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Ba rohi sarmoyadori dokhil shudani Turkiya

Ba Turkiya voridshavii sarmoyai khoriji manoi onro dosht, ki in davlat ba khojagii jahonii sarmoyadori kashida meshavad. Dar dahsolahoi okhiri asri XIX sokhtmoni fabrikayu zavodho, shakhtaho, depoho, ustokhonahoi rohi ohan va inshooti bandarho ogoz yoftand. Mablagguzori ba sanoati milli dar hamon sokhahoe surat megirift, ki bo sanoati davlathoi Evropa raqobat namekardand yo ki ba korkardi avvaliyai ziroathoi sodiroti, az on jumla, korkardi pakhta, tamoku, maviz va amsoli in mashgul budand. Az 1587 korkhonahoe, ki dar Turkiya soli 1900 ba hisob girifta shuda budand, aksariyatashon ustokhonahoi khurdi kosibi budand. Tanho nazdiki 200-toi onhoro ba qatori fabrika va zavodho guzoshtan mumkin bud. Dar barobari sanoati khurokvori istehsoloti bofandagi, sobunpazi, abreshimbofi va qolinbofi to yak daraja pesh raft. In vaqt sanoati Turkiya asosan dar dasti shirkathoi Evropa bud. Onho ashyoi khomi in sohahoro asosan ba khorija mebarovardand.

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Ba sharofati rohhoi ohan va ba mahsuloti kishovarzi ziyod shudani talabot baroi bozor kor kardani ziroatparvari meafzoyad va makhsusan bazoi bozorhoi jahoni. Ohista-ohista kishovarzii Turkiya ba rohi sarmoyadori vorid meshud. Hojagihoi kishovarzne, ki mehnati kiroyaro istifoda meburdand, sol to sol ziyod meshudand. Sohibkoroni dehoti baroi ziyod shudani renta az tamomi vositahoi zaruri istifoda meburdand. Dar Anatoliya mulkhoi zamindoroni paydo shudand, ki muzaffariyathoi ilmi agronomi va moshinhoi kishovarziro ham ba kor meburdand.

Boloravii tijorat va paydoshavii sanoati fabrikayu zavodi ba tabaqaho taksimshavii aholiro tezonid. In ravand ba tashakkuli tabaqai nav – burjuaziya sabab shud. Sarfi nazar az in munosibathoi sarmoyadori dar Turkiya sust surat megiriftand. Aqibmonii dehot ba taraqqiyoti umumii jomea tasiri manfi merasond. Mahdudiyati bozori dokhili, az yak taraf va zurovarii sarmoyai khoriji az tarafi digar, ba tashkili sanoati milli khalal merasondand. Tajhizoti tekhnikii korkhonahoi mavjuda khele pastsifat budand. Muvofiqi ba ruykhatgirii sanoatii soli 1915 dar mamlakat 264 korkhonai doroi harakatdihandahoi mekhaniki kor mekardand. YAne on vaqt ba korkhonahoi sanoatii Turkiya hanuz moshinho roh nayofta budand.

Burjuaziyai dar sultonii Turkiya tashakkulyofta asosan tijorati bud. Qismi nisbatan obrumandtarini on ba korhoi voridotu sodiroti mol mashgul bud. Dar okhirhoi asri XIX avvali asri XX tabaqai ziyoiyoni Turkiya afzud. SHumorai tabibon, huquqshinoson, khizmatchiyoni shirkathoi gunogun, navisandagon, khabarnigoron, amaldoron va afsaron ziyod shud. Ziyoiyoni indavrainai Turkiya az ashrofoni miyonai asri XIX-i in davlat bo on farq mekardand, ki odamoni kasbu kori gunogun budand. Bisyorii afsaron, amaldoron va ashkhosi kasbu kori ozodi in davra az muhiti ashrofi va yo oilahoi maydaburjuazi baromada, dar muassisahoi navtashkili harbi va talimgohhoi makhsus malumot girifta budand. Binoan dar jahonbini va faoliyati jamiyatii onho on arzishhoe inikos yofta budand, ki felan jomeai Turkiya ba onho niyoz dosht.

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Adabiyoti realisti

Adiboni realistii nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX kambudihoi jomearo notarsona fosh mekardand. …