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Boloravii harakati milliyu ozodikhohi dar Indoneziya

Ba Indoneziya cap darovardani avrupoiyon dar in jo ba vujud omadani munosibathoi sarmoyadori va az tarafi sarmoyadoronu korchallonhoi ajnabi istismor karda shudani mardum hissi milli va istiqloliyatkhohii ommaro ba vujud ovard.

Sababi dar Indoneziya der ogoz yoftali muborizai milliyu ozodikhohi on ast, ki to okhirhoi asri XIX millathoi Indoneziya hanuz khub tashakkul nayofta budand. Vale dar ogozi asri XX markazhoi tashakkuli millat dar YAva (yavagiho va sundho) va bad dar nohiyahoi digar (minangkabauho, acheho, batakho va gayra) paydo meshavand. Dar yak vaqt yagonagii umumiindoneziyagii milli ham tashakkul yoftan megirad. Zaboni indonezi – zaboni malayhoi Sumatra va Malai bud. In zabon nisbat ba zabonhoi digar dar hamai jazirahoi Indoneziya beshtar pahn gardida, ohista-ohista ba zaboni umumidavlati tabdil meyoft. Dar yagonagii umumimillii khalqhoi Indoneziya zaboni malayi naqshi bosazo guzoshtaand.

5241ind Nederlandse soldaten gaan aan land te Pasir Poetih op 21-7-1947.

Tashabbuskoroni harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqi Indoneziya ziyoiyon budand. 20 mayi soli 1908 bo tashabbusi doktor Vahid iv Sudirokhusodo, donishjuyon Sutomb va Gunavan Magunkusumo va barodari u – CHipto Magunkusumo sozmoni avvalini “Budi utomo” (“Maqsadi oli”) tashkil meyobad (dar Indoneziyai muosir har sol 20-umi may hamchun Ruzi bedorshavii millii indoneziyagiho jashn girifta meshavad). Ba “Budi utomo” dar yak muddati kutoh ziyoda az 10 hazor nafar odamon azo shudand. In sozmoni jonibdoroni rohhoi osoishtai muborizai ozodikhohi bud. Hudi hamon sol donishjuyoni indoneziyagii dar Hollandiya tahsilmekarda “Ittihodi Indoneziya”-ro tashkil namudand, ki on dar mavqei millatchigii umumiindoneziyagi meistod.

Solhoi 1905-1907 dar mamlakat ittifoqhoi kasabai korkunoni tramvay, rohhoi ohan, pochta, telegraf, kishtzorho va korgaroni zavodhoi qand tashkil karda shudand. Avval ba on asosan mardumi Evropa dokhil bud, vale az solhoi 20-um cap karda aksariyati azoi in ittifoqhoi kasabaro indoneziyagihoi muqimi tashkil mekardagi shudand. Harakati islomi ham vase meshud. Soli 1912 sozmoni “Muhammadiyon” tashkil karda meshavad. Sozmonhoi etniki va mintaqavii ambonho, manangho, minakhasho, achsho, batakhoi masehi va gayra paydo meshavand. Harakati siyosii chinoihoi bumi niz purzur meshavad. Ba onho muyassar megardad, ki dar Indoneziya hukuqhoi koriyu tijoratii khudro vase kunand.

Mohi sentyabri soli 1912 dar zeri rohbarii Ernest Daues- Dekker, Ki Hachar Devantara va CHipte Magunkusimo dar Semarang Hizbi Indoneziya tashkil karda meshavad. In hizbi ziyoiyoni demokrati manfiati hamai indoneziyagihoro himoya mekard. Hukumatdoroni mustamlikavi Hizbi Indoneziyaro etirof nakardand. Binobar in 31 margi soli 1913 yake az rohbaroni on Daues-Dekker in hizbro parokanda elon kard. Hukumati mustamlikavi rohbaron va azoi Hizbi Indoneziyaro taqib mekard. Mohi iyuni hamon sol se sarvari on ba Niderlandiya badarga karda shudand.

Soli 1907 Hizbi Insulinde tashkil yoft. Soli 1919 on Hizbi Millii Indoneziya nom girift. Aksari azoi Hizbi Indoneziyai parokandashuda ba in hizb dokhil shudand.

Dar Indoneziya sozmonhoi digari milli niz ba vujud omadand. Az on jumla, soli 1912 “Sarakat islom” (“Ittifoqi islom”) sozmon yoft.On sozmoni ommavitarini ozodikhohii Indoneziya ba hisob meraft. “Sarakat islom” to mohi yanvari soli 1913 80 hazor nafar azo dosht. On baroi alayhi zulmi mustamlikavii Hollandiya muttaqid kardani khalqhoi Indoneziya sahmi buzurg guzoshtaast.

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