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Boftaho, azo va tanzimi uzvho

Bofta chist? Bofta in Majmui hujayraho va moddai baynihujayravi, ki az rui paydoish, sokht va ijroi amal ba hamdigar monand buda, vazifai yakkhelaro ijro mekunand, bofta nomida meshavad.

Dar organizm chor guruhi boftahoro farq kardan mumkin ast: epiteli, vaslkunanda (payvastkunanda), mushak va asab. Boftai epiteli (az kalimai yunoni epi – dar ruy, dar bolo) rui badan, gadudho va kovokihoi uzvhoi dokhiliro mepushonad. Boftai vaslkunanda – ba on khun, limfa, boftahoi ustukhoni, tagoyaki va gizoi dokhil meshavand. Boftai mushaki – boftai asosii mushakhoi skeleti va digar uzvhoi dokhili ba hisob meravad. In boftaho vazifai kashishkhuriro ijro mekunand. Boftai asabiro boftahoi magzi sar va harommagz tashkil mekunand. Hujayrahoi asabro neyron menomand. Neyron az se qism: jasadi neyron, izofai kutoh, izofai daroz iborat ast.

boftahoi-inson

Azo va sistemahoi uzvho. Az boftaho uzv ba vujud meoyad. Uzvho shakl, sokht va mavqei muayyan dorand, vazifahoi gunogunro ijro mekunand. YAk qismi uzvho dar kovokii badan joy giriftaand, az hamin sabab onhoro uzvhoi dokhili menomand.

Uzvhoe, ki yakjoya vazifai umumiro ijro mekunand chuninand:

Sistemai takyagohu kharakat – az ustukhonho va mushakhoi ba onho chaspida iborat ast. In imkoniyat medihad, ki odam rost istad, harakat kunad, korhoi murakkabro ijro kunad, inchunin uzvhoi dokhiliro az osebbini himoya kunad.

Sistemai hozima – dar hazmkunii gizo jabbidani moddahoi gizoi dar khun ishtirok mekunad. Sistemai hozima az noyi hozima — kovokii dahon, halq, surkhruda, meda, ruda va gadudhoi hozima chun luhobbarori, judo namudani shirai meda, ruda, zeri meda, jigar va gayrahoro dar bar megirad.

Sistemai immuni – organizmro az tanachahoi begonai zararovar va moddahoi ziddi onho himoya mekunad. Ba in sistema magzi surkhi ustukhon, gadudi dushokha (timus), girehhoi limfagi, ispurch, boftahoi limfoidi, rohhoi nafaskashi va uzvhoi hozima dokhil meshavand.

Sistemai gardishi khun – uzvhoi badani odamro bo moddahoi gizoi, oksigen tamin namuda, az on gazi karbon va digar moddahoi nodarkoriro ba uzvhoi ikhroj meorad. Hun vazifai himoyaviro ijro mekunad. Az dil va raghoi khun iborat meboshad.

Sistemai nafaskashi – In ravandi mubodilai gazho bayni muhiti beruna va shush meboshad. Ba in sistema kovokii bini, gulu, halq, noyi nafas, bronkhho, bronkhiolaho, alveolaho va shush dokhil meshavand.

Sistemai shoshayu tanosul – Uzvi asosii sistemai shosharo gurdaho tashkil mekunand, ki tavassuti gurdaho az organizm ba vositai peshob moddahoi nodarkori bo rohhoi peshobguzar ba peshobdon (masona) va az on bo rohhoi peshobbaro ba berun barovarda meshavand. Tavassuti uzvhoi tanosul boshad nasli oyanda tavlid meshavad, ki in ham boshad hangomi omezishyobii nutfa bo hujayratukhm ba amal meoyad.

Sistemai asab – Tavassuti in sistema tanzimkunii kori yakjoyai hamai uzvho, mutobiqiyatii onho ba sharoithoi muhit tamin karda meshavad. Masalan, ba vositai uzvhoi his, chashm, gush, bini, zabon, pust aloqamandi bo muhiti atrof tamin karda

meshavad. Be mavjudiyati sistemai asab faoliyati boshuuronai odam va raftori u tanzim karda nameshavad. Sistemai asab az maynai cap, harommagz, qismhoi asab iborat ast. 

Sistemai endokrini (dokhili). Gadudhoi sekretsiyai (tarashshuhi) dokhili, ki az khud hormon judo mekunand, hamchun holati idorakunii biologi, ki tavassuti khun va moei organizm tasir merasonand. Ba in sistema gadudhoi hipofiz, epifiz, siparshakl, nazdisiparshakl, dushokha (timus) zeri meda, boloi gurda, jinsii mardona, zanona dokhil meshavand. Hormonho ba faoliyati organizmho tasiri musbat va manfi merasonand.

Sistemai funksionali – Baroi ijroi in yo on vazifa uzvhoi organizm dar yakjoyagi amal mekunand. In faoliyati muvaqqatii onro sistemai funksionali menomand. Avvalin marotiba dar soli 1935 sistemai funksionaliro ba ilm dar asosi tajribahoi khud olimi buzurgi rus akademik P.K. Anokhin dokhil kardaast. Hamin tavr, organizmi odam khele murakkab buda, az sistemai uzvho sokhta shudaast, ki onho az boftaho, hujayraho va moei bayni hujayravi iboratand.

Savolho:

  1. Bofta chist?
  2. Kadom boftahoro medoned?
  3. Uzv chist?
  4. Sistemai uzvho chiro meomuzad?
  5. Kadom sistemai uzvhoro medoned?
  6. Uzvho kadom vazifaro ijro mekunand? 

Kori amali

Sokhti mikroskopii boftaho

(epiteliali, vaslkunanda, mushaki, asabi)

Tajhizot baroi amaliyot: mikropreparati boftahoi inson, zarrabin.

Rafti amaliyot:

a) Ba kor omoda kardani zarrabin.

b) Ba zeri zarrabin guzoshtani mikropreparati bofta

v) Preparatro muoina kuned va rasmi boftahoro kashed.

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