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Bordorkuni va bordorshavi- Buguzshavi

Ba beshtari hayvonoti obi va organizmhoe, ki afzoishashon bevosita ba ob aloqamand ast (mohiho, obkhokiho), bordorshavii beruna khos meboshad. Hayvonot dar davrai afzoish mahsuli jinsiro dar shakli hujayratukhm va nutfa bo ob khorij karda bordorshavi dar on jo ba amal meoyad. Dar organizmhoi khushki uzvhoi jinsii beruna inkishof yoftaast; nutfa az rohi jinsii narina ba rohi jinsii modina guzashta, dar on jo bordoshavi ba vuqu meoyad. In holatro bordorkunii daruni menomand (rasmi 6.11).

nutfa Dar vaqti bordorkuni miqdori ziyodi nutfa judo meshavad. In ba hamin khotir ast, ki nutfa muhiti muayyani khimiyaviro ba vujud meovarad va biduni in bordorshavi nameguzarad. Bordorshavi ravandest, ki dar mavridi on nutfa va hujayratukhm yakjoya shuda, dar natija hujayrai davri avvalini inkishofi janini, yane zigota (az yunonii zygota – yakjoyashavi, juft)-ro paydo menamoyad. Dar zigota dastai khromosomahoi diploidii ba mansubi hamin namud barqaror megardand. Dar bisyor mavridho bordorshavi hamon lahza badi bordorkuni ba amal meoyad. Holathoe ham malumand, ki bayni in du ravand fosilai muayyane meguzarad.

Kurshabparakho fasli tiramoh juft meshavand, vale hujayratukhm bordor nashuda, nutfa zimistonro dar rohi jinsii kurshabparaki modina meguzaronad.

buguzsahvi

Bo faro rasidani fasli bahor, modome ki hujayratukhm bolig gasht, bordorshavi ba vuqu mepayvandad. Bazan badi bordorshavi inkishofi zigota zud qat gashta, badi chand moh dubora barqaror megardad. Sabab dar on ast, ki davrai naslovari va gamkhori ba nasl boyad ba fasli tobiston rost oyad. Baroi hamin, davomoti hamli qoqum 300-320 va samur 230-280 shabonaruzro darbar megirad, harchand ki davomoti inkishofi nasli in jonvaron nisbatan kutoh ast.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Dar inkishofi hujayrahoi jinsi kadom davrahoro judo mekunand?
  2. Inkishofi hujayrahoi jinsii narina va modinaro sharh dihed.
  3. Dar rafti spermatogenez va ovogenez davrai boligshavi chi guna meguzarad?
  4. Farqiyati meyoz va mitozro nishon dihed.

Istilohot:

  1. CHillikishavi – ivazshavii qismi khromosomahoi gomologi, ki bayni khud konyugatsiya (jafs) shuda, dar natija qismhoi hampahlui khromatidhoi gayrikhohariro digar mekunand.
  2. Bordorshavi – yakjoyashavii nutfa va tukhmhujayra, paydo shudani zigota.
  3. Gametogenez – davrai rasishi (pukhtani) gametaho, ki dar natija hujayrahoi gaploidi hosil meshavand.
  4. Gametaho – hujayrahoi jinsashon gunogun, ki dar natijai gametogenez paydo meshavand.
  5. Konyugatsiya – ravandi bo ham nazdikshavii khromosomahoi gomologi, ki dar profazahoi yakumi taqsimshavii meyoz ruy medihad. 
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