati RKP(b) barpo gardid. Badi galaba bolshevikoni Rusiya az Germaniya sulh talabidand. 3 marti soli 1918 Rusiyai SHuravi bo Germaniya sulhi alohida basta, bo hamin az Jangi yakumi jahoni baromad.

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