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Bukhoro pesh az Rusho

Quvvahoi istehsolkunanda

Masohati amorati Bukhoro 180 hazor kilometri murabbaro tashkil mekard.[1] Mahalhoi in sarzamin az jihati joygirshavii aholi yakson nabudand: vodihoi Zarafshon va Qashqadaryo sernufuz va Bukhoroi Sharqi nisbatan kamnufus ba shumor meraftand. Albatta, dar in qismati amorat vodihoe ham budand, ki nufusi khele ziyod doshtand.

Ba sababi nabudani malumothoi statistiki muqarrar kardani miqdori sahehi aholi imkonpazir namegardad. Muvofiqi takhmini E.F.Meyendorf (s. 1820) dar amorati Bukhoro duvunim million kas mezistaast. Ba takhmini N.V.Khanikov (s. 1841) tedodi aholii in mamlakat du-duvunim million nafar ast.[2] Mo baroi okhiri asri KhIKh malumote (hamchunin takhmini) dar dast dorem, ki tibqi on nufuzi amorat yakunim – du million kas budaast.[3] Shoyad miqdori aholii amorati Bukhororo 2 million kas takhmin kardan durust boshad. Qismati asosii aholi az uzbekon va tojikon (majmuan 80%) iborat buda, az pasi onho turkmanho (10% aholi), arabho, qazoqho, qirgizho va digaron ba shumor meraftand. Agarchi hududi nisbatan beshtar va yo asosan iqomat doshtani tojikon dar shahru dehoti amorati Bukhoro va khonii Khuqand mavchud bud, dar bisyor nohiyaho onho yakjoya bo uzbekon mezistand, chunon ki dar miyoni sokinoni bisyor dehavu shahrhoi uzbeknishin tojikon ham budand, dar aksari   mahalhoi   tojiknishin    uzbekon   niz  zindagoni   mekardand.[4]

In du khalqi bo ham aloqai khele nazdikdoshtaro robitahoi kheshovandi, madani va iqtisodi muttahid mesokhtand.

Tanosubi aholii muqimivu bodiyanishin va shahru dehotro faqat ba takhmin metavon muqarrar kard. Zohiran, dar ibtidoi asri KhIKh 40% aholiro odamoni kuchi va nimkuchnishin tashkil medodand,[5] ammo dar okhiri asr miqdori onho 35% gardid va khudi kuchiho az 15% beshtar nabudand. Az in barmeoyad, ki na faqat kamshavii vazni nisbii in qismati aholi, balki taqsimi navi dokhilii on bo afzudani foizi odamoni nimkuchnishin ba amal meomad. Az ehtimol dur nest, ki dar shahrho faqat dahyaki aholi, hatto az in ham kamtar zindagoni mekardand, yane nufuzi dehot nazar ba shahr bartarii mutlaqro sohib bud.[6]

Dar nimai duvumi asri KhVIII va khususan dar nimai avvali asri KhIKh dar amorati Bukhoro va khonii Khuqand korhoi buzurgi obyori anjom doda shudand. Muhimtarin shabakahoi obyorii vodii Fargona dar hamin vaqt ba vujud omadand. Bo nomi q u sh p u l i andozi makhsus jori gardid, ki mablaghoi ba in vosita jamovardaro avvalho baroi kandani kanalhoi nav istifoda meburdand va badtar baroi ehtiyojoti digar niz sarf mekardagi shudand. Kanalu juyborhoro na faqat hukumat, balki feodaloni kalon ham mesokhtand, ki sonitar az hisobi istismori dehqononi dar zaminhoi obi ziroatkunanda sarvati khudro meafzudand. hangomi kandan va toza kardani kanalhoi davlati mardumi girdu atrofro majburan ba hashar jalb menamudand. Tamiri inshooti gidrotekhniki niz ba hamin minvol anjom meyoft, faqat baroi nigoh doshtani dargoti Chuponato bahoru tiramoh panjhazorkasi ba kori majburi burda meshud.[7]

Dar qatori zaminhoi obi kishtzorhoi lalmi ham, ki odatan dar balandiho, nishebiho va domanai kuhho voqe megardidand, bisyor budand. Dar zaminhoi obi usuli kishtgardoni se-panjqitavi (maydoni rishqa ba kishtgardon namedaromad) tatbiq karda meshud. Oloti mehnat khele sodda bud. Bo omoch shudgor mekardand. Du navi omoch ba kor burda meshud: omochi kalon baroi shudgori mazraahoi sahro, ki onro barzagov mekashid va omochi khurd baroi shudgori poliz, ki onro ba khar mebastand. Ba vositai omoch zamin chunon shudgor karda meshud, ki baroi khokgardon ehtiyoje namemond.[8] Sipas, bo mola va sikhmola khoki zamini shudgorshudaro mayda va hamvor mekardand. K a l a n d az muhimtarin va qulaytarin olathoi ziroat mahsub meyoft va besabab nest, ki to imruz dar Osiyoi Miyona khele vase ba kor burda meshavad. Yakchand navi bel vujud dosht, vale doirai istifodai on nazar ba kaland mahdudtar bud. Bo dos darav mekardand va in olati mehnat ham chand khel meshud. Dehqononi kambagaltar hosili daravkardai khudro dasti bo kuba yo tukhmoqi vaznin mekuftand. Baroi bod kardani khirman bel yo panjshokhai chubiro ba kor meburdand. Dar bogdori az kajkord istifoda mekardand. Dar kuhiston chigina va dar vodi khelhoi gunoguni arobai ducharkha vazifai naqliyotro ado menamud.

Baroi purzur kardani zamin ba kishtzor poru va khoki teppahoro meposhidand, ki dar tarkibi khud bisyortar selitra dosht. Albatta, in korro ham faqat zamindoroni boyu badavlat karda metavonistand. Onho ba har gektar zamini kisht az se to shash hazor pud poru, to duvozdah hazor pud khok merekhtand. Goho ba joi poru akhloti kuhnai pusidaro niz istifoda mekardand.

Roje ba sokht va tarkibi maydonhoi kishti zaminhoi obi dar davrai ba Rossiya hamrohshavi madrakhoi sershumore mavjudand. Chunonchi, dar nohiyai Khujand 60% zaminro kishtzori galla (az on nisfash gandum, bad juvori va sholi, kamtar jav va arzan) tashkil menamud. Taqriban 14% maydon az bogu tokzor iborat bud. Pakhtai joydori 11,5%, rishqa 6,4%, obchakori 4,6% maydonro ishgol menamud. Umuman chunin taqsimi ziroat aksaran khosi vodihost, ammo boyad takid kard, ki dar in bobat bayni nohiyahoi judogona tafriqahoi kalon vujud doshtand. Dar mahalhoi ba shahr nazdik beshtar bogdori va obchakori ravnaq meyoft. Dar bogho angur, seb, nok, anor, zardolu, bodom, anjir, tut va gayra parvarida meshudand, ki bo navhoi olii khud shuhrat paydo karda budand.[9] Dar baze nohiyaho mavqei asosiro ziroathoi sanoati ishgol menamudand, ki muhimtarini onho pakhta, tamoku, zagirpoya va rastanihoi rangi budand.

Dar asarhoi tadqiqii tarikhshinosi aksar vaqt takid meshavad, ki tekhnikai khojagii qishloq khele sodda va ibtidoi bud. Beshak, in durust ast. Ammo dar in mavrid naboyad ba kutohnazari roh dod va in bahoro umuman ba khojagii kishloq ravo donist. Mutoliai daqiqi madrakho nishon medihad, ki tajriba va malakai dar zarfi hazoron sol hosilshuda bar abas naraftaast. Dar Osiyoi Miyona tarzhoi nihoyat oqilonai istehsoloti khojagii qishloq dar hamon darajai taraqqiyoti tekhnikai khojagii qishloq va munosibati obu zamin ba vujud omada, dar amal jori gardida budand. Usuli ziroati obii ba sharoiti khoku iqlimi  nohiyahoi gunogun muvofiq, ki dar on bisyor omilho az peshbinii khalqii obu havoi sol sar karda, to saviyai bozdoshti obi zerizamini ba nazar girifta meshudand, tahiya gardida bud. Dehqon mehnati khele ziyode sarf namuda, zaminro baroi ziroat omoda mesokht. Baroi ravshantar gardidani in matlab ba tariqi misol dar parvarishi  pakhta tavaqquf  mekunem: Pakhta dar zamine kisht karda meshud, ki peshtar dar on jo galla, khususan joyjuvori va  hamchunin ziroati lubiyoi  parvarish yofta boshad. Pas az jamovarii ziroati peshina zaminro shudgor karda, to okhirhoi tiramoh dam  medodand, yo khud chunon ki  meguyand «oftob mekhurondand». Soni, yakhob medodand, ki in usul to hol mamul ast. Maqsad az in dar vaqti farovonii ob peshaki zaminro bo ob ser kardan bud. Dar avvali bahor poru poshida, dafai yakum shudgor mekardand, az pasi on ob memondand. Badi dah ruz duvumbora az qadu bar takroran shudgor karda, bo kaland khokro narm menamudand. Soni, mola mekardand. Punbadonaro 4–5 ruz dar deghoi kalon tar karda monda, bad ba zamin meposhidand va bo mola ba ruyash khok mekashidand, yo khud aksar vaqt juyakho sokhta punbadonaro ba pushtahoi on meshinondand. Dar havoi garm pas az 10 ruz on az zeri khok nesh zada mebaromad. Badi 10 ruzi digar kishtzorro kaland mekardand. Pas az chand vaqt dehqoni pakhtakor zaminro dafai duvum kaland mekard, vale in bor andake chuqurtar. Bad chekanka mekardand.

Kishtzori pakhtaro khishova karda, az alafhoi begona toza menamudand va safolakhoi dar natijai obyori ba vujudomadaro bo kaland narm megardondand. Az rui hisobi yak mutakhassisi purtajriba taqriban chil amali zahmattalabro anjom dodan lozim meomad, to ba chidani pakhta shuru namoyand.

A.F.Middendorf dar borai dehqononi Fargona navishta bud: «Qobiliyati kori va hunari buzurgi bo mehnati sakht ba khud mute sokhtani tabiat va ba vohahoi bihishtoso tabdil namudani biyobonhoi homun dar in mardum burdborii makhsusero parvaridaast…».[10]

Dar ovoni bachagi va javoni man bo rafiqoni hamsolam dar in korho ishtirok doshtam. Na faqat parvarishi pakhta, balki daravi dastii galla va bisyor korhoi digari ziroat khele dushvor va purmashaqqat bud. Javononi rustoii imruzai tojik va uzbek yagon qadar tasavvure nadorand, ki boboyonashon yak luqma noni khudro bo chi miqdor araqi jabin ba dast meovardand. Dar ayni zamon, dar miyoni hamqishloqiyoni man ustodoni mohiri khojagii qishloq, agronomhoi modarzodi tajribai sadho naslhoro azkhudkarda niz budand. Onho az khurdtarin nishona va alomate metavonistand obu havoi soli oyandaro peshgui kunand va medonistand, ki baroi kisht, obmoni va digar korhoi ziroat kadom vaqt behtar va muvofiqtar ast. Dar bayni onho bogbononi guldast ham budand, ki usulhoi gunoguni payvand va parvarishi olitarin navhoi darakhtoni mevaro medonistand. Boyad guft, ki bogdori ham shugli oson nabud. Masalan, ba anor dar yak sol az 6 to 10 bor ob dodan lozim meomad. Dar nohiyahoi kuhiston kanal sokhtan dushvor bud, muddati kutohi rasishi rastani va zamini sanglokh korro boz ham murakkabtar menamud. Yake az sayyohoni rus dar hayrat aftoda bud, ki mardumi kuhiston az maydonhoi khud bemuhobot millionho adad sang jam mekardand.

Dar barobari mavjud budani ananai ganii ziroatkorii Osiyoi Miyona naboyad az on chashm pushid, ki donishi ilmii hozirazamon, az jumla, ilmi agrokhimiya ba in sarzamin roh nameyoft, tekhnikai khojagii qishloq ba darajai ibtidoi bud va istifodai obu zamin bo usulhoi az dahan mondai feodali surat megirift. Binobar in, ba mehnati khele ziyod va mahorati dehqonon nigoh nakarda, samarai khojagii qishloq nochiz bud.

Chorvodori taqriban dar tamomi viloyathoi amorati Bukhoro taraqqi mekard. Vay khususiyati vozehi ekstensivi dosht. Mardumi vodinishin az chorvodori dida beshtar ba ziroatkori mashgul budand. Ba istisnoi odamoni davlatmand, har yak khojagi 1–2 sar chorvo dosht, on ham aksaran az govu barzagov va khele kam az buzu gusfand iborat bud. Dar khojagii tojikoni kuhiston va Pomir chorvodori mavqei darajai avvalro ishgol menamud va az jihati ahamiyati khud bo ziroatkori, ki bo on robitai uzvi dosht, komilan hamvazn bud: be poru hosil khele kam meruid, be chorvo korhoi khojagii kishloq anjom nameyoft, vay ba mardum khurok va pushok muhayyo mekard. Az in jihat ham gov dar joi avval meistod va gusfandu buz mutobiqan joyhoi duvvum va sevumro ishgol menamud. Chun dar fasli zimistoni duru darozi kuhiston omoda sokhtani khuroki chorvo ba sari har okhur bo dushvorihoi ziyode muyassar megardid, miqdori ramaho mahdud bud.

Chorvodorii toifahoi nimkuchnishin va alalkhusus kuchi khususiyati digar dosht. Ramaho va hamrohi onho aholi, yo khud yak qismi on, goho faqat chuponho az yak charogoh ba charogohi digar meguzashtand. Davrai dar charogoh nigoh doshtani chorvo khele murakkab va tuloni bud. Charonidani rama mahorati kalon, donistani chorvo va charogoh jasorat va mardonagiro talab mekard. Be sabab nest, ki dar borai turkhoi qarluq hamchun gusfandparvaroni mohiri shuhratyofta dar bayni khalq meguftand: «Qarluq zaboni gusfandro medonad» yo ki «Qarluq modari gusfand ast». Qungrodho dar shuturparvari va laqayho dar aspparvari mashhur budand. Qirgizhoro basazo chorvodoroni mumtoz medonistand. Ammo miqdori chorvoi onho bisyor nabud. har yak khonadoni qirgizhoi janubi ba hisobi miyona 1,8 sari gov, 3,1 sari asp va 12,8 sari gusfand dosht. Chorvoi qismi asosii aholi amalan az in ham kamtar bud, zero davlatmandon chandin hazorsari chorvoro sohibi mekardand  (masalan, dar bayni qarluqho kasone budand, ki har yake 20–25 hazor sar gusfand dosht). Miqdori govu gusfandi chorvodoroni kambagal ba darajae kam bud, ki baroi to okhiri sol tamin kardani khuroki khonavodaashon namerasid. Jut, yane dar natijai yakh bastani charogoh va az had ziyod boridani barf sarosar talaf shudani chorvo, boz yak baloi dahshatangeze bud.[11]

Aholii shahr dar barobari kasbu hunar va tijorat ba zaminkori ham mashgul  meshud. V.V.Radlov dar borai Samarqand az rui taassuroti soli 1868 hatto navishta bud: «Samarqandiho ba sanoat kam shugl dorand, dar in jo hamagi chand fabrikai bofandagi hastu khalos, mashguliyati asosii aholi bogdori, istehsoli abreshim va pakhta ast»[12]. Dar navbati khud dar dehot istehsoloti hunarmandi taraqqi karda bud. Chunonchi, T.S.Burnashev soli 1795 khabar doda bud, ki aholii dehoti Bukhoro «misli shahriyon» ba kasbi bofandagi mashguland va onho niz na dar binoi makhsus, balki dar khonai khud kor mekunand. Andake peshtar soli 1781 M.Bekchurin navishta bud, ki dar Bukhoro «…fabrikahoi nomi vujud nadorand, faqat fabrikahoi khurdi matohoi abreshim va pakhtagii odamoni sohibikhtiyor mavjudand, aksaran dar khonahoi khud chitu khomsuf meboftaand…»[13].

Muvofiqi akhbori sayyohon, kasbu hunari dehot ba darajai kofi rivoj yofta bud.[14] Ammo darajai taraqqiyot va takomuloti tekhnikii kasbu hunari shahr balandtar bud.

Sayyohoni asri KhIKh aksar vaqt saviyai pasti inkishofi istehsoloti hunarmandiro takid kardaand. In holat az on vajh ruy dodaast, ki mushohidoni onvaqta ba voqeiyati Osiyoi Miyona ba vositai manshuri sanoati fabrikiyu zavodii rus (va yo Evropai Garbi) nazar afkandaand. Lekin darvoqe, istehsoloti hunarmandi, chunon ki az akhbori onho, sanadho va madrakhoi etnografi malum meshavad, ba darajai balandi taraqqiyot rasida bud. Pesh az hama, Bukhoro, Toshkand, Qarshi, Samarqand, Shahrisabz, Khuqand, Khujand va Uroteppa barin shahrhoi kalon markazi kasbu hunar ba shumor meraftand.

Az rui hisobi O.A.Sukhareva dar Bukhoro 75-90 hazor kas, yane beshtar az seyaki tamomi aholii shahrnishini amorat zindagoni mekard. Bar tibqi mushohidai N.V.Khanikov dar soli 1841 tojikon «nufusi asosii shahri Bukhororo tashkil medodand».[15] Muvofiqi hisobi takhminii E. Meyendorf dar soli 1820 onho ba miqdori az chor se hissai tedodi umumii aholii poytakhti amorat budand.[16]In sayyoh asosan ba kasbu hunar mashgul shudani tojikonro khotirnishon karda, ba sifati korbari va hamchunin ba taraqqiyoti umumi, pesh az hama taraqqiyoti madanii onho bahoi balande dodaast. Chunon ki meguyad: «Tojikon korgar va mehnatdustand va ba peshahoi gunogun qobiliyati ziyode dorand: onho ham tojir, ham hunarmand va ham dehqonand hayoti bodiyanishini baroyashon yagon farahmandi namebakhshad. Aksari onho khonda va navishta metavonand va ba istisnoi ruhoniyon, qismati  madanitari  aholii Bukhororo tashkil mekunand.[17]

Istehsoloti hunarmandi dar hayoti iqtisodii amorat roli muhim mebozid. Aksari aholii shahr az kosibonu hunarmandon iborat bud. Dar Bukhoro taqriban 10-15 hazor peshavaron mezistand, ki bo khonavodai khud qarib choryaki   aholii   shahrro tashkil medodand.

Kasbu hunar ikhtisoshoi ziyodero faro megirift. O.A.Sukhareva, ki kasbu hunari Bukhoroi asri Kh1Kh-ibtidoi asri KhKh-ro tadqiq karda bud, madrakhoi khele jolib jam namudaast. Juziyoti masalaro ba risolai u havola karda,[18] faqat taqsimu guruhbandihoi zerinro khotirnishon menamoem. Qarib sad peshai judogona vujud dosht, ki dar sohahoi zerin gird omada budaast: 1) sokhtu pardokhti fuluzot; 2) korkardi lif; 3) binokori; 4) dabbogi; 5) libosduzi; 6) tabbokhi; 7) digar kasbu kor va mashguliyathoi tayyor kardani ashyoi ruzgor. har yak soha dar navbati khud ba bisyor guruhu navhoi kasb judo meshud. Chunonchi, sokhtu pardokhti fuluzot ba panj guruh taqsim gardida bud: 1) ohangari; 2) degrezi; 3) misgari; 4) rekhtagari; 5) zargari.

Dar ayni zamon, khudi yak guruhi ohangari chunin peshavaronro dar bar megirift: a) chelongar; b) nalgar; v) quflsoz; g) kordgar; g) suzangar; d) mekhchagar.

In  qabil  taqsimu guruhbandihoi  ziyode  dar  digar  sohahoi kasbu hunar niz vujud dosht.

Madrakhoi arkhivi va  etnografii roje ba kasbu hunarhoi mardumi Khujand va Uroteppai asri KhIKh – ibtidoi asri KhKh mavridi mutolia va barrasii mutakhassison qaror giriftaand.[19] Az hamroh shudan ba Rossiya dere naguzashta aholii shahri Khujand ba 20 hazor nafar nazdik rasid. Peshavaron bo khonavodahoi khud  qismi muhimmi aholii shahr, zohiran, chunon ki dar shahri Bukhoro mushohida meshud, takhminan choryaki aholii shahrro tashkil mekardand. Ziyoda az 100 navi istehsoloti hunarmandi vujud dosht. Az on bayn kasbi bofandagi ravnaqi beshtare paydo karda bud. Khujand dar qatori Bukhoro va Khuqand yake az muhimtarin markazhoi istehsoloti bofandagii Osiyoi Miyona hisob meyoft.[20] In khususiyati iqtisodiyoti Khujand khele barvaqt ba zuhur omada bud. Ba har hol dar maqolai beimzoi «Roje ba vaziyati  kununii baze viloyat va shahrhoi  Osiyoi Miyona» (s. 1826) gufta meshavad, ki «aholii Khuqand va Khujand» ba Rossiya (ba Petropavlovsk) bisyor pakhta, abreshim, mahsulot va matohoi abreshimi va pakhtagi, az jumla, joma meorand.[21] Kuloli dar istehsoloti hunarmandii Khujand nazar ba Bukhoro mavqei muhimtare dosht.

Dar shahri Uroteppa az 1041 dukoni kosibon 187-toash dar dehahoi kalon voqe gardida, hamai boqimondaash dar shahr joy girifta bud. In shahr bo istehsoli lavozimoti pashmi, kord va ustura (poku) shuhrat paydo karda, masnuoti on na faqat ehtiyojoti dokhiliro qone megardonid, balki ba berun ham sodir karda meshud.[22].

Dar Toshkand, ki az jihati nufus ba Bukhoro nazdik meshud, mashguliyati asosii aholi az ziroat va tijorat iborat bud. Vazni nisbii kasbu hunar nazar ba Bukhoro kamtar bud, vale ba har hol mahsuloti gunogun tahiya megardid. Besh az hama kasbi bofandagi va istehsoloti chuyanrezi rivoj dosht.[23]

Tajhizoti tekhnikii istehsoloti hunarmandi nisbatan past va nihoyatdaraja kuhnavu ananavi bud. Kasodii tekhnika jihathoi khosi tarzi istehsoloti feodalist. Chunon ki V.I.Lenin ishora karda bud: «Qonuni usulhoi istehsoloti pesh az kapitalizm ba andozai peshtara, dar asosi peshtara takror kardani protsessi istehsolot ast…» khojagii naturalii dehqonon, istehsoloti kasbii sanoatchiyon az hamin qabil ast.[24]

Istehsoloti bofandagi beshtar taraqqi karda bud va dar on jo yak daraja mekhanikonii mehnat (charkhi poyaki, dastgohi bofandagi) ba kor burda meshud.[25] Be sabab nest, ki mahz istehsoli mato sohai asosii sanoati feodali gardid, ki bo bozorgirii mahsulot va badtar bo vusati hajmi korgohhoi khud tafovut mekard.[26] hunarmandoni Osiyoi Miyona dar tayyor kardani masnuoti zargari, kuloli, hakkoki va gayra mahorati komil paydo karda budand.

Mavodi khomro baroi istehsoloti hunarmandi az khojagii qishloq va ham az istikhroji madan ba dast meovardand. Mushohidoni rus aksar vaqt ba vazi istikhroji madan tamoman bahoi manfi medodand (E.F.Meyendorf, Khorunjiy N.I.Potanin, P.I.Nebolsin va dig.). Bisyor fuluzot, az jumla, ohan, tillo, nuqra va g. dar haqiqat az Rossiya kashonda meshud. Bo vujudi in, dar Osiyoi Miyona istikhroji madan kam nabud, vale ba sababi hanuz dar holati ibtidoi voqe gardidani tariqi istikhroj va khele afzun budani talabot ehtiyoji kishvarro tamoman raf karda nametavonist. Miqdori ziyodi tillo dar Bukhoroi Sharqi bo usuli zarshui hosil karda meshud.[27] Dar kuhhoi hisor, Pomir (dar Vanj) va digar mahalho madani ohan, dar Kuhi Tang, kuhsori Fargona va Varzob surb (qurgoshim) istikhroj mekardand. Dar Fargona hamchunin koni nuqra mavjud bud. Dar hama jo namak hosil karda meshud, onro ham ba shakli durda (masalan, dar nohiyai Qamishqurgon, rayoni hozirai Asht, dar janubi Tojikiston) va ham ba shakli namaksang (konhoi mashhuri namaki rangini kuhhoi Guzor, namaki kuhi Khojamumini nazdiki Kulob va g.) ba dast meovardand. Baroi tayyor kardani borut az shura (selitra) va gugird, ki dar mahalhoi gunogun konhoi khudro doshtand, istifoda burda meshud. Dar kuhistoni Badakhshon va  Fargona  har guna javohirot va sanghoi qimatbaho, az qabili lalu yoqut, firuza, sangi lojuvard va amsoli inho ba dast ovarda meshudand.

Jambasti hamai madrakhoi mavjudai roje ba sanoati madan [28] peshrafti muayyanero dar istikhroji sarvati zerizaminii asri KhIKh mavridi tadqiq nishon medihad.

Dar in peshraft, gayr az sababhoi umumi, dar justujui konho ishtirok namudani injenerhoi madanshinosi rus, ki bo davati hukmrononi davlathoi khoni ba Osiyoi Miyona omada budand,[29]hamchunin hamon rushoe, ki khohu nokhoh dar in sarzamin iqomat doshtand, niz roli muayyane bozid.

Tadqiqi sarchashmaho nishon medihad, ki nohiyahoi judogonai kori purmahsuli sanoati madan ba tashakkul shuru namudand. Fargona bo kuhhoi atrofi khud, ki konhoi tillo, nuqra, surb, ohan, mis, naft, hamchunin namak va sanghoi qimatbaho doshtand, yake az hamin qabil nohiyaho ba shumor meraft.[30] Digar az chunin nohiyaho dar samti muqobil, intihoi garbii Osiyoi Miyona jazirai Chilkon bud.[31]

Jamiyathoi   peshavaron  (sekhho) – korgohhoi  peshavaron  ba vujud omada budand. K.Marks va F.Engels dar «Ideologiyai nemis» ba jamiyathoi peshavaroni  asri  miyonai Evropai garbi, az jumla, chunin  tavsifot dodaand: «Taqsimi mehnat dar shahrho bayni jamiyathoi peshavaroni judogona holo (komilan) ibtidoi bud, vay dar dokhili khudi jamiyatho ham bayni korgaroni judogona tamoman guzaronida nameshud. har yak korgar meboist chand korro bidonad, az uhdai har kore, ki bo asbobu abzorash kardan lozim boshad, baromada tavonad; mahdudiyati tijorat va robitai susti bayni hamdigarii shahrhoi judogona, benavoii aholi va kamii talabot ba taqsimi minbadai mehnat mamoniat mekardand, binobar in har kase, ki usto shudan mekhost, meboist kasbi khudro ba haddi alo az khud mekard»[32].

In tavsifotro komilan ba Osiyoi Miyona ham nisbat dodan mumkin ast. In imkon medihad, ki mohiyati jamiyathoi peshavaroni osiyoimiyonagi, bo vujudi tafovutashon az jamiyathoi Evropai garbi, hamchunin khususiyati mahdudii takhassushoi kosibonu hunarmandon amiqtar dark karda shavad. Dar doirai jamiyati peshavaron chand navi yacheykai ibtidoi vujud dosht. Odditarini on havzai lifbofon bud, ki dar on mavqei asosiro shakli jamoati-khonavodagii tashkili istehsolot ishgol menamud, ammo jamiyat nabud. Dar digar sohaho usuli duuzva (usto–shogird) yo khud seuzvai tashkili kor (usto-khalifa, usto shogird) mavjud bud. Shogird avvalho faqat khurok megirift, badtar andak muzd ham megiriftagi shud. Aslan usuli shogirdi yake az tarzhoi istismor ba shumor meraft. Paydoishi usuli seuzva (aksaran dar istehsoloti beshtar rivojyofta – bofandagi, kafshduzi, chuyanrezi) az vusati ziyodi istehsoloti moli shahodat medod. Darajai boz ham balandtari taraqqiyoti on az mavjudiyati nakhustin padidahoi korgohi parokandai sanoati va afzoishi miqdori mardikoron niz ayon megardad. Dar davlati khonii Khuqand, dar arafai hamroh shudan ba Rossiya, qurkhonai davlati bo miltiqkhona va tupkhonaash vujud dosht. Ustohoi yaroqsoz muzd va khurokvori (non, gusht, choy va gayra) megiriftand, bazan az andozi zamin ham ozod meshudand[33], shoyad in yake az shaklhoi  (ilovagii)  muzdi mehnati onho bud.

Dar borai korgohi parokandai sanoati yak silsila malumot dar dast dorem. Chunonchi, P.I.Pashino (s. 1866) navishta bud, ki dar istehsoloti bofandagi, masalan, yak khujain «…ba khonavodahoi shinosash– ba yake toza kardani pakhta, ba digare nakhresi, ba sevumi bofandagi, ba chorumi rangrezi va amsoli inro taqsim karda medihad, ki dar in surat ba vay na sokhtani binoi korgoh, na kharidani dastgoh va na dodani muzdi vaqti bekornishinii korgar lozim nameoyad». Va boz: «…dar in jo ham, misli Rossiyai mo, qismati ziyodi zahmat ba zimmai zanon va navrason meaftad, ki onho bo toza kardani pakhta, residani nakh, ba naycha pechonidani resmon va gayra mashguland.»[34] Ba qavli P.I.Nebolsin «agar dar Bukhoro yagon chizi fabrikamonand vujud doshta boshad, pas in muassisahoest, ki ba mato gulhoi qolabi mepartoyand, ham ba bofandagon kaloba va ham ba khayyotaho baroi dukhtan jomahoi buridaro taqsim karda medihand».[35]

Miqdori muassisahoi kalon az miyonahoi asri KhVIII khele afzud. Nikolay Grigoryevi yunoni, ki muddati ziyode dar Bukhoro zistaast, doir ba miyonahoi in asr chunin khotirnishon menamoyad: «Fabrikai manufakturi faqat yakest, ki moli hamon Rahimbek (Rahimbi –B.G.) meboshad va on ham na on qadar kalon buda, shohivori va makhmal istehsol mekunad…».[36]

Dar solhoi 60-umi asri KhIKh vaziyat ba kulli tagyir yoft. Guruhi sohiboni davlatmandi korgohhoi hunarmandi paydo shudand, ki sarvati ziyodero ba dasti khud jam namudand. Qismati kosiboni oddi tamoman digar bud. «Korgari bofanda,– menavisad A.D.Grebenkin,– az soathoi 3–4 to nisfi shab va to namozi shom nakh ba nakh kori khudro ijro mekunad. Ruze na beshtar az yak soat dam megirad».[37]

Munosibathoi   ijtimoi  dar   istehsoloti  hunarmandi   hamono feodali bud. Chunon ki dar bolo gufta shud, shogird hamesha mavridi istismor qaror megirift va az on ki shogird aksar vaqt pisar va yo kheshi khujain budu dar khonai vay mekhurdu mezist, holash behtar nameshud. Khalifa hangomi daromadan ba kor az khujain mablagi ziyod bunak megirift va dar surati tark kardani kor meboist onro bargardonad.[38] Azbaski in dar amal az imkon berun bud, khalifa to okhir pobandi khujain shuda memond. Umuman sarmoyai foidakhuri mavqei kalonro ishgol mekard. Sudkhurho az hazor tanga har moh bist tanga megiriftand va dar yak sol sitonidani qarib 25%,   yane 250 sum foida  amri tabii hisob meyoft. Aksaran haqqi qarz az in ham ziyodatar meshud.

Chi nave ki S. Ayni shahodat medihad, «dar on vaqtho dar dehot sudkhuroni zamindor ba dehqononi kambagal har sad tangaro har mohe to ba dah tanga ba foida memondand».[39] Bisyor voqe meshud, ki qarzdor dar vaqtash haqqi qarz va yo tamomi qarzro ado karda nametavonist va sudkhur ba ivazi on bo zur dukhtaroni uro megirift.[40] In bud, ki mardum nisbat ba sudkhuron nafrat meparvaridand.[41]

Chunon ki K.Marks khotirnishon menamoyad, sarmoyai foidakhuri istehsolotro «ba holati falokatbor rasonida, ba joi in ki quvvahoi istehsolkunandaro taraqqi dihad, onhoro falaj mekunad, dar ayni zamon sharoiti nochizi jamiyatiero abadi megardonad, ki dar on hosilnokii jamiyatii mehnat, misli istehsoloti kapitalisti, az hisobi khudi mehnat nameafzoyad».[42]

Kosibonu hunarmandon dar sistemai munosibathoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii davrai mavridi tadqiqi mo muqobili feodalon qaror girifta budand. Dar ayni zamon, muborizai sinfi dar dokhili tabaqai hunarmandon ham davom mekard va shaklhoi shadidtare, az qabili korpartoii shogirdonu khalifahoro ba khud megirift.

Peshavaron dar shahrho guruh-guruh joygir meshudand, chunon ki ahli har kasb bo hamkasboni khud dar yak mahalla sokin megardid. Masalan, dar shahri Bukhoro bofandagon du mahalro maskan namuda, ohangaronu chelongaron niz dar du mahalla va rekhtagaron dar yak mahalla joy girifta budand. Dar shahri Khujand bofandagon dar mahallahoi Razzoq va Sari Balandi qismi sharqii Qalai Nav va ohangaron dar se mahal iqomat mekardand. Peshavaroni Toshkand ham az rui kasbu hirfaashon mahalli sukunati khudro muqarrar karda budand.[43]

Chi nave ki F.Engels dar khususi shahrhoi asrimiyonagi navishta bud, «dar pasi on devorhovu khandaqho kasbu hunari asrhoi miyona inkishof meyoft,– durust ast, ki vay bo ruhi sekhii byurgeri khele ogushta va mahdud bud,– sarmoyahoi nakhustin jam meshudand, ehtiyoji bo ham va digaron kharidu furush kardani shahrho ba vujud meomad…»[44]

Tijorat

N.V.Khanikov takid mekunad, ki Bukhoro, Samarqand va Qarshi markazhoi asosii tijorati amorati Bukhoro mahsub meyoftand.[45] Ba radifi in markazho Shahrisabz va dar Bukhoroi Sharqi hisor va Kulobro niz boyad dokhil namud. Dar davlati khonii Khuqand kalontarin markazhoi tijorat Khuqand, Toshkand, Margilon, Andijon, Namangon, Ush, Uroteppa ba shumor meraftand.

On vaqt protsessi az sanoat judo shudani tijorat holo ba anjom narasida bud: dukon dar yak vaqt vazifahoi ham furushgoh va ham korgohi kosibonro ado mekard,[46] zero dar Osiyoi Miyona niz, monandi kishvarhoi asrimiyonagii Evropa «kosibonu hunarmandon on vaqtho dar ayni hol tojir ham budand».[47]

Dar shahrho tijorat dar bozorhoi makhsus surat megirift. Bozor masohati kalonero ishgol menamud. Bozori asosii shahri Toshkand, ba qavli A.P.Khoroshkhin «…bisyor kalon va originalist. Faqat dar ruzi darozi tobis-ton metavon tamomi gushavu kanori onro paymud». Bozori Khuqand ham «…khele kalon va pokiza ast, misli bozori Toshkand jo-jo tim dorad».[48]Bozori Uroteppa niz qarib tamoman pushida bud,[49] bozori Khujand ham hamchunin. O.A.Sukhareva durust qayd mekunad,  ki «khususiyati khosi tarhi shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona  az in iborat bud, ki dar chorsui khiyobonhoi asosi markazhoi savdo voqe gardida, dar in jo timi darozi gunbazdor sokhta meshud va az bayni on kucha meguzasht va dar du tarafi on andaruni tim dukonho saf mekashidand. Markazi savdoi Samarqand va Shahrisabz in guna tim dosht; dar Bukhoro panj tim mavjud bud, ki in az ravnaqi tijorati Bukhoro va obodii bozorhoi shahr guvohi medihad. Chunin imorathoi bozorro dar  Samarqandu  Shahrisabz  «chorsu»,  dar   Bukhoro  «toq» meguyand».[50]  Markazi  shahri Bukhororo tamoman bozorho ishgol karda budand, dar maydoni Registon va digar maydonho niz dukonho vujud doshtand, hatto dar nazdi  darvozahoi shahr ham bozor mavjud bud. Dukonho na on qadar kalon buda, bo ham zich jo megiriftand, rastahoi bozor har yake ba moli muayyane takhsis yofta bud. Ilova bar in, korvonsaroyhoi bisyore budand (dar solhoi 40-umi asri KhIKh miqdori onho ba 38 merasid va pasontar boz ham ziyodtar gardid). Dar korvonsaroy tojironi musofir va mahalli iqomat mekardand, dar on jo anbor, dukon, ustokhona, saiskhona va gayra mavjud bud. Yak qismi korvonsaroyho ba khonho taalluq dosht, qismi digar moli vaqf ba shumor meraft va qismi    boqimonda   az   oni   shakhsoni   judogona    bud.[51] Korvonsaroyho dar tashkili tijorat roli khele muhim bozi mekardand. Guftan kofist, ki muvofiqi malumoti N.  V.  Khanikov  (s.  1841)  ba Bukhoro har sol iborat az  12–15 hazor shutur korvon meomad[52] va on hama borho, odamon, aspu arobaho asosan dar korvonsaroyho joy megiriftand.

Dar miyonai solhoi 60-um bozori asosii shahri Toshkand 16 korvonsaroy va taqriban 2400 dukon dosht (dar surate, ki dar shahr hamagi 4584 dukon mavjud bud). Bozor takhminan si rastai makhsusro dar bar megirift[53]. Dar shahrhoi digar miqdori korvonsaroyho kamtar  bud. Chunonchi, dar  shahri   Khuqand soli 1841 shash korvonsaroy vujud dosht, ki «dar dutoash sokinoni shahr tijorat mekardand va boqimondaash khizmati korvonhoi muttasil oyandavu ravandaro bajo meovard».[54]

Dar solhoi 70-um shahri Khujand hamagi 5 korvonsaroy dosht.[55] Miqdori on dar shahri Uroteppa seto bud. Dar khususi in korvonsaroyhoi Uroteppa M.S.Bekchurin khotirrason mekunad, ki hamai onho moli shakhsoni judogona meboshand. Dar yake 28 dukon mavjud buda, molikiyati khususii savdogaroni kutarafurushi mahalli ba shumor meraft. Du korvonsaroi digar chun maskani tojironi musofir khizmat mekardand, zimnan, dar yake az onho sudkhuroni hindui sokini Uroteppa iqomat doshtand.[56]

Dar Samarqande, ki nufusash dar asri KhIKh az Bukhoro du-duvunim barobar kam bud[57], dar davrai hamroh shudan ba Rossiya, ki on vaqt aholiash takhminan ba si hazor rasid, beshtar az 2400 dukon (hamrohi 712 dukoni korvonsaroyho) dosht.[58]

Dar markazhoi buzurgi tijorativu hunarmandi savdoi dokhilishahri ravnaq meyoft, zero aholii sershumori shahrhoro bo masnuoti gunoguni peshavaron tamin kardan lozim meomad.[59] Dar ayni zamon, yak qismi muhimi molho baroi rafi ehtiyojoti dehqonon ba dehot firistoda, dar navbati khud, az on jo baroi istehsoloti hunarmandi mavodi khom ovarda meshud. Shahr bo chunin dehkadahoi atrofi khud nohiyai mikroiqtisodiro   tashkil mekard.[60]

Dar qariya va dehkadahoi kalon ba istiloh «davri bozor» vujud dosht. Masalan, dar Bukhoro bozori Kogon ruzi seshanbe, bozori Bahouddin ruzi chorshanbe va g., dar Samarqand bozori Jamboy ruzi yakshanbe, bozori Mehnat ruzi dushanbe va g. barpo megardid. Albatta, anvoi molho va khususiyati kharidufurush dar in jo digar bud. Chunon ki V.V.Radlov meguyad: «dar in bozorho savdo faqat ehtiyoji dehqononro qone megardonad, ki onho mahsuli mehnati khudro mefurushandu chizhoi baroyashon zaruriro kharid mekunand».[61]

Dar qatori in savdoi dokhilii shahru dehot, hamchunin savdoi nisbatan kaloni bayni shahrho va viloyatho amal mekard. Bisyor shahru viloyatho bo  navi muayyani mahsuloti hunarmandi va molhoi furushii khud shuhrat doshtand (masalan, hisor bo khanjar va gusfand, Uroteppa bo kord, Khujand bo adrasu shohi, Qarshi bo alocha va gayra).

Kalontarin bozorhoi viloyati, umuman, markazi tijoratii davlathoi khonii Osiyoi Miyona ba shumor meraftand. Alalkhusus, savdoi  bayni  amorati  Bukhoro,  davlathoi  khonii  Khuqand  va  Kheva ravnaqi ziyode paydo karda bud. Moli bisyore az kishvarhoi khoriji: Afgoniston, hinduston, Qoshgar va Eron kashonda meshud. Dar iqtisodiyoti davlathoi khoni maqomi makhsusero tijorat bo Rossiya ishgol menamud (dar in bora mufassalan dar fasli judogona   sukhan   khohad  raft).   Mahz   shahrhoi  kalon   muhimtarin markazhoi  tijorati  bayniviloyati va  khoriji  hisob  meshudand; tabii, ki in tijorat khususiyati kutarafurushi dosht.

Dar savdoi kaloni khoriji hukmronho, kheshu aqraboi onho, amaldoroni olimaqom, hamchunin savdogaroni «kasbi» shirkat menamudand. hamin savdogaroni sarvatmand ittihodiyai makhsusi khudro doshtand. Ruikhati makhsusi khoni bud, ki dar on nomi savdogaroni badavlatro zikr mekardand. Dar sari in ittihodiya korvonboshi meistod. Ba in vazifa intikhob gardidani korvonboshi bo farmoni amir tasdiq karda meshud. Korvonboshi sardori kulli savdogaroni mulki Bukhoro mahsub meyoft.

Savdogaroni miyona va khurd ittihodiyai khudro az rui rastavu bozorho tashkil doda budand, ki ba on oqsaqol sardori mekard. Aksaran  az rui  prinsipi khonavodagi shirkati  savdogaron tasis karda meshud. Savdogaroni kalon -mirzohoi khudro doshtand. hangomi kharidufurush dallolu qosidho va vositachivu amonatfurushho ishtirok mekardand.[62]  Savdogari kalon dar  shahr  nishasta, aksar vaqt tanho amaliyoti tijoratro bo mablag tamin menamud,  digar   hamai   korhoro  har guna   khodimoni   tijoratkhona anjom medodand. Masalan, Miraliboi Khuqandi dar solhoi okhiri mavjudiyati davlati khonii Khuqand ikhtiyori kharidi tamomi pakhtai mamlakatro   ba   dasti khud   girifta bud.   In   az  on   sabab baroyash mumkin gardid, ki u ba puli khon tijorat mekard.

Az Bukhoro ba Rossiya aksaran na khudi savdogaroni kalon, balki khizmatchiyoni onho safar mekardand, ki az 30 to 50 foizi daromadro meboist ba savdogar medodand.[63] A. Grebenkin navishta bud: «Bo kori tijorat tavassuti digaron hatto mulloho, imomho, mudarrisho, eshonho, qoziho, amlokdorho va oqsaqqolho – alqissa, hamai kasone, ki yak miqdor puli ziyodati doshtand, mashgul meshudand»,[64]

Kalontarin savdogari Samarqand dar ibtidoi asri KhIKh namoyandai nomdori  buzurgzodagoni  olimaqomi  Bukhoro Muhammad Davlatbii inoq bud, ki muddati daroz dar Samarqand hukmroni kardaast. Vay dar soli 1810 ba vaqfi faqat yak khudi madrasai Ulugbek 123 dukon va hamchunin kapponu anborho vasiyat namud.[65]

Dar surate ki savdogaroni sarvatmand va dalloloni kalon daromadhoi nihoyat ziyod ba dast meovardand, maydasavdogaron va dukondoroni khurdafurush «…ba foidahoi nochiz va bisyor vaqtho ba on bozyofte, ki baroi serii khud va khuroki aspashon kifoyat mekard, qanoat menamudand».[66]

Kharobii rohho va nabudani amniyat chi dar rohu chi dar shahr peshi taraqqiyoti tijoratro megirift. Dar rohho az dasti goratgaron va dar shahrho az tarafi hokimoni haris molu joni savdogaron hamesha dar khatar bud. Boju khiroj va ijorapuli haddu andoza nadosht. Gayr az in, doimo khavfi musodira tahdid menamud. Ba qavli Ahmadi Donish, dar zamoni hukmronii amir Nasrullo «baze ulamoi haqnoshinosi mangit hoziraro ba nazar girifta, mulku moli fuqaro hamagi az oni podshoh ast, raoyoro molikiyat ba ashyoe nest, agar har chiz podshoh az har yak raiya sitonida girad, tasarruf dar mulki khud kardagi meboshad, zajr va zulm nest, gufta fatvo ham doda budand».[67]

Zamindorii feodali. Ahvoli ommai khalq

Usuli zamindorii feodali dar okhiri asri KhVIII-nimai avvali asri KhIKh, umuman hamon tavre ki dar zamonhoi guzashta bud, boqi mond.[68] Vale bo vujudi in, baze tafovutho dar istilohot va sokhti zaminhoi khususi ba miyon omadand, ki on ham dar har mahal gunogun buda, dar davomi hamin davrai mavridi bahs niz ba digarguni duchor meshudand. In masala khele murakkab ast va ba miqdori ziyodi tadqiqot nigoh nakarda, bisyor jihathoi on muhtoji omuzish meboshad.[69]

Dar hayoti ijtimoii in davr usuli tankhoh –tariqi khizmatona ba shakhsoni judogona inom namudani qitai zamin, yak va yo yakchand deh va hatto viloyati tamom, ki daromadi on komilan dar ikhtiyori tankhohdor bud, mavqei muhim dosht. Bazan sohibi tankhoh gayr az moliyote, ki ba foidai khud jam mekard, muzde ba mablagi muayyan az khazinai amir niz daryoft menamud. Tankhoh metavonist, na  in ki tamomi daromadi solonai zamin, balki yak hissai onro tashkil namoyad. Dar baze mavridho in ba khud biduni inomi zamin yak nav shakli nafaqai puliro megirift.

Usuli tankhoh az ogozi hukmronii sulolai Mangitiya ba tavri vase jori gardid. Ba qavli F. Efremov (solhoi 70-umi asri KhVIII) «ba oqsaqqoloni kalon ivazi mavojibi puli va galla zamin doda meshavad, ki az on madokhili buzurge ba dast medarorand».[70]

Amir Nasrullo hamchun padari khud dar joyhoe, ki isyoni qabilahoi judogona va shurishi khalqho ruy medod, «aksari umaroi eldor va nomvarro ba zamin nishonid».[71] Dar yake az farmonhoi amir haydar dar borai tain kardani hokimi viloyati Nurato va ham dar khususi on ki u boyad khiroji jamovarishavandaro ba ehtiyojoti qushun sarf namoyad, sukhan meravad.[72] Ammo dar borai ba khazinai davlat supurdani qismi boqimondai khiroj chize gufta nashudaast. Az ehtimol dur nest, ki vay hamchun yak nav tankhoh ba hokim inom shuda boshad.

Aksar  vaqt mintaqahoi na   chandon  kalon  ba  tariqi tankhoh ba shakhsoni gunoguni sohibmansab, az on jumla, ba sipohiyon inom  karda  meshudand. Miqdori tankhohdoron dar  choryaki  avvali asri KhIKh faqat dar amorati Bukhoro az  12 to 36 hazor nafar ba shumor meraft. Agar tankhohdor ba joi digar kuchad, tankhohi nav doda meshud. hajmi tankhoh ba rutbai shakhs aloqamand bud: sohiboni rutbai pointari harbi az 3 to 5 gektar zamin megiriftand, ammo shakhsoni olirutba,  az qabili sarkardaho yak dehai tamomro bo sadho gektar zamin,  osiyob va digar doroihoyash  ba dast  medarovardand.[73]Agar  pisar mansabi padarro ishgol namoyad, ba tankhohi u niz sohib meshud. Goho pas az margi tankhohdor zamini inomii u ba vorisoni beparastormondaash niz taqdim megardid. Az baze sanadho barmeoyad, ki on vaqtho tamoyuli merosi gardonidani usuli tankhoh vujud doshtaast.

Dar mulkhoi kuhistonii Bukhoroi Sharqi tankhoh doroi khususiyathoi ba khud khose bud. Dar in jo na zamin, balki khojagihoi dehqoni ba tankhoh doda meshud. Shakhsoni poinrutba chand khojagiro, vale bi, dodkho va soiri amaldoroni balandrutba har yake chand deharo bo sadho khojagihoi dehqoni ba sifati «tankhoh» inom megiriftand. Onho har sol ba hissai malumi hosiloti dehqoni sohib gardida, dar ayni zamon, aholii dehahoi zerdasti khudro ba korhoi khojagii shakhsii khud niz jalb menamudand va ba har rohe, ki metavo-nistand, istismor mekardand. Az in sabab ba tankhohi guzashtani khojagiashon ba dehqonon nihoyatdaraja ruzhoi sakhtero pesh meovard.

Taassubi dini, ki az zamoni hukmronii Shohmurod sar karda, khele quvvat girifta bud, ba vusat yoftani zaminhoi vaqf roh kushod. Dar zaminhoi vaqf kor kardan niz baroi dehqonon purmashaqqat bud. Zero onho dar zaminhoi vaqf tamomi sol az subh to shom kor karda, tanho az chor va yo az panj yak hissai hosilotro megiriftand va beshtar ba mutavalliho vobasta shuda, ozodii khudro az dast medodand. Ba tavri vase jori gardidani usuli tankhoh va ba foidai tankhohdor jamovari shudani moliyot, hamchunin vusat yoftani zaminhoi vaqf ba daromadi khazinai davlati khoni tasir nakarda nametavonist. In bud, ki amir Nasrullo usuli yargu – musodiraro ba roh andokht.[74]

Dar Bukhoro hajm va miqdori andozho toraft meafzud. Dar ahdi amir Muzaffar (1860–1885) kor ba darajae rasid, ki na faqat az zamini ziroat, balki az zamini nokoram niz khiroj mesitonidand va dar in mavrid chunin bahonaero pesh meovardand, ki guyo ki in zamin ba sababi kamhavsalagii dehqon nokishta mondaast.[75]

Az bogu tokzor, kishti yunuchqa, poliz va obchakori andoze ba nomi «tanobona» sitonida meshud. Dar ibtidoi asri KhIKh amironi Bukhoro ba har tanob zamin mablage muqarrar namuda, khostand in nav andozro ba khiroji rasmii zamin tabdil dihand. Dar nomai amir haydar soli 1807–1808 chunin gufta shudaast: «…az har tanob ba mablagi yak tillo tanobona gired. Agar (sohibi on) ba dodani yak tillo rozi nashavad, on goh ba tariqi mol seyaki hosilro sitoned[76]. Soli 1860 dar viloyati Samarqand taqriban seyaki khiroj bo pul pardokhta shud.[77] Dar khonii Khuqand dar miyona va nimai duvumi asr tanobona qarib tamoman ba shakli pul ruyonda meshud, ki ba in vajh onro «tanobpuli» meguftand. Dar in jo az tokzor nazar ba obchakori duvunim barobar ziyodtar andoz sitonda meshud.

Dar mahalhoi gunoguni amorati Bukhoro hajmi khiroj yak khel nabud. Bazan vay hajmi muayyanero dosht: masalan, az har tanob zamini kisht yak tangavu sevunim kilogrammro tashkil mekard. Dar mavridi digar yak tanga dar bahor va dar tiramoh yak tangavu 6,5–7 kg galla sitonda meshud. Tarzi digari pardokhtani tanobona hissai hosilot ba shumor meraft: chunonchi, 2/5, 1/3, 1/5, 1/6, 1/8 qismati hosilro khiroj tashkil menamud. Vale hokimon aksaran hajmi khirojro to nisfi hosil merasonidand. Masalan, dar solhoi  1842–1843 khiroji zamin dar davlati khonii Khuqand, ki odatan ba hajmi seyaki hosil ruyonda meshud, to nisfi hosil afzun gardid. Yake az hokimoni Toshkand andozi zaminhoi ziroatro 2,5 barobar va dar baze mahalho 3–4 barobar ziyod kard. Dar hududi asrhoi KhIKh va KhKh tamoyuli to 40% hosil afzudani hajmi khiroj dar amorati Bukhoro niz mushohida meshavad »[78]

Ruidani hosili farovon boisi khushnudii dehqon namegardid, zero dar natijai in hajmi andoz ham meafzud: masalan, az dah botman hosili gandum dehqon meboist chor botmanashro va az jav hatto panj botmanashro ba khiroj dihad. Sohibi zamin pas az daravidani hosil gallaro kufta, ba khirman merekht. Jamkunandagoni khiroj ba sari khirman omada, yak qismi gallaro baroi imomi masjidi mahalla judo mekardand. Agar khiroj az panj yak hissai hosilro tashkil dihad, baqiyai gallaro ba panj hissa taqsim karda, az hissai   dehqon (yo zamindor) miqdori muayyanro baroi sarkor, mirob, oqsaqqol va mirzo meguzoshtand. Mabodo dehqon to omadani jamkunandagoni khiroj ba khirman dast rasonida boshad, tamomi hosilro musodira karda, khudi dehkonro sakht jazo medodand. Aksar vaqt jamovarii khirojro ba yagon shakhs ba oriyat mefurukhtand va on shakhs az dehqon mablagi boz ham ziyodtarero «fishurda» megirift[79].

Dar amorati Bukhoro vaqti daravro na in ki khudi dehqon, balki amlokdor (qalamravi bekho ba amlokho taqsim meshud) muqarrar menamud – vay dar hama jo dar yak vaqt shuru megardid. Ba pukhta rekhtani donahoi gandum kase parvo nadosht. Agar darav barobar dar yak vaqt sar shavad, ba hifzi hosil nazorat kardan baroi amlokdor osontar bud. Bandhoi gandumpoyaro dar maydoni darav garam karda memondand. Amlokdor ba vositai khodimonash – dorugaho khurdagirona nazorat mekard, to ki dehqon yagon musht gallaro ba khonaash nabarad.

Doruga badi az nazar guzaronidani garamho baroi kuftan ijozat medod. Gallai kufta va boddodashuda «nishon zada meshud»: «taki khirman va chand joi boloi onro az pahluhoyash gil memolidand va doruga dar nuki on bo alomathoi khud yak pora kulukh meguzosht. Galla muddati daroz dar khirmangoh mekhobid, dehqonho gurusnagi mekashidand, ammo dar hamin vaqt amloqdor va muqarrabonash hosili zamini khudro bo narkhhoi khele garon ba furush merasonidand. Nihoyat, pas az giriftani peshkash, amlokdor bo ahli rikobash ba sari khirman meomad. Miqdori gallaro bo takhmini khud oshkoran az budash ziyod muayyan mekard va khirojro ham ba qiyosi takhmini amlokdor muqarrar menamudand. Goho chunin hodisa ham ruy medod, ki dehqon va yo oqsaqqol ba takhminan az budash ziyod muayyan kardani hosil muqobilat mekardand. On goh etirozkunandagonro mezadand va hatto ba zindon mepartoftand. Amlokdor hosili zamini kasoni sohibnufuz va sarvatmandro ba ivazi rishva az budash khele kam nishon medod. Albatta, ham dar amorati Bukhoro va ham dar davlathoi khonii Khuqand va Kheva har rutba amaldoron niz dehqononro gorat karda, nasibai khudro meruyonidand».[80]Maqomi amlokdori Bukhoro yo sarkori Khuqand bagoyat serdaromad bud. «Madokhili» harsolai sarkoroni Khuqand dar nimai duvumi asri KhIKh 10–15 hazor sumro tashkil menamud.

Vaqte ki andozho ba shakli pul sitonda meshudand, amir narkhi mahsuloti ziroatro muqarrar menamud. Usulan, vay meboist ba narkhi bozor barobar meomad, vale amalan onro khele baland mebardoshtand.

«Dar natijai in guna andozgundori dehqonone, ki dar asl dar vaqti andozandozi toroj dida budand, dar vaqti pardokhtani puli andoz tamoman khonavayron shudand va majbur gardidand, ki bazehoshon zaminhoshonro bo narkhi arzon ba boyho furukhta, bazehoshon hayvonoti kori va asbobi khonaashonro furukhta puli andozro dihand. hatto baze dehqonon majbur shudand, ki pisaru dukhtarhoshonro ba boyho furukhta, «qarzi hukumat»-ro ado namoyand, yo in ki dukhtarhoshonro bo nomi «dukhtarkhona» va pisarhoshonro bo nomi «gulombacha» ba hukumat ba joi andoz baho karda dihand».[81]

 

Ahvoli korandagoni zamin boz ham badtar bud. Onho, odatan, boyad to seyaki hosilro mepardokhtand, vale chunin rasm gardida bud, ki baroi korandagon faqat az panj yak hissa hosil boqi memond (hissai hosile, ki koranda megirift, hamchunin vobasta ba on bud, ki u bo chorvo va oloti khud kor kard va yo az oni khujainro istifoda namud). Ba zammi in, hissai koranda az qismati badi adoi khiroj mondan hosil muayyan karda meshud. Soli 1843 dar nohiyai Bukhoro Idrisboy nom shakhs az mulki  Mullo Foziljon qitai zaminero ba ijora girift. Dar ahdnoma chunin gufta shuda bud: «…ba uhda megiram, ki in zaminro poru doda, shudgor karda, khub kisht mekunam, bogotu darakhtonro parvarida, sabzu khurram nigah medoram. Az tamomi hosilote, ki az 14 tanob zamini zikrshuda meruyad, nisfash az oni man va nisfi digar az oni Foziljoni nomburda khohad bud. Guftu farmoni Mullo Foziljonro bechunucharo ba jo meoram va har vaqt, ki sahlangori karda, dar in zamin kor nakunam, biguzor zamini zikrshudaro az man pas bigirand…».[82] hamchunin du dafa sitonidani khiroj ba taomul daromada bud: bori avval az tamomi hosilot va bori duvum az hissai korandai zamin, ki majbur bud hamai suporishoti sohibi zaminro beguftugu ijro namoyad. Khususan, vaqte ki korandagon dar ikhtiyori ijoragironi zamin kor mekardand, holi boz ham tabohtare ba sari onho meomad: ijoragironi qitahoi kaloni zamin az onho ba foidai khud hissai ilovagii hosilro «fishurda» megiriftand. Ijoragiri zamin na faqat dehqononi judogona, balki yak guruh dehqonone ham budand, ki zaminro sharikona (paykol) kishtukor mekardand. In tariqa shirkatho az on sabab ba vujud omada budand, ki aksari dehqonon jufti gov va oloti kishovarzi nadoshtand. hissai paykol dar bayni shirkatkunandagoni on az rui sahmi moli taqsim karda meshud. Dar natija  uzvi benavotari paykol, ki araqi jabin rekhta kor mekard, quti loyamutero sohib megardid.

Dar qatori dehqonon, bezamin mardikoron ham budand, ki mavridi istismori sakht qaror girifta, muzdi nochize ba dast meovardand.

Dehqonon bisyor andozhoi ilovagi niz mepardokhtand. Monandi «mirobona» (baroi obyorii zamin), «alafpuli» (baroi yunuchqazor), «qushpuli» (baroi jufti gov), «yaksari» (baroi har sari chorvo, az qabili asp, khar va barzagov), inchunin baroi chidani hezum, guzashtan az pul va gayra andozhoi nav paydo shuda, ahvoli guruhhoi istehsolkunandai mamlakatro boz beshtar vaznin megardonid. Chunon ki A.A.Semyonov durust qayd mekunad, «…bore, ki ba dushi dehqoni aziyatdidai Bukhoro guzoshta meshud,   darvoqe ham toqatfarso bud»[83]

Baroi aholii kuchi va nimkuchi moliyoti az hama miyonshikan «zakot» ba shumor meraft. In nav moliyot aslan meboist az chil yak qismi chorvoro tashkil medod. Ammo amalan tamoman tavri digar bud. Ba qavli yake az shohidon, jam kardani zakot «… dar Khuqand bo chunon suiistemolho surat megirift, qirgizhoi on jo har sol qarib az bist yak qismati chorvoi khudro medodand»[84].

Dar miyonahoi asri KhIKh zakotro beshtar ba shakli pul megiriftagi shudand. Sarchashmaho ittilo medihand, ki dar davlati khonii Khuqand jam kardani zakot ba yak nav azimati nizomii omiloni khiroj ba nishemangohi qirgizho tabdil yofta bud. Qirgizho har goh ba muqobili jamkunandagoni zakot sar mebardoshtand. Dar    in surat dastahoi kalontari nizomi firis-toda, gayr az zakot «amonpuli» ham mesitondand.[85]

Ba dehqonon lozim meomad, ki majburiyathoi gunogunro niz ado namoyand. Yake az majburiyathoi khele vaznin hashar bud. In istiloh dar on zamon korhoi majburiero, ki  dehqonon boyad ijro mekardand, ifoda menamud. Sokhtan va tamir kardani kanalho, inshootho, rohho, inchunin kishtukor va niholshinoni dar zaminhoi amir yo khon az hamin qabil korho ba shumor meraft. Goho dar yak hashar to 10 hazor kas ishtirok mekard. Dehqonon  vazifador budand, ki ba hashar bo kharu asp, aroba va asbobu abzori khud hozir shavand. Dar khonii Khuqand muqarrar gardida bud, ki har yak dehqon boyad se ruz dar hashar shirkat menamud, khuroki odamon va khoshoki chorvoro khon ba zimmai khud megirift. Albatta, kharji khon ahyonan rioyat meshud. Ba har hol, bisyor dalelhoi voqea mavjudand, ki dar mulki Shahrisabz dehqonon hangomi hashar az hisobi khud khurok mekhurdand va dar Qarotegin muddati hashar to 15 ruz mekashid. hashar ham yak vositai foidai ilovagi ba dast ovardani amaldoroni amir gardida bud. Inro ustod S. Ayni dar tasviri hashari kanali tumani Shofirkom khele khub nishon dodaast[86].

Ba zammi in khiroju majburiyathoi mamul boz bisyor andozhoi digar niz mavjud budand. Onho makhsusan dar davrai amaliyoti harbi vusati ziyoda paydo mekardand. Yake az hamin qabil andozhoi favqulodda jul bud, ki pardokhtani on baroi aholi khele garon meaftod. Yak muallifi mutabari rus dar dar borai khonii Khuqand dar ovoni hamroh shudan ba Rossiya chunin navishtaast: «…dar vaqti jang va yo bo mayli khon yo khud bekho fuqaro ba dodani boju khirojhoi az had ziyod majbur karda meshavand, dar in vaqtho az mavrid istifoda burda duzdi mekunand va baroi hamin ham az mardum ba hajmi ziyodtar (moliyot) mesitonand, oqsaqqoli deh yo mahalla meduzdad, jamkunandai khiroj meduzdad, bek meduzdad, khazinadori khon meduzdad, khon faqat bo hamin qanoat mekunad, ki miqdori tainkardai u purra jam ovarda va supurda shavad»[87].

Digar az andozhoi az hama garontarin «chubpuli» bud. Vay hatto az yantoq ham girifta meshud. Aholii khonii Khuqand be ijozati amaldor hatto khori dar sahro ruidaro ham nametavonist jam kunad.

Dar mulkhoi kuhistonii Bukhoroi Sharqi aholiro majbur mekardand, ki  baroi hokimon va amaldoron hezum tayyor sozand.

Dar Khuqand davlat hatto az aqdi nikoh va taqsimi meros yo khojagi niz andoz megirift (dar viloyathoi digar in nav andozro ba qozi medodand). Az osiyob va juvoz, hamchunin dar sari pul va guzargohho baroi bor va chorvo «boj» sitonda meshud. Aholii shahru dehot dar vaqti chizero furukhtan gayr az «zakot» (az chil yak hissai narkhi mol) andozi ilovagii bozor «tagijoy»-ro ham mepardokhtand. Umuman va dar mavridhoi makhsus ba foidai hukumati mahalli andoz jam karda meshud, zimnan ba hamai namoyandagoni hukumat pul dodan lozim meomad. hamchunin baroi ruhoniyon va masjidho andozhoi gunogun vujud doshtand, khususan «dahyak» yo «ushr» ba andozdihandagon garon meaftod[88].

Dar yake az manbahoi khattii Khuqand chunin khabar doda meshavad: «Dar Khuqand az qadimulayyom odate ba taomul daromada bud, ki mutobiqi on ulamo, qoziho, sipohiyon va navkaron az dodani khiroj va andozi tanobona az bogi angur, kishti yunuchqa va darakhtzorashon ozod budand». Vale, azbaski tanobona andozi muayyan bud, dar soli farovonhosili hissai az haddi etidol izofan hosil girifta meshud[89].

Jamovarii andozro aksar vaqt ba ijoradoron vomeguzoshtand. Ba qavli A.K.Geyns dar davlati khonii Khuqand, ki jabru sitam, bedodgari va khudsari hukmfarmo bud, «…in tariqa jam kardani andoz baroi mavridi istismori betartibona, bozdoshtanashavanda va az nazorat berun qaror giriftani khalq bahonae megardid [90]. In hodisaro ba amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Kheva ham nisbat dodan mumkin ast [91].

Zikri tamomi khiroju moliyot va majburiyathoi makhsuse, ki dar viloyathoi mukhtalifi Osiyoi Miyona mamul gardida budand, dar in bayoni mukhtasari mo gunjoish nakhohand yoft. Khiroju moliyothoi ilovagi va majburiyathoi gunoguni mehnati, alalkhusus, dar Bukhoroi Sharqi haddu hisob nadoshtand.

 

Chunin bud ahvoli guruhhoi istehsolkunandai dehot. Ammo vazi zindagii shahriyon az in behtar nabud. Az dasti hukmrononi harisu ozmand na faqat aholii oddii shahr, balki tabaqahoi davlatmand va boistitoat, az jumla, tojiron ham aziyat mekashidand. Muvofiqi sukhanoni yake az shakhsoni bomarifati Khujand, ki soli 1824 guftaast, faqat onone, ki dar khidmati amir yo hokim martabahoi balandro sohib shudaand va ham jamkunandagoni andoz az holi khud qoneand[92]. Chunon ki muhaqqiqi bo vaziyati Osiyoi Miyona ba khubi shinosi rus dar miyonahoi asri KhIKh navishtaast: «…khudi khalq dar nihoyati qashshoqi va mazlumi zindagi ba sar mebarad», ammo davlatmandon «doroii khudro az sohibonashon (hokimon–B.G.) pinhon mekunand, ki ba hirsi onho narasand, to dar noomadi kor mavridi gorati onho qaror nagirand, zero in sohibon… aslan bedodgarand, az chize andesha namekunand, khudsarona va bevijdonona ba doroii tobeonashon ikhtiyordori menamoyand» [93]. Khudi hayoti odami ham, ba tabiri shoiri faylasuf Abdulqodiri Bedil «bar sari mijgon chu ashk istoda» bud, zero zulmu istibdod va bedodgari haddu hisob nadosht va mumkin bud, ki har kase biduni tahqiq va hukm ba qatl rasonida shavad.

Ba boloi in hama sakhtivu talkhihoi ruzgor khurofot va taassub hukmfarmoi mekard. Chunonchi, dar davlati khonii Khuqand hangomi sokhtmoni kanal ob qitaero rakhna karda, ba rohi digar jori shud. Amaldoroni khon, ki ba kori sokhtmon nazorat mekardand, az bayni korgaron hamai kasoni «Tukhtasin» nomdoshtaro davat karda, farmudand, ki onhoro zinda ba zamin guronand, to rohi jarayoni ob bozdoshta shavad [94].

«Dar vaqti baho dodan ba vazninii andozho,– guftaast K.Marks,– chandon mablagi muqarrarii onro ne, balki tarzi sitondan va kharj kardani andozhoro boyad dar nazar girift. Tarzi sitondani andozho dar hinduston nafratovar ast va agar ba tariqi misol khiroji zaminro girem, dar natijai tarzi mavjuda, az ehtimol dur nest, ki mahsulot az jamovari dida beshtar nobud megardad. On chi oid ba kharji andozhoi gundoshtashuda boshad, guftan kofist, ki yagon hissai on dar shakli binohoi sudmandi jamiyati, ki nazar ba har joi digar, baroi kishvarhoi Osiyo zarurand, ba khalq barnamegardad»…[95] In sukhanoni purarzish baroi Osiyoi Miyona niz komilan mutobiqat dorand. Daromadi solonai zamin, khiroju moliyoti jamshuda hama tamoman baroi afzudani sarvati sinfi feodalon, baroi taminoti dastgohi idorai davlat, ki olati istismor va gorati mardum bud, baroi quvvahoi askari, ki hamchun oloti furu nishondani norizoyatii ommai khalq khizmat mekard, sarf meshud.

Muborizai sinfi

Aholii shahri Bukhoro va nohiyahoi atrofi on borho ba muqobili amironi mangit shurish bardoshtand. In qabil shurish, az jumla, dar soli 1758 barpo gardida, shurishchiyon dar kuchahoi shahr sangarho sokhta budand. Shurishi digar soli 1785 sar zad, ki ishtirokchiyoni on beshtar az hazor nafar, zohiran, namoyandagoni sinfi hukmronro ba qatl rasondand[96].

Soli 1810 dar Bukhoro qahti ruy dod. Qimati va gurusnagi sar shuda, ba sari mardum azobu uqubathoi ziyode omad. Darbori amir baroi sabuktar gardidani vaziyati nihoyat sakhti aholi yagon chorae nadid. On goh shahriyoni baoshubomada maydoni Registonro faro giriftand. Amir ba haros aftoda, az shahr firor namud. Oqibat oshubi khalq bo zuri furu nishonda shud.

Az rui baze madrakhoi gayrimustaqim shuru oshubhoi khalqi dar soli 1819 yo 1820 niz ba vuqu omada budand[97]. Junbishi kaloni khalqi soli 1821 dar qismati miyonai vodii Zarafshon bayni Samarqand va Bukhoro (dar Miyonkol) ba amal omad. Dar in jo toifahoi nimkuchii uzbek khitoyqipchoqho zindagi mekardand. Tazyiqi andozho, musodirahoi doimi, ba khizmati harbi safarbar kardani miqdori ziyodi mardoni qabilaho – hamai in yakjoya aholii Miyonkolro nihoyat ba shur ovard. Soli 1821 hukumat dubora ba sarbozi odam giriftanro sar kard. Kosai sabri khitoyqipchoqho labrez shuda, norizoyatii onho ba shurishi oshkoro furu rekht. Qaraqalpoqhoi sokini in mahal niz ba shurishchiyon hamroh shudand. Tamomi toifahoi nohiyai bayni Samarqandu Kattaqurgon ba zeri livoi shurishgaron daromadand. Shurishchiyon mamuroni amirro ronda, Kattaqurgon, Chalak, Yangiqurgon va digar shahru dehahoi girdu atrofro zabt namudand. Kambagaloni in joyho ham ba safi shurishgaron dokhil shudand, ammo ayonu ashrof baroi kumak ba amir ru ovardand. Shurishgaron ba tarafi Samarqand harakat namudand. Amir ba Kattaqurgon hamla ovarda, onro zabt kard va aholiro az dami teg guzaronid. Shurishgaron az Khuqand, Shahrisabz va digar mulkhoi dushmani amir haydar madad khostand. Ammo ittifoqchiyon bayni khud muvofiqat hosil nakarda, ba tavri parokanda amal menamudand. Khitoyqipchoqho khostand ba Bukhoro zarba zanand, vale ba in muvaffaq nashudand. Shurishichiyon kushish kardand, ki dehqononi nohiyahoi gunogunro ba tarafi khud kashand. In ham nashud. Okhirulamr quvvahoi asosii shurishchiyon az ham posh khurd va onho usuli mudofiai passivro pesh giriftand. Dar hamin vaziyat soli 1825 amir haydar muhimtarin nuqtahoi muqovimati shurishchiyonro ishgol namud[98].

Dar solhoi 1840–1842 munosibati bayni amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Khuqand khele tezutund gardid. Vaqte ki dar soli 1840 khoni Khuqand az khavfi hujumi qushunhoi Bukhoro ba tars aftoda, Khujandro dod, dar Khuqand shurish ba amal omad. Ba shurish Khoja Qalandari misgar sardori mekard. hazoron kambagaloni shurishgar bo rohbarii in mardi shujo amalan poytakhti mamlakatro ishgol namudand. Onho manzilhoi amaldoroni khonro ba khok yakson karda, safironi Bukhororo niz emin naguzoshtand.

 

Chi nave ki tarikhi Khuqand ittilo medihad, hamai amaldoroni nizomi va gayrinizomi «ba gushaho pinhon shudand». Sipas, shurishchiyon darbori khonro ihota namudand. Doirahoi hukmron faqat bo makru fireb va dushvorihoi ziyode tavonistand, ki in shurishro furu nishonand. Vale sababgori asosii sar zadani shurish, pesh az hama, zulmu sitami berahmona az bayn burda nashud. In bud, ki soli oyanda boz shurishi khalq ba vuqu omad. Vay chunon vusat paydo namud, ki khoni ba haros aftoda az Khuqand firor kard. Junbishhoi khalqi dar Khuqand soli 1842 vaqti hujumi qushunhoi Bukhoro niz ba amal omada budand[99].

Dar okhiri solhoi chilum (ehtimol soli 1847) shurishi sokinoni shahri Toshkand barpo megardad. On vaqtho shahri Toshkand tahti tasarrufi khonii Khuqand qaror girifta, dar on jo namoyandai buzurgzodagoni dar sari idorai davlati khoni nishastai qipchoq — Aziz parvonachi hukmroni mekard. U borho ba muqobili shahri Turkiston lashkar kashida, dar natijai janghoi durudarozi toqatfarso khazinaro kholi karda bud. Ba in sabab, dar mashvarati hokim bo ayonu ashrofi Toshkand qaror karda shud, ki ilova ba andozhoi mamuli az aholii shahr va dehoti atrof ba tariqi favri andozi favquloddai puli jam karda shavad. Aholii shahr, ki az jabri doimi va tazyiqi berahmonai Aziz parvonachi holashon taboh meshud, hamesha ba isyon omoda budand. Qahru gazabi khalq ba nihoyati khud merasid. Jamovarii andozi nav kosai sabri mardumi Toshkandro labrez namud. Sokinoni shahr ba jamkunandagoni andoz daraftodand va pulhoi sitondai onhoro kashida giriftand. Dar bisyor mahalho sangarho ba vujud omadand. Yake az markazhoi muhimmi shurish rastai misgaroni bozori Toshkand bud. hokim shash ruz bo kumaki tupu tufang zur zada, bisyor markazhoi shurishro zabt kard, vale furu nishondani shurish baroyash muyassar nagardid. Shurishgaron quvvai nav jam karda, tamomi shahrro ishgol namudand. hokim fursati gurekhtan nayofta, dar daruni qalai shahr pinhon shud. Shurishgaron hamrohi qushuni hokimi nohiyai hamsoyai Qurama Aziz parvonachiro az shahr rondand.

Chunon ki az sarchashmaho malum meshavad, nerui asosii harakatdihandai in shurish kambagaloni shahr budand, harchand ki dar on shahriyoni doro va namoyandagoni judogonai ayonu ashrofi az hukumati Khuqand norozi niz ishtirok doshtand. Ommai khalq muvaffaq shudand, ki andozhoi navi khele garonro bekor kunonand va gumoshtai nafratangezi Khuqandro az shahr berun kunand[100].

Toifahoi janub va shimoli Qirgiziston va qazoqho niz chandin bor bar ziddi yugi asorati Khuqand sar bardoshta budand. Dar jarayoni in shurishho mehnatkashoni kuchnishin aksar vaqt bo dehqonon va shahriyoni mazlum muttahid meshudand [101].

Muborizai sinfi dar nohiyahoi judogonai kuhistoni Pomiri Garbi ham bo shiddati tamom davom mekard. Dar ibtidoi solhoi 60-um dehqononi Shugnon, Rushon va Vakhon shurish bardoshtand, ki ba on Shaykhzodai rushoni sardori namud. Shurishgaron nishemangohi miri Rushon Qalai Vomaro ba dast darovardand. Sipas, onho ba sui qarorgohi hokimi Shugnon Qalai Barpanj harakat karda, qushuni onro torumor namudand. Tamomi doroii hokimon dar bayni dehqonon taqsim karda shud. In shurish faqat pas az on ki hukmroni kulli Badakhshon ba Pomiri Garbi quvvai ziyodi harbi firistod, shikast khurd [102].

Yake az kalontarin va purdavomtarin shurishhoi asri KhIKh shurishi turkmanhoi Khorazm dar solhoi 1855–1867 meboshad. hamchunin shurishi dehqononi benavo bo sardorii muzdur Muhammad Fanoro, ki solhoi 1858–1859 dar khonii Kheva ba amal omada bud[103], metavon khotirnishon kard.

Mo faqat chande az lahzaho va lavhahoi muborizai sinfii dar nimai duvumi asri KhVIII–nimai avvali asri KhIKh jarayon doshtai davlathoi Osiyoi Miyonaro zikr  namudem. Mavji purvusati shurishhoi khalqi goho sarosari Osiyoi Miyonaro faro   megirift. Ammo muarrikhoni davr onhoro nodida meangoshtand. In, darvoqe, khususiyati tarikhnigorii feodalii Sharq ast. In ast, ki mo dar borai onho aksaran az rui malumot va alomathoi gayrimustaqim ogoh meshavem va qazovat mekunem. Tarikhshinosi mashhuri soveti P.P.Ivanov az khususi harakathoi khalqii ahdi amir Doniyol sukhan ronda, nuktasanjona khotirnishon karda bud: «Muarrikhoni Bukhoro, ki in voqeahoro baroyamon naql mekunand, onhoro asosan hamchun lavhahoi muborizai feodaloni mahalli bar ziddi hukumati khoni ba qalam medihand. Vale boyad qayd kard, ki ayonu ashrofi mahalli dar muborizai ziddi khon qarib tamoman ba favjhoi dehqonon takya menamud va saranjomi in muboriza ham mahz ba faoliyati onho vobasta bud. Az in ru, farz kardan mumkin ast, ki beshtarini lavhahoi muborizai musallah dar amorati Bukhoroi asri KhVIII muhimtarin unsurhoi harakathoi khalqi yo dehqoniro dar khud nuhufta budand, faqat farq dar in bud, ki feodaloni mahalli az rui manfiathoi mahdudi sinfii khud ba onho sardori mekardand va az onho istifoda meburdand»[104]. In fikri bagoyat amiq va purmanist. Bo vujudi in, metavon ba on ilova namud, ki in  guftaho  ba nimai avvali asri KhIKh niz komilan nisbat dorand.

Chi nave ki az misolhoi ovardashuda ayon megardad, harakathoi khalqii ondavra, asosan, khususiyati agrari doshtand. Zimnan dehqononi tojiku uzbek aksaran bo qavmhoi kuchi va nimkuchii uzbek, qirgiz va qazoq yakjoya amal menamudand. Manfiathoi sinfi va muborizai yakjoyai tabaqoti bar ziddi zolimoni umumi moneahoi toifavi va najodiro shikasta, mehnatkashonro bo ham muttahid mesokht.

Dar barobari shuru oshubhoi aholii dehot shurishhoi shahriyon niz ba amal meomadand. Junbishhoi ham dehot va ham shahr ba tavri stikhiyavi va gayrimutashakkil sar mezadand va davom mekardand, ammo dar shurishhoi shahriyon goho unsurhoi mutashakkili padidor megardidand. hamai shurishho khususiyati mahalli doshta, tamomi khoki davlati khoniro faro namegiriftand va az in ru qismi asosii aholii mamlakat az muborizai faolona dar kanor memond, ki in holat ba hukumat baroi furu nishondani in va yo on oshubi khalq imkoni musoid faroham meovard.

Ideologiyai harakathoi khalqii on davr ba mo kam malum ast. Odatan, shurishgaron dar nazdi khud maqsad meguzoshtand, ki ba barham dodani suiistemol va noinsofihoi az had ziyodi namoyandagoni hokimiyati davlati, az sari kor dur kardani amaldoronu hokimoni judogona, behtar kardani ahvoli moddi va gayra muvaffaq shavand. Az in beshtar maqsad va vazifa nameguzoshtand. Aqibmondagii shuuri sinfii khosi on zamon dar in soha niz vozehu ravshan zuhur mekard.

[1] Galkin A., 1890, s. 191; Shubinskiy P., 1892, s. 380–386.

[2] Muyundorff J., 1826 ,s. 196–197; Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 75–76.

[3] Mo ba masalai sukunati tojikon dar Afuoniston dakhl namekunem. Baroi solhoi sivumi asri KhIKh M. Elfinston (Ulphinstonu M., 1839, 1, r. 403–422) manzarai khele purra va mufassalro tasvir menamoyad. Muvofiri malumoti N.A.Kislyakov tojikon aholii aslii viloyathoi shimoli va risman markazii Afuoniston buda, az jihati mirdor duvumin khalri in mamlakat ba shumor meravand –takhminan 2 millionu 300 hazor kas (Kislyakov N.A., 1957, s. 149). Az rui malumoti digar dar Afuoniston rarib se million tojikon iromat dorand –nig.: Masson V, M., Romodin V.A., 1, 1964, s. 10.

[4] Grebenkin A .D., 1872, v. s. 54.

[5] Az rui hisobi Mirabdulkarimi Bukhori dar nohiyai Miyonkol va Samarrand chi radar, ki murimiho boshand, hamon radar kuchiho budand (Mir Aidoul Kurim Ioukhary, 1876, s. 77).

[6] Baroi khonii Khurand ba sababi noustuvorii hududash ovardani hatto chunin raramhoi takhmini ham amri mahol ast. Rarami yakunim – du million aholi, ki dar kitobi be zikri nomi muallif baroi soli 1840 ovarda shudaast («Obozrenie Kokandskogo khanstva v nineshnem ego sostoyanii», 1849, s. 191), ba misli rarami se million» aholi, ki tarriban baroi hamon vartho Volf zikr namudaast (Wolf J., 1846, s. 353) ba taftishi darir ehtiyoj dorad.

[7] Radlov V.V., 1880, s. 12.

[8] Omoch zaminro ba chururii 40–45 sm shudgor mekard va dar ayni zamon onro kovok va narm ham menamud. Akademik A.F.Middendorf (1882, s. 229) chunin aridae dosht: «{angomi shudgori amir vay, albatta, zerkhokro havo medihad va az sipori gardon chunin bartarii muhimro dorost, ki khoki zamin pas az shudgori omoch dar zeri oftobi suzon on radar sakht khushk nameshavad».

[9] Mufassalan nig.: Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 121–123, 129–130, 137–139; Efremov F., 1950, s. 26.

[10] Middendorf A, F., 1882, s. 402.

[11] Vaziyati khojagii rishlori Osiyoi Miyonai onvarta hanuz tadrirkunandai khudro intizor ast. Bisyor madrakhoi muhim dar hisoboti sayyohon, hujjathoi arkhivii Rossiya va Osiyoi Miyona parokandaand, bayonoti mutakhassisone, ki pas az hamrohshavii Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya dodaand, hamchunin nashriyahoi etnografi dar in bobat arzishi muhime dorand. Az jumla, nig.: Brodskiy M., 1872, 1875; Middendorf A.F., 1882; Shohnazarov A.I., 1908; Yuferev V.I., 1925; Kislyakov N.A., 1947; Karmisheva B.Kh., 1954; Sukhareva O.A., Bekjonova M.A., 1955; Rahimov M.R., 1957; Andreev M.S, Pisarchik A.K., 1958; Ershov N.N., 1960; Usenboev K., 1961; Tadjiki Karategina i Darvoza, vip. 1–1966, vip. II – 1970, vip. III – 1976, «Ocherkhoi etnografi», 1969 va bisyor asarhoi digar.

[12] Radlov V V., s. 39; Semyonov A.A., 1960 a, s. 1001. 48.

[13] Bekchurin M.. 1916. s. 303–304.

[14] Semyonov A.A., 1960 a. s. 1002.

[15] Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 55. Roje ba rohi murakkabi tashakkulro paymudani aholii Bukhoro va dar on ishtirok doshtani uzbekon nig.: Sukhareva O.A.,1958, s. 74 va davomash, 1966, s. 113 va davomash.

[16] Meyendorf E.F., 1975, s. 95.

[17] {amon jo, s. 105.

[18] Sukhareva A., 1958; 1962; 1966.

[19] Tursunov N., 1967; Mukhtorov A., 1964; 1975.

[20] Pashino P.I., 1868, s. 139.

[21] «Roje ba vaziyati kununi», 1826, s. 177–178.

[22] Mukhtorov A., 1964, s. 72, 75.

[23] Maev N., 1876; Khoroshkhin A.P., 1876; Geyns A.K., 1898; Dobromislov A.I., 1911; Ozodaev F., 1959; {ojiev E., 1960; Nabiev R.N., 1966.

[24] Lenin V.I., Asarho, j. 3, s. 58

[25] Petrovskiy N.F., 1874; Brodovskiy M.I., 1875, s. 15–17; .29–31

[26] Sukhareva O.A., 1962, s. 142.

[27] Nig.: masalan, Kratkoe opisanie., 1823, s. 7–8.

[28] Ivanov P.P., 1932, s. 44–75; Bubnova M.A., 1975.

[29] Svenskoe K., 1851, s. 149; Jukovskiy S.V., 1915, s. 112–113; Maslov O.V., 1955, s. 47–48; Khalfin N.A., 1974, s. 47–60 va uayra.

[30] Malumotro dar in khusus az tahriroti gunoguni roje ba khonii Khurand ba dast ovardan mumkin ast, ki baze az onho dar bolo zikr yoftaand. {amchunin nig: Bogoslovskiy, 1842, s. 21. Obozrenie., 1849, s. 124–125;Potanin N.I., 1856, s. 278; Maksimov, 1860, s. 74; Vrevskiy A.B., 1868, s.137; Krauze Ch.I., 1872 va bisyor talifoti digar. Makhsusan sanadhoi bo kori madan aloramand az arkhivi khonhoi Khurand jolibi dirrat meboshand– nig.: Troiskaya A.L., 1968, s. 353–354, № 2507–2522.

[31] Litvinskiy B.A., 1949.

[32] Marks K. i Engels F. Soch., tom. 3, s. 52.

[33] Troiskaya A.L., 1968, s. 278–279, № 1878, 1879, 1883; s. 311–322 (№2160–2272).

[34] Pashino P.I., 1868, s. 139–140. Inchunin nig.: Pashino P.I., 1867, s. 121.Malumoti mushobehi az in barvarttar dar borai davlati khonii Khurand dar hisoboti Khorunjiy Potanin N.I. mavjud ast. Dar asari beimzoi «Obozrenie Kokandskogo khanstva v nineshnem ego sostoyanii» (1849), «Zavodi khishtsozii khon» va «fabrikai kouazbarori» «korkhonai manufakturi» nomida shudaand. Obozrenie., 1849, s. 213.

[35] Nebolsin P.I., 1865, s. 36. {amin tarira, har ba jonibi Bunakov E.V. nest. U nodurust takid mekard, ki malumoti oid ba korgohhoi parokandai 1138-sanoati farat dar Pashino P.I. mavjud ast, nig.: Bunakov E.V., 1969, s. 97.

[36] Velyaminov–Zernov V.V., 1853, s. 20, 71.

[37] Grebenkin A.D., 1-872 a, s. 31.

[38] Roje ba bunak dar khojagii rishlor hamchun bayona nig.: Ivanov P.P., 1937, s. 38–40.

[39] Ayni S., 1970, s. 156–157.

[40] Ayni S., 1961, s. 97.

[41] Dar borai sudkhurho va mardumro uorat kardani onho hamchunin nig: Ayni S., 1960, s. 524–531.

[42] Marks K. i Engels F., Soch., t. 25, ch. II, s. 145.

[43] Ozodaev F., 1959, s. 24–25.

[44] Marks K. i Engels F., Soch., t. 21, s. 406.

[45] Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 161.

[46] Aminov A.M., 1959, s. 50–51; Bunakov E.V., 1960, s. 99.

[47] Marks K. i Engels F. Soch., t. 3, s. 50–51.

[48] Khoroshkhin A.P., 1876, s. 41, 96; Roje ba bozori Khurand va khususiyathoi on nig.: Fedchenko A.P.,1875, s. 48.

[49] Bekchurin M.S, 1871, s. 218; Mukhtorov A., 1964, s. 81–87.

[50] Sukhareva O.A., 1966, s. 43.

[51] Ilova ba asarhoi Sukhareva O.A. nig.: Semyonov A.A., 1960, s. 1009–1010; Rempel L.A., 1962. s. 237–247. Mirdori korvonsaroyho hama vart tauyir meyoft, yane meafzud (muroisa kuned bo malumote, ki baroi solhoi 20-umi asri KhIKh mavjud ast).

[52] Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 163.

[53] Teterevnikov A.N., 1867, s. 39. Muvofiri malumoti S.N.Trubinkov – 20 korvonsaroy va bozorhoi sarpushida (Materialho…, 1869, s. 4).

[54] Obozrenie…, 1849, s. 213.

[55] Kushakevich A., 1872, s. 52.

[56] Bekchurin M.S., 1871, s. 218; Mukhtorov A., 1964, s. 82.

[57] Rarami baroi soli 1820 ovardai E.F.Meyendorf – panjoh hazor (Mugundorff J., 1826, r. 160) ba nazar muboliuaomez menamoyad.

[58] Kostenko L.F., 1871, s. 23–24.

[59] Vahhobov M., 1961, s .60–61.

[60] Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 93, 105.

[61] Radlov V.V., 1880, s. 18-19.

[62] Grebenkin A.D., 1872 a, s. 26–30; Sukhareva O.A., 1966, s. 236–240.

[63] Rojkova M.K., 1963, s. 38.

[64] Grebenkin A.D., 1872 a, s. 26.

[65] Fayziev A., 1970, s. 58–59.

[66] Grebenkin A.D., 1872, s. 30.

[67] In firra dar hamai nuskhahoi dastnavis mavjud ast, nig.: Ahmad Mahdumi Donish, 1960, s. 33–34 (tavzehi 4).

[68] Dar in khusus nig.: Braginskiy I.S, Rajabov S.A., Romodin V.A., 1953, s. 25.

[69] Tavsifi zerin beshtar ba dalelhoi sanadu vasiraho (matbu va nomatbu), materialhoi arkhiv, ittilooti peshtar va badi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona dodai sayyohon va raydhoi etnografi (az khudi mo va etnografho) asos yoftaast. Dar ilmi soveti ba omuzishi in masala Bartold V.V. va khususan Semyonov A.A. (1929, 1954 a) ibtido guzoshtand. In masala dar asarhoe, ki khususiyati jambasti va umumi dorand, hamchunin dar tadrirhoi makhsus borho mavridi barrasi raror giriftaast, az jumla nig.: Abdurahimov M.A., 1961; Bahromov Z., 1957; Iskandarov B.I., 1960, 1962; Yuldoshev M.Yu., 1959; Kislyakov N.A., 1940, 1954, 1967; Mirzoev K.M., 1954; Muhsinova K.3., 1969; Mukhtorov A., 1964; Ploskikh V.M., 1968; Rahimov M., 1957; Sukhareva O.A., Bekjonova M.A., 1955; Troiskaya A.L., 1969; Usenboev K., 1961; {amroev M., 1959; Chekhovich O.D., 1961; Ocherkhoi etnografi, 1969; Yusufov Sh.T., 1964 va u.

[70] Efremov F., 1950, s. 18, 27.

[71]Ahmadi Donish, 1967, s. 39.

[72] In hujjat dar kitobi Abdurahimov M.A., 1961, s.100, (hujjati 690) ovarda shudaast.

[73] {ujjatho, 1954, s. 209-217. Inchunin nig.: Vyatkin V.L., 1928, s. 17.

[74] Ayni S., 1966, s. 40

[75] Ahmadi Donish, 1967, s. 87.

[76] Abdurahimov M.A., 1961, s. 45, 95 (hujjati 483). {amchunin baroi solhoi 20-um niz sabt gardidaast — nig.: Kratkoe opisanie, 1823, s. 7. Az rui guftahoi Radlov V. V, ki hamrohi rushunhoi rus budaast, dar varti istiloi hukumati podshohi tanobonaro farat ba shakli pul mesitonidaand (Radlov V.V., 880, s. 92).

[77] Bunakov E.V., 1960, s. 98.

[78] Nig.: Ayni S., 1960, s. 182; inchunin Chekhovich O.D., 1961; Muhsinova K.Z., 1969.

[79] Semyonov A.A., 1929, s. 12-25; Semyonov A.A., 1960, s. 999-1000; Abdurahimov M.A., 1961.

[80] Dar bekii Ruruonteppa (dar ibtidoi asri KhKh) bek az har botman (16 pud) baroi khud yak pud, mirob az har yak khirman yakunim pud, doruua az khirman chor pud, amlokdor az har botman yak pud megiriftand (Gaveskiy P., 1919–1923, s. 65)

[81] Ayni S., 1960., s. 88.

[82] {ujjatho, 1954, s. 192-193 (hujjati 42).

[83] Semyonov A.A.,1960, s. 1000. Uayr az andozhoi zikrshuda bisyor khiroju majburiyathoi digar niz vujud doshtand — khujjatho ba in shahodat medihand — nig.: Yagoni A. I, 1968, s. 29-30.

[84] Obozrenie…, 1849, s. 209.

[85] Ploskikh V.M., 1968, s. 107-111.

[86] Ayni S., 1960, s. 77–78.

[87] Khoroshkhin A.P., 1876, s. 45.

[88] {ukumat dar amal oidoti in nav andozro ba marsadhoi gunogun kharj menamud. Nig.: Ivanov P.P., 1940, s. 28, 98–99.

[89] Nabiev R. N., 1961, s. 38–39; inchunin nig.: Yagoni A.A., 1968, s. 16 (№ 36). Dar borai chunin rasm dar khonii Kheva. Nig.: Ivanov P.P., 1940, s. 28.

[90] Geyns A.K., 1898, s. 720–721. Dar borai ba ijora dodani jamovarii andoz inchunin nig. Obozrenie., 1849, s. 208, 216.

[91] Roje ba zulmi feodali dar khonii Kheva – nig.: Kun A.L., 1873 a,1873 b; Ivanov P. P., 1937 b, 1940, s. 26–29, 51–121; Yuldoshev M.Yu., 1959,1966; {ujjatho, 1967, s. 25–55, 79–296.

[92] Nabiev R.N., 1961, s. 40.

[93] Irtibos az Khalfin N.A., 1960, s. 24.

[94] Nabiev R.N., 1961, s. 41. Dar borai rurboni kardani odamon hangomi kanalsozi va paydoishi in odati khurofi nig.: Bogomolova K.A., 1952, s. 112–115.

[95] Marks K. i Engels F., Soch., t. 12, s. 531–532.

[96] Chekhovich O.D., 1954, s. 76–77.

[97] Mukhtorov A., 1963, s. 34–46.

[98] Dar tahriri in shurish Ivanov P.P., ki hamai manbahoi mavjudaro ba dirrat omukhtaast, khidmati purarzishe dorad–nig.: Ivanov P.P., 1937 a.

[99] Nabiev R.N., 1961.

[100] Baroi tafsili shurish nig.: Nabiev R.N., 1966, s. 62–76.

[101] Usenboev K., 1961, s. 44–51; Istoriya Kirgizskoy SSR, t. 1,1968, s. 293–298.

[102] Iskandarov B.I., 1960, s. 39–42.

[103] Yuldoshev M.Yu., 1966, s. 112-113.

[104] Ivanov P.P., 1958, s. 112.

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