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«Bahoriyot»-i Sayidoi Nasafi

«Bahoriyot» va yo «Hayvonotnoma» asari tamsilii Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi buda, dar ruzgori Abdulazizkhoni ashtarkhoni (1645-1680) soli 1091h. (1680m.) dar muddati du-se ruz talif shudaast va dar in bora khudi shoir chunin ishora dorad:

In nuskha, Sayido ba du-se ruz shud tamom,

Dar ruzgori hazrati Abdulazizkhon.

Tarikh az hazoru navad yak guzashta bud,

Az hijrati Rasul-shahi okhiruzzamon.

bahori-saydo

Asar hajman chandon kalon nabuda az 184 bayt iborat meboshad. «Bahoriyot» dar bahri Muzorei musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf yo maqsur navishta shudaast va afoili on chunin ast:

yo khud:-U

yane: mafulu foilotu mafoilu foilun yo foilon. Asar chun sunnati ustuvor bo hamdu sanoi Hudo ogoz meshavad:

Avval ba nomi on ki mubbarost az makon,

Halloqi vahshu tayru Hudovandi insu jon.

On sonie, ki shohidi uyand har vujud,

On qodire, ki dar sifati ust har zabon.

Asar az muqaddima, qismati asosi va khotima iborat buda, muqaddimai on hamdi Hudo va nati Rasuli akram (s.) -ro dar bar megirad:

Bad az sanovu hamdi Hudovandi zuljalol,

Minnat niham zi nati Rasuli Hudo ba jon.

Bad az on, shoir qayd mekunad, ki bahri rafi khastagi va pareshonii tabi mardumon niyat dorad, ki az vuhush-hayvonot sukhan bikunad. SHoir baroi mushohida ba sahro baromada saravval mushakero mebinad, ki nazdi dari khonai khud nishasta kheshtansitoi dorad:

Mekhoham az vuhush zamone sukhan kunam,

Dafi malol to shavad az tabi mardumon.

Ruze mani garib dar ayyomi navbahor,

Az kunji khona jonibi sahro shudam ravon.

Didam nishasta bar dari surokh mushake,

Mekard khud ba khud sifati kheshro bayon.

Hudsitoi va tarifkugii mush to ba joe merasad, ki boisi khashm giriftani jonvari digare meshavad:

Ajdodi man ba miri mushon takya mekunad,

Imruz dar barobari man kist dar jahon.

Gurbai darguzare inro shunida toqatash toq megardad va mushro sakht tanqid namuda, khudashro tarif mekunad:

Ay beadab, tu sharm nadori zi rui man?

Ajdodi tu shudand hama peshi man kalon.

Oboi olii[1] tu buvad kurshabparak

Abnoi sofili[2] tu ham az jinsi siflagon.

Pur kardai zi khok ba har khona raftai,

Ay, khonahoi khalq zi dasti tu khokdon!

Dandonzanist kori tu har jo, ki dona ast,

Hasti hamesha dushmani anbori mardumon.

Gurba khudistoi namuda meguyad:

Bar man bubinu nek tamano bikun maro,

YAne zi sher surati man medihad nishon.

Parrandae, ki bigzarad az peshi chashmi man,

Uro ba changi khesh daroram hamon zamon.

Azbaski dar miyonai mardum mukarramam,

CHoyam hamesha hast va pahlui mehmon.

Ba hamin tariq, khudtarifkunii gurbaro shunida sag ba nizo hamroh meshavad. Vay gurbaro sarzanish namuda, khudashro sitoish mekunad. YAne dar «Bahoriyot» hamagi 18 hayvon ishtirok mekunad, ki yake pas az digare zuhur karda sifathoi manfii tarafi muqobilro yak-yak nombar namuda, mazammat menamoyad va pason va khudsitoi shuru mekunad. Tartibi shirkati jonvaron dar asar chunin ast: mush, gurba, sag, gusfand, gurg, gov, ushtur, sangpusht, khorpusht, ruboh, khargush, maymun, ohu palang, fil, kark, sher va murcha bo bayoni khislathoi badi hamdigar va zikri sifathoi khubi khesh munozirai khele tezutund menamoyand.

SHoir dar tasviri munozirai hayvonot khele mushohidahoi daqiqu nozuk menamoyad, zero ziddiyathoi tibii jonvaronro, ki hatto mardumon niz medonand, qayd namuda nafu zarari rasonidai onhoro takidan bayon mekunad: mushu gurba, gurba va sag, gusfandu gurg va g.

Dar asar khudsitoii khele ziyodero sher dar borai khud va ajdodash ravo mebinad, ki on boisi khashm giriftani murcha megardad. SHer karkro sarzanish mekunad, ki:

Ay sakhtruyu sustqadam, chobuki makun,

Hasti tu pesh yak qadam az govi podabon

Tiflon az zaboni tu parhez mekunand,

Boshi tu dar miyonai in qavm badzabon.

Ajdodi man ba sherri Hudo dast dodaand,

Az chashmi man va agar na ki meyofti Amon.

Hargiz shikorii digarero nakhurdaam,

YAk rah ba khuni murda nayoludaam dahon.

Dar beshae, ki meravamu mekunam qaror,

Berun zi qahtsol shavand ahli on makon.

Bo har ki bingaram, jigarash ob meshavad,

Az mur kamtarand ba chashmam bahoduron.

Sarzanishi sher, ki bahoduron ba murcha muqoisa karda meshavad, tahqir shudani murcha ba sadoi fakhromezi sher boisi khashm giriftani murcha meshavad. Hadafi murcha aslam donpaydokuni bud, vale mazammati sherro shunida gazab mekunad va abnoi jinsi kheshro misol meorad, ki agar mo ittifoq shavemu sarjam gardem, sherri jahonro pust khohem kand:

Dar fikri dona murchae bud dar guzar,

Omad ba SHeru guft, ki:-Ey Rustami zamon!

Az ittifoqi murchagon gofili magar,

V-arna charo haqir shumoriyu notavon?

Huroki ahli bayti man ast az nitoji tu,

Doim pur ast khonam az sher bachchagon.

Tifloni shermasti man imruz shergir,

Heshoni notavoni manand az tu komron.

Tasiri sukhanoni murcha to ba hadde merasad, ki hamai jonvaron az kirdori khesh pushaymon meshavand va onho hatto az hamdigar uzr khosta oshti mekunand. SHoir lahzai mazkurro chunin ba qalim ovardaast:

CHun az zaboni murcha in harf shud baland,

Taslim karda karda rasidand vahshiyon.

Guftand uzrho zi tahi dil ba yakdigar,

Aftod poi oshtiyo andar on miyon.

Mantiqan agar andesha karda shavad, «Bahoriyot» bo kibru gurur ogoz shuda bo nizohoi payopay jarayon girifta to ba intiho qarib davom mekunad. Muhim on ast, ki bo sulh va oshti tamom meshavad va hatto jonvaron az hamdigar uzrpursi menamoyand, ki maqsadi ejodkor tabishi falsafi megirad. YAne hama guna jang ba sulh khotima meyobad. Pas in hamin maniro niz dorad, ki jang, kibru gurur, havobalandi, khudkhohi umri tuloni nadorad va hatman pushaymoni ba bor meorad.

Albatta, ba chunin natijai falsafi rasidani Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi besabab nest. SHoir az ananahoi adabii toislomi va asrimiyonagi ittilooti komil doshta dar ejodiyoti khud az onho kor giriftaast. Sayido dar hamin zamina niz tozakoriho karda metavonad va u chunin ham kardaast. U bo ejodi in asari khud du janbai sunnati adabii milliro taqviyat bakhshidaast: yake osori tamsiliro tahkim bakhshidavu digare adabiyoti munoziraviro ehyo kardaast. Namunai komili asari tamsili-munoziravi «Darakhti Assurik va buz» ast, ki dar adabiyoti asrimiyonagi tasiri farovon guzoshtaast. Makhsusan dar asri XI tavassuti ejodiyoti Nosiri Husrav va beshtar dar osori Asadii Tusi munozira jiloi tozae kasb mekunand. Namunahoi komili munozira panj qasidai Asadii Tusi: «Zaminu osmon», «Tiru kamon», «SHabu ruz», «Gabr va musulmon» «Arabu ajam» ba hisob meravad. Dar in asarho intikhobi mavzu va masalaguzori, halli masala va natijagiri az on tamoman nav, nihoyat muhim va arzishmand meboshad.

«Bahoriyot»-i Sayido hamchun asari adabi, pesh az hama dar naqshi 18- jonvar nishon dodani munosibathoi tabaqavi dar jamiyat ast. Dar rui zamin agar purquvvattarin jonvar sher boshad, haqiru notavon murcha ba shumor meravad.

SHoir hushdor medihad, ki khisoli hamida furutani, khoksori, shikastanafasi, halimi, durandeshi, saburi, khayrkhohi, nekukori, didaroi, tavozu baroi solimii jomea hatmi va noguzir meboshad. Dar muqobili khisoli hamida, ki nombar kardem, khislathoi razila: kibr, gurur, khudkhohi, kutohnazari, havobalandi, sabukandeshi, buzurgmanishi, johtalabi, nodili, pastfitrati, siflagi, dunhimmati, razili, garazkhohi, fitnaangezi guzoshta meshavad. SHoir du pahlui khisoli insoniro (hamida va razilaro) hatto dar nihodi yak jonvar joy medihad. Ajoib on ast, ki zikri khislathoi hamila va dar hamin zamina sodir gardidani kibru gurur va ham tafokhuri bebunyod, az zaboni khudi in va yo on jonvar takid karda meshavad. Vale az tarafhoi manfii hayotu faoliyati khud on jonvar zabon namekushoyad.

Sifathoi zishtu nosavobi on az tarafi jonvari muqobili vay nombar gardida, sarzanish karda meshavad. Vale az tarafhoi manfii hayotu faoliyati khud on jonvar zabon namekushoyad. Sifathoi zishtu nosavobi on az tarafi jonvari muqobili vay nombar gardida, sarzanish karda meshavad, ki khele khub va tabiist. Jarayoni khatti harakati syujet va tezutund gardidani munosibatho, guyo juyoi haqiqati voqei ast. In ast ki shoir onro dar naqshi tabaqahoi baso beozoru zahmatkashtarini ruzgor murcha mebinad va khele khub ham paydo mekunad, zero jarayoni barkhurdho, muqovimati nizoho, bahamoii tazodho chunin rohi halli mushkilotro pesh meorad. Buzurgii shoir, ejodkor va mafkurabardor ham dar hamin ast, ki rohi baromadan az vaziyati baamalomadaro paydo karda tavonad. In mushkilotro Sayido dar sozgorii tabaqahoi ijtimoi dar meyobad. U takid menamoyad, ki har yak tabaqai ijtimoi dar jomea joy, maqole va mavqei khudro dorad.

[1]     Oboi oli- padaru boboyon

[2]     Sofil-past

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