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BURDU BOHTI HAJV

Hojati isbotu dalel nest, ki inson nodirtarin, nozuktarin, latiftarin va khushbakhttarin ofaridai Hudovand ast. Inson zeboiho va nakuihoro his mekunadu dar ogushi tabiat umr ba sar mebarad. Va u az hududi in tabiat berun po monda nametavonad va inro SHohin chunin ba rishtai nazm kashidaast:

       Joe ravam, ki gardun boloi sar naboshad,

       Ammo chi metavon kard, joi digar naboshad.

Bale, Zamin – Modar – Vatan baroi inson yaktost. Va har yak inson dar on ozod ast va bar tinati khud metanad. Ammo haq in ast, ki SHaykh Sadi gufta:

          Bani odam azoi yakdigarand,

          Ki dar ofarinish zi yak gavharand.

          CHu uzve ba dard ovarad ruzgor,

          Digar uzvhoro namonad qaror.

duxtaroni-tojik-100Ba qavli Arastu: “Inson hayvonest madanii bittab, az gami digaron mutaassir meshavad va az khushii onho shod megardad”. Faylasufoni mashhur ba sarohat meguyand, ki asosi akhloq amri mutlaq ast. YAne inson boyad nizomi mavjuda va feliro hifz kunad va joni khudro baroi sozandagi fido sozad. Vale Ofaridagori yakto insonro bo tarkibi chor unsur – garmi, sardi, khushki va tari orostaast. Bad-in tariq zindagi az payvandi tazodho tarkib yoftaast. Inson chunin ofarida meshavad, ki nametavonad, biduni khayru shar libosi hasti bar tan kunad.

Jahonro du quvvai buzurg – Neki va Badi idora mekunad. va to odamu olam hast, in du quvva muqobili hamdigar dar sangarand. In quvvahoi ba ham zid dar nihodi insonho joi girifta, vobasta ba irodai onho zaif va yo purzur megardad. CHun ruz ravshan ast, ki nerui Neki darajae ziyodtar ast. Vagarna az Odamu Odam kayho nomu nishon namemond.

Bale, aslan inson bunyodkor astu sozanda. Mo shohidem, ki dasti gulkori inson sadho chulu biyobonro ba guliston tabdil dodaast. CHunin insonho tavassuti aqli solimu khiradi nek ba martabai sozandagi rasidaand. Mutaassifona, barkhe binobar benasib mondan az farosatu mani badkeshu badkirdor va beoru benomus gashtaand.

Zindagi chun daryo metapad, mekhurushad va ba pesh meravad. CHunon ki dar yak ruboii khalqi omada: “Dunyora ba yak qaror kay mebinam?!” Bale, zamona hamesha dar yak qaror nest, ba qavli Hakim Firdavsi: “Gahe zinsavoru gahe zinbapusht” ast. Va imruz insonhoi badkeshu badkirdor zinsavorand. Onho chunon berahmu beshafqat hastand, ki hayvon ba dast obgiriyash ham muvofiq nameoyad. Na az Hudo metarsandu na bandaashro ba qadri yak dona jav pisand mekunand.

Onho ki az madori odamgari baromadaand, jabru jafo va firebu nayrangro mezoyand, ki oqibatash faqat kasofatu falokat hastu bas.

Baroi on ki kishvar rushd kunad, in hama illatu nuqsonho naboyad pinhon bimonand, lozim ast, ki fosh karda shavand. Mutaassifona, iddae ba husnu qubhi aqli dar akhloq qoil nestand, ba nazari shubhavu nafrat menigarand. Aksar vaqt hayot baroi onho mushkiloti ziyodero ba miyon meorad. Agar bo iborai gushkharosh: “Sazoyash hamin ast!” guyon kanorajui kunem, nafratro ba vujud meorem. Dar sharoite, ki yak guruh nisbat ba guruhi digar nafrat dorad, sozandagi nomumkin meboshad, zero badbini baroi sozandagi zaminai khub shuda nametavonad.

“Didani aybi kheshtan hunar ast” guftaand. Vale kam anadar kam kasone hastand, ki aybu illati khudro mebinand. Hej kas nameguyad, ki dugam turush ast. Guzashta az on purgunohe az gunohi digaron harf mezanad. Iddae in guftai shoirro shiori khesh qaror doda:

          Gar tu gunoh mekuni, gunohi kabira kun,

          To dar jahannam az hama bolonishin shavi.

Magar mo kutohaqlem, khirad ba mo begona ast?

Na, albatta, ne!

SHoir gufta: “Har kasero man-mani dar dil buvad, dur az fazl ast, agar fozil buvad”. Ana hamin “man-mani” imkon namedihad, ki pandi Hakim Firdavsiro ba yod biyorand:

          Digar guft chun peshi dovar shavi,

          Hamon bar, ki kishti hamon bidravi.

Hatto oyati Quroni majid: “Dunyo kishtzori okhirat ast” sarfi nazar karda meshavad.

Zarurat ba takid ast, ki qati nazar az on, ki gunoh sodir mekunand, vale baroi safed kardani khud onro ba charkh havola mekunand. Hayyom inro bo isyon inkor mekunad:

         Nekivu badi, ki dar nihodi bashar ast,

         SHodivu game, ki dar qazovu qadar ast,

         Bo charkh makun havola, k-ardar rahi ishq

         CHarkh az tu hazor bor bechoratar ast.

Hojati isbotu dalel nest, ki agar inson in hama aybu nuqsonhoi khudro nadonadu dark nakunad islohi on az imkon berun ast.

Hoja Hofiz farmudaast:

         Tabibi ishq Masehodam astu mushfiq, lek,

         CHu dard dar tu nabinad kiro davo bikunad.

Dardro ehsos kardan, kasro komiltar mesozad.

Va boz Hoja Hofiz mefarmoyad:

        Odami dar olami khoki nameoyad ba dast,

        Olami digar biboyad sokht v-az nav Odame.

YAne bo aybu illate, ki dar jomea hast, boyad muborizai beamon burd. Tabiist, ki in kor faoliyati bedareg va burdboronaro taqozo mekunad. Va hej shakku shubhae nest, ki in kori yaku du nafar yo yak vazoratu idora nest. Baroi rafi illathoi jomea boyad hama masul boshand. YAk zarbulmasali khalqiro mekhoham ba sami shumo birasonam:

        Ob dar kuzayu mo tashnalabon megardem,

        YOr dar khonayu mo girdi jahon megardem.

Man in zarbulmasali khalqiro baroi on khotirrason kardam, ki dar nishon dodani illathoi jomea hajvnigoron metavonand khele va khele sahmi arzanda bigirand. Mahz vazifai hajv ast, ki chashmi hamagonro ba shinokhti in illatho kushoyad. Tabiist va badehist, ki rafi in illatho tanho fayzu barakat meorad. Bad-in jihat, hajv boyad hamqadamu hamdami mo gardad va ziyoda az on az jonibi rohbaroni hama zinaho dastgirii hamajoniba yobad.

Agarchi dar yak maqola nametavon hamai pahluhoi jonnok kardani janri hajvro barrasi kard, ammo on metavonad sahifai navero dar tarikhi hajvi tojik boz namoyad. Baroi in lozimu zarur ast, ki kholisona, bo dilsuzi, khayrkhohi, khushbini va nekandeshi ba hamdigar munosibat kunem. Fikr mekunam, ki risolati ejodkor inro taqozo mekunad. Va hamzamon naboyad pandi Sadii buzurgvorro faromush kunem:

        Az suhbati duste ba ranjam,

        K-akhloqi badam hasan namoyad.

        Aybam hunaru kamol binad,

        Horam gulu yosuman namoyad.

        Ku dushmani shukhchashmi bebok,

        To aybi maro ba man namoyad.

Dar voqe, hajv chist? Dar “Farhangi zaboni tojiki” hajvro mazammat, maskhara guftaand. Va boz hajvi maleh, yane hajve, ki zohiran sitoish ast. Ba andeshai man hajv nesh ast. Neshe, ki nush medihad. YAne behisob foida mebakhshad. Behuda: “Handa – habib, gam – raqib!” – nameguyand. Hajv in shodiest, ki anduh dorad. Anduhest, ki shodi dorad. Hoja Abdullohi Ansori guftaast: “SHodii beanduh az anduh kushandatar ast”.

Sarchashmahoi tarikhi az on shahodat medihand, ki niyogoni mo nisbat ba hajv maylu ragbati ziyode doshta, dar ravandi zindagi az on istifoda mekardaand.

Tazakkur boyad dod, ki hajv ba vositai surati zohiri, raftoru kirdori inson ba botin va jahoni manavii inson nazar meafkanad. YAne bo bovari guftan mumkin ast, ki hajv oinai botini inson ast. Dar in robita ruboie ba yodam meoyad:

        Rav, dida biduz, to dilat dida shavad,

        Z-on dida jahoni digarat dida shavad.

        Gar didai dil ba zikri haq bikshoi,

        Bar bomi falak harchi buvad dida shavad.

Hajv harchand doroi ohanghoi latif boshad ham, lek onro mazmuni amiqi tanqidi oro medihad. Matlabi asosi ham dar hamin ast. Ustodi hajv Ubaydi Zokoni guftaast:

        Ba mazohat naguftam in guftor,

        Hazl bigzoru jild az u bardor!

Dar yak maqolai khud nomzadi ilmi filologiya Boymurod SHarifzoda menavisad: “Ba ruboii zer ahamiyat dihed:

        Dushina, shabe ki barf bar dusham bud,

        Zonu chu arusi nav dar ogusham bud.

        Pushidanie nabud juz chashmonam,

        CHize, ki ba zari sar niham, gusham bud.

Lutfi sukhani in ruboi hama kasro mekhandonad, vale in jo fojiae tasvir shudaast va boyad ba holi guyandai on girist, na khandidan. Insoni fozilro hama vaqt manzarahoi olami hasti aziyat medihad, vale baroi gofilonu khomtabon hamai in chizho masarratbakhshand. Ba qavli hazrati Bedil:

       Homtabon az fishori ranji dahr osudaand,

       Pukhtagi angurro zindonii khum kardaast”.

Hamin tavr hajv baroi peshgiri namudani nokhushi, giriftani peshi rohi odamoni badkirdoru badakhloq va amalhoi nopoki onho musoidat menamoyad. Bad-in ru ba khulosae meoem, ki hajv janrest sharif va marifatest latif.

Dar yak haftanoma andeshai munaqqidro khondam: “Dar adabiyoti muosiri tojik felan natanho munaqqidoni kasbii sohai hajv, balki khudi hajv vujud nadorad”. CHunin aqidaro az zaboni yak adib ham shunidam. Ki medonad, shoyad onho az rui maqoli “to bad nagui nek pesh nameoyad” amal karda boshand. Lekin az in aybjui ba hayrat omadam. Hatto bovaram naomad, ki in harfi sar-sarivu ruyakiro yak adib meguyad. Har kase ki zabon ba baho mekushoyad boyad faromush nakunad: “Ahli dilro chinii khotir buvad az had latif”. Lekin zaboni man namegardad guyam, ki dar mo hajv nest. Hajv hast, vale himat nest. Ba qavli ustod Kuhzod: “Hikoyahoi khubi adabiyoti khudamon boshad, dar holati hastandu nestand memonand – yak kas medonadu sad kas namedonad”.

Baroi chi? Avvalan chunon, ki meguyand obi dari khona khira. Soniyan boz ham ba qavli ustod Kuhzod “dar minbarhoi baland voiz yo rovie nadorad, ki payvasta “vaz guyadu rovigi bikunad”.

Zarurat ba takid ast, ki qati nazar az on, ki ba janri hajv ahamiyat doda nameshavad hajvnigoroni ziyode dar in janr zahmat kashidand va kashida istodaand. CHunin hajvnigoron Burhon Gani, Samad Gani, Toji Usmon, Rahim Jalil, Hoji Sodiq, Ashur Safar, Ahmadshoh Mahmadshoh, Rahmat Zaydullo, Bolta Ortiq, Abdulqahhor Muhammadali bo gamu dardi hajv rakht az in jahoni puroshub barbastand va ba olame, ki ba on etiqod nadoshtand, rahsipor gardidand.

Ruhashon shodu gurashon purnur bod!

Imruz bo zahmati Basir Raso, Bahodur Fayzullo, Saidahmadi Zardon, Mahkam Pulod, Mirzo Fayzali, Abdusattori Rahmon, Hakimali Nazarali, Imomiddin Rahimi, Dodokhon Egamzod, Najmidini SHohinbod, Qurbon Alamsho, Imomnazar Holnazar, Holmurod SHarifov, Karim Davlat, Gurez Safar, Sadullo Muso, Abdurauf Murodi, Hikmat Nemat, Bakhtiyori Juma, Emomi Nazar, Abdurahmon Rasuli, Gaforalii Safar, Samariddin Asozoda, Vahhob Odina, Muzaffar Nematzoda, Muhamadjon Toshtemirov, Saidahmadi Hasan, Bobojoni Ikrom, Safo Halimi va digaron mulki hajv obod va degi tanzu mutoiba dar jush ast. Albatta har kadome rohu ravishi khudro dorad, sukhani khudro dorad.

Ammo imruz bisyoriho ba husnu qubhi akhloqii hajv qoil nestand, ba on ba nazari shakku badbini menigarad va guzashta az on onro nolozim medonand. Ne, imruz hajv chun obu havo zarur ast. Roje ba hajv imruz erodho bisyorand va gilamandii khonandagon dar in khusus joiz ast.

Harchand, ki imruz baroi hajnigoron sharoiti musoid va imkoniyati vase faroham omada boshad ham, hajv dar holati tashvishomez qaror dorad. On az tazodhoi zindagii voqei khele va khele qafo mondaast. YAke az shokhahoi jangovari on – feleton tamoman barham khurdaast.

Matbuotro oinai hayot meguyand, ki rost ast. Oinaest, ki koru paykor, muvaffaqiyatu kambudihoro aks mekunad va khushdor medihad, ki ba korhoi nek payravi karda, pai islohi kambudi shitobem. Vale yak chiz az ruz ham rushantar ast, ki in oina imruz purgubor ast. Zero sohibonash shohu tabashon vazir! Hama ruznomayu majallaho goliban hajvi khorijiro chop mekunand va mavodi tayyorro az digar gazetaho megirand. Alhol in raviya ravnaqu rivoj dorad. Ba qavli Salimi Hatloni mo naboyad ohi az dil jastaro poybandi lab sozem. In ba peshrafti hajvi milli zarba mezanad, dar diyori mo tukhmi bejavhari mekorad. Va besabab ham Salimi Hatloni bo iztirobu suzu gudoz nameguyad:

          Voy bar qavme, ki ablahparvar ast,

          Masnadi begonagonash mafkhar ast.

Aslan, ba hajvnigoron kamhavsalagi va betafovuti khos nest va mahz in khislati onho nameguzorad, ki ba bisyor masalahoi jomea betaraf boshand. Vale imruz guyo onho ba dome aftodaandu kushishi rahoii khudro dorand, ammo nametavonand. Hazrati Bedil in holatro khele khub tafsir kardaast:

          Ey voy bar asire, k-az yod rafta boshad,

          Dar dom khufta boshad, sayyod rafta boshad.

CHaro inguna vaziyat ba miyon omadaast? Sabab bisyor ast. YAke az sababho, ba fikri man on ast, ki yak idda adibon va ham masuloni in soha hajvro duyumindaraja va sahlu sodda medonand.

Ustod Mirzo Tursunzoda gufta budand: “Natijai chuqur donistani hayot va inikosi realistii on az tarafi navisanda dar povesti “Margi sudkhur” ba vujud ovardani obrazi Qori Ishkamba meboshad”.

Afsus, omuzishi hayoti voqei va tahayyuli rangin maqomi kheshro to ba hol paydo nakardaast. Az in ru hajvi mo sathi va umumi meboshad. Ustod Urun Kuhzod durust navishtaand: “Hajvi mamulii mo, goliban dar hikoya, latifa monand ast va takya ba khushgui va sukhanbozi dorad. Usluban beshtar maskharaboziro memonad va binobar on mavzuro sof yaktarafa mebinad. Va taasurote paydo meshavad, ki hikoya guyo dar havo muallaq istodaast – poyai ijtimoiyash mustahkam nest”.

Hajv pesh az hama boyad az mohiyati voqea barkhesta, ravandhoi ijtimoi, akhloqi va maishii hayotro az nazari borikbinonai tadqiqi badei guzaronad. Hajvi ijtimoi dar shuuru dili khonanda on angezaero, ki adib intizor ast hatman ba vujud meorad. Mahz ba tavassuti chunin hajv adib metavonad khonandaro ba gamu anduh va mushkilotu problemahoi khalq sharik sozad.

Soniyan dar ponzdah soli sohibistiqloli az tarafi Ittifoqi navisandagoni Tojikiston baroi jonnok kardani janri hajv qarib taloshe surat nagiriftaast.

Hanuz soli 1954 ustod Mirzo Tursunzoda gufta budand: “Dar tashkiloti navisandagoni Tojikiston yak khislati bad rasm shudaast, ki nasrnavison faqat gami nasrro, shoiron gami nazmro va dramaturgho gami dramaturgiyaro mekhurand. Ammo khalqi mo gami tamomi adabiyotro mekhurad, yak janrro az janri digar judo namekunad. Navisandagoni mo ham boyad dar borai taraqqiyoti hamai janrhoi adabiyot yakjoya gamkhori kunand”.

Janri hajv hissu samimiyati khosa, safoi dilu ruh, nazari ustuvor va asolati qatiro talab mekunad. YAne ham mahorat va ham jasorat lozim ast. Ba qavli ustod Hudoi SHarifov: “Jasorat boshad, zodai marifat ast”.

Zarurat ba takid ast, ki jasorat metavonad ba sari hajnigor nokhushihoi ziyodero biyorad. Va Sahibyori Tolib durust qayd kardaast: “Agar imruz arobakashero hajv kunand, pagoh shoyad zeri charkhi aroba memonand”.

Bore dar ruznoma chunin khabarro khondam: “…Dar pakhtazori brigadai S. Saidov (az kolkhozi ba nomi Telman) govhoi shakhsi charida megardandu sardor az in parvoe nadorad…”. Va sheri hajvie navishtam.

                Holabegam Saidov,

                Kori tu vadabozi.

                Az mo, mardumi mehnat,

                Doimo megurezi.

                Hosili pakhta pomol,

                Zeri poi govu khar.

                Az soyai labi havz

                Tu kay mebardori sar?

                Dar sahro pakhta chinand

                Bachahoi maktabkhon,

                Vale kheshu taborat,

                Ba sui bozor ravon.

                Koru raftorat agar,

                Hamesha boshad chunin,

                Nomi tu, Holabegam

                Sazoyat boshad hamin.

In sheri hajvi mohi oktyabri soli 1973 dar ruznomai “Kommuna”-i nohiyai Vahdat chop shud. Azobhoi kashidaamro Hudo medonadu khudam.

Dar in mavzu boz yak ishorae ba takid niyoz dorad. Dar zamoni SHuravi har yak materiali tanqidi az tarafi matbuot na tanho khele khub pazirufta meshud, balki baroi bartaraf kardani illathoi dar on zikryofta chaspu talosh mekardand. Imruz ruznomavu majallaho in jasoratro az dast dodaand. Az chopi hajviyahoi tezu tund khuddori mekunand. Hamin tavr hajviyahoi man “Orzu”, “Naqsh”, “Obi toza” chop nashudand. Hodimi ruznoma guft: “Mon istad, bad dar kitobat chop mekuni”. CHi qadar alamangez ast, vaqte chize menavisivu on rui chopro namebinad.

Ore, khele gussaovar ast!

Baze rafiqon dar adabiyoti mo peshtar hajv nabud gufta aqibmonii hajvro safed kardani meshavand. Ammo in fikr nodurust ast. Hajvi tojik tarikhi qadima dorad. Hanuz az qadim Afandivu Mushfiqi bo hajvu zarofat fikri jomearo bayon mekardand. Hazrati Muhammad niz hajvro dust medoshtaand. Bore zane ba nazdi Paygambar (S) omada, khohish mekunad, ki ba u ushtur dihand. On kas meguyand, ki man ba tu bachai ushtur mediham. Zan khafa meshavad. Paygambar (S) meguyand, ki “charo meranji? Magar hamai ushturho bachai ushtur nestand? SHoyad man ba tu bachai sisolai ushturro diham?!”

Dar arafai Ruzi khanda dar kuchai YArsevski Moskva mujassamai tasvirii qahramoni shinokhtai latifavu khandai sharq Hoja Nariddin guzoshta shud. Mujassamai Qahramoni folklori khalqi tojik va umuman sharq Hoja Nasriddin bo kharash dar nazdi haykali baron Myunkhauzen guzoshta shudaast. Dar borai in qahramoni folklori khalqhoi ziyode navishtaand. Navisanda, shoiri shinokhtai tojik Temur Zulfiqorov ziyoda az 300 asar dar borai Hoja Nasriddin ejod namudaast.

Iddae bar on aqidaand, ki zamona gunahgor ast. Ne, zamona ayb nadorad, har ayb, ki hast dar zamonasozii most. Bazeho aybi khudro hunar mehisoband. CHi khub guftaast SHaykhi SHeroz:

          …Ki burhon qavi boyadu manavi,

          Na raghoi gardan ba guftan qavi.

Tanqid albatta asal nest, talkh ast. SHoire chi khub gufta:

          CHi khush guft yak ruz dorufurush,

          SHafo boyadat dorui talkh nush.

Ammo hajvro bisyoriho durust namefahmand. Bardoshti nodurust boisi ranjishu kina megardad. Binobar in hatman etiroz mekunand: “In hajv ne, tahqir ast!”.

Ustod Gulnazar bo figon: “Faryod zi donoii nodonii mo!” gufta khushdor dodaast:

          Az dasti manu tu gar naoyad kore,

          Dar kishvari bedod, biyo, dod zanem!

Akbari Turson dar yak maqolai khesh navishta: “Loiq “tojikemu ba ham najushida, tojikemu na khayrkhohi khudem” gufta, az khulqi milliamon shoirona nolidaast va zimnan afzuda:

          CHorai holash bigui, kina girad,

          Boz nolad az gami bechoraholi”.

Hajvi asil manaviyotsoz ast. Va qabuli on nigohu zavqi solim mekhohad. Agar ruhi kase az on bahra burda natavonad, pas in ruh bemor ast. Bale, ruhi notavonu bechora hasad mebarad, rashk mebarad va mayli tana zadan doradu makkori kardan. Mikhail Prishvin navishtaast: “Be hajv tanho ahmaqon zindagi mekunand”. Anton CHekhov ham khele durust khitob karda: “Ne ponimaet chelovek shutki – pishi propalo!” Va shoir ham chi nishonras suruda:

          SHahd agarchi nasibi har magas ast,

          Lazzat on kas barad, ki shahdras ast.

Tabiist, ki harchi mekhonemu mushohida mekunem az andeshai mo meguzaradu fahmi mo darmeyobad va hosili aqli mo meshavad. Mutaassifona, in hosil imruz khele puch ast. Jaholatu toriki, khusumatu notavonbiniho chashmi shuuri didan va shinokhtani farhangi milliro chunon notavon kardaast, ki kas ba dahshat meoyad.

Dar har qadam mo bo onhoe ru ba ru meoem, ki iftikhori milliro nodida megirand, zaboni modariro poymol menamoyand. Ba vaboi mahalgaroi pechida, ba mahalho judo shuda, bayni khud khusumat mevarzand. Ruznomanigor Ahmadi Ibrohim durust menavisad: “Hamin tavr khudi tojikon Tojikistonro kayho sarfi nazar az moddahoi alohidai Sarqonuni kishvar dar borai yakporchagi pora-porayu pareshon kardaand. Baze ziyoiyoni mahalgaroi badbakhtash boshand, dar suhbathoi khosa baroi bolida kardani tabi hamsuhbaton va past zadani martabai mahalli digar latifaho meguyand”.

Az in ru bo ehsosi balandi khudshinosivu iftikhori milli, bo darki risolati ejodi har on illate, ki baroi peshrafti jomeai mo khalal merasonad, betakhir ba rishtai hajv kashidan korest khele savob. Va ba har kase ki ba in mone megardad, hatman boyad hayfi shumo elon karda shavad.

Aknun mekhoham dar borai munosibati munaqqidon ba hajv tavvaqquf kunam. Hajv chun digar janrhoi adabiyot be tanqidi adabi dushvori mekashad. Tanho az ejodiyoti du hajnigor misol meoram. YAke Bahodur Fayzullo ast, ki asarhoi hajviash az soli 1951 chop meshavand. Ruykhati asarhoi hajviash dar khonai “Hajvu khanda”-i shahri Gaprovoi Bulgoriya mahfuz ast. Albatta, asarhoi u kambudi dorand, ammo az muvaffaqiyat niz kholi nestand. Mutaassifona, maqolai yagon munaqqidro dar borai asarhoi Bahodur Fayzullo nakhondaam.

Digare Ahmadshoh Mahmadshoh meboshad, ki solhoi ziyod maydoni hajvro obod namuda, hikoyahoi namakini khudro ba khonandagon peshkash namud. Hikoyahoi hajvii u az nazmi guzashtai niyogonamon ob khurda, bo sabku uslubi khosae insho gashta, ba dilu didai havodoroni kalomi jazzobashon joy shudand. Risolati hajvnigorii Ahmadshoh Mahmadshoh dar mujazbayoniyu tozabayoni va zabonu bayoni pur az ramzu roz va digar sanathoi ofarandagi huvaydo meshavad. CHunon ki Nizomii Ganjavi farmudaast:

            Kam guyu guzida guy chun dur,

            To z-andaki tu jahon shavad pur.

Dar ejodiyoti u ejozi sukhan, yane bo lafzi andak bayon kardani manoi bisyor dida meshavad. Inak, chand misol:

“Ba sartarosh:

– Ehtiyot shaved, barodar. Huni odami ob nest”.

“Ba furushanda:

– Sabr kuned, khoharam. Pul jon nest, ki zud baroyad”.

Va yo:

“Ruzat ba maosh monad”.

“Ruzat ba STO aftad”.

Bubined chi guna ravon, khushohang, giro va khotirnishin ba qalam ovardaast. In tanzho dilu ruhi khonandaro ba kovishu tapish khohad ovard va ba andesha hidoyat khohad kard.

Muntazir istoda sukut ikhtiyor kardani munaqqidon ba janri hajvi tojik zarari kalon rasondaast. Albatta, dar matbuot yakto-nimto maqola ba chashm merasad. Vale dar onho jihathoi musbat va manfii janri hajv tahlili chuquri khudro nayoftaand. Hol on ki tahlili dar sari vaqt karda, doirai asarhoi hajviro vase menamoyad va ba navisanda gayrati nav mebakhshad.

Mo boyad behtarin dastovardhoi hajvro tahlilu tadqiq namuda, dari korgohi ejodii muallifonashro ba rui khonanda boz namoem.

Umuman adibro betarafiyu beetinoii haqalamonash azob medihad. Ba kuyi yasu noumedi meandozad. Az dili beshafqat sakhttaru sardtar jirme nest. Dar in joda ejodkoron boyad ba hamdigar yori rasonand. Ba muvaffaqiyatho va kambudihoi hamdigar diqqat dihand, baroi taqdiri janri hajv barobar masul shavand.

Boz yak ishorae ba takid niyoz dorad. In pardokhti haqi qalam meboshad. Imruz yagon ruznoma haqi qalam namedihad. Agar guyam, ki hej adib baroi pulu mol qalam ba dast namegirad, khato nameshavad. Vale naboyad faromush kard, ki adib ham inson ast va uro ham tamini ruzgor zarur ast. Hazor sol az in muqaddam zamindori davlatmand Firdavsii tusi ham bo taminoti amironi somoni ba navishtani “SHohnoma” shuru karda bud va vaqte ki Sulton Mahmud dar ivazi on shohkor puli kam dod, shoir sakht ranjid.

Gumon mekunam, ki yake az sadd ast. In saddi mushkilro boyad az bayn bardosht.

CHunon ki ustod Kuhzod menavisad: “nashriyothoi khususi, bino ba iqtisodi bozargoni, boyad asarhoi bozorgirro yoband va farmoyand va nashr kunand va furushand va ham haqi muallifro dihand va ham foyida girand. CHunin zahmat kashand, halolashon bod. Ammo dar amal chunin nest. Inho az muallif pul megirand”.

Ore, qonunhoi sangini iqtisodi bozorgoni batadrij jori meshavand va az onho joi gurez nest. Va jaybi be in ham kholii ahli qalamro kholitar mekunad. Va Bedili sukhansanji borikfikr niz farmuda, ki:

    Hujumi shikvai har kas zi dardi muflisi boshad,

    Nakhezad nola az nay, to buvad magz ustukhonashro.

Va boz in bayti mashhuri Bedili buzurg ba yod meoyad:

       Ru ba Hind ovardani sohibdilon az bahri chist?

       Ruzgor oinaro muhtoji khokistar kunad.

In holat adibonro ba rohi puljui hidoyat mekunad. Dar in shoyad badie naboshad. Vale dar in ruydod yak juze noforam ast, ki ustod Gulnazar gufta:

          Guyand: “chiho metalabi az olam?”

          Man bar dari har gado gadoi nakunam!

Mekhoham chand sukhan dar borai yake az pisandatarin janri adabi latifa guyam. Garchande latifa dar adabiyoti zaboni forsi tarikhi qadima dorad, ammo imruz rivoju ishtihori ziyod nayoftaast. CHunon, ki ustod Hudoi SHarifov menavisad: “Dar adabiyoti zamoni guzashta latifa shaklhoi ziyode dorad, zero hajvu hazlu mutoiba dar sukhani shifohi padid meoyad va ba vositai majozu kinoya, ihom va sayri manoi kalima bunyod karda meshavand”. Dar “Farhangi zaboni tojiki” latifaro bazla, shukhi va mutoiba, nuktai daqiq, sukhani bozarofat, kalomi mukhtasari purmano guftaand. Latifa az reshai folklori ob mekhurad va mahz ba hamin sabab shuuri zoyandaro dorost. Ahmad Gulchini Maoni latoifro az jumlai munozarot va muhozarot medonad. “Dar haqiqat, – menavisad ustod Hudoi SHarifov, – dar latifa munozirai du nafar asosi shakl buda, hozirjavobi va tasdiqi nazar natijai on ast”.

Dar latifa sadero boyad yake guft. Payombari giromi hazrati Muhammad (s) farmudaand: «Aybi sukhan darozii on ast». YO baraks dar hadisi digare takid namudaand: «Zeboii sukhan ba kutoh va ikhtisor ast».

Sukhani khubro gufta tavonistan va tavassuti sukhan hozirjavobi kardan ham hunar ast. Baroi taqviyati in fikr chand hikoyatero az Ubaydi Zokoni meoram:

“Amir Temur az Talhak mepursad:

– Bahoi man chand ast?

U meguyad:

– Du hazor diram.

Amir dar gazab shuda meguyad, ki in chi bahoest, ki tu ba man medihi? Hud bahoi kamarbandam hamin qadar ast.

U meguyad:

– Man ham faqat ba kamarbandi shumo baho dodam.

Amirro in javob khush meoyad”.

Va yo:

“Sulton Mahmud sar ba zonui Talhak nihoda bud, guft:

– Tu dayusonro chi boshi?

Guft:

– Bolish”.

YAne, ki hajv boyad dilkusho boshad. Ustodi hajv Ubaydi Zokoni risolaashro «Dilkusho» nomidaast. In manii chuqur dorad. Hamaguna dogu dard bo khushnudi, bo raftori nekbinona raf meshavad.

Vujudi latifaro nafosati sukhan tashkil doda, kayfiyati zeboiro bedor mekunad. CHun tashnaest dar khumori chashmai musaffo. Hayf ast, agar chashma loy boshad.

Dar in kori khayr ruznomaho boyad sahm bigirand. CHaro latifahoi gayrro ba chashmi khonandaho bifishorem? Magar mo latifa nadorem? Naboyad, ki obi dari khona beqadr shavad. Orzu mekunam, ki shoyad ruze: “Bikhandad lola bar sahro ba soni chehrai Laylo…”

CHand nafare bar on aqidaand, ki guyo adibone, ki dar digar janrhoi adabiyot komyob namegardand ba hajv ru meorand. Bahrom Firuz ham dar yak maqolaash gushras karda bud: “CHaro adiboni bebaror zuri khudro dar bobi tanqidi adabi, tarjuma, hajv, naqiza va gayra naozmoyand?!”

In aqidaro faoliyati ejodii ustodon Pulod Tolis, Fazliddin Muhamadiev va Urun Kuhzod botil mesozad.

Bisyor erod megirand, ki hajvi mo chun hajvi rusho nest. Albatta, in jo mavridi muqoisa kardan nest, in kori digar ast. Vale boyad biguem, ki hajvi mo boyad ruhiyai milli doshta boshad.

Bisyor taassuf mekhuram, ki kurs-konferensiyai adiboni javon, ki soli 2005 guzasht, yagon hajnigorro kashf nakard.

Bo vujudi obodiyu peshravi hanuz ham illatu nuqsonho joy dorad. Ustod Gulnazar dar yak ruboii khud meguyad:

       Ey dard, guzar, ki fasli bedardon ast,

       Mardi, tu birav, ki davri nomardon ast.

       Hayfo, ki sukhan chu etirozi Tolis

       Dar halqai resmon nafasgardon ast.

Guyo Hoja Hofiz in satrhoi purshuru purehtirosro dar borai hajvnigoron suruda boshad:

      SHabi toriku bimi mavju girdobe chunin hoil,

      Kujo donand holi mo sabukboroni sohilho.

YO in ki:

      Kishti shikastagonem, ey bodi shurta, barkhez,

      Boshad ki boz binem didori oshnoro.

“Bodi shurta” metavonad Ittifoqi navisandagoni Tojikiston boshad. YAne bomuvaffaqiyat taraqqi yoftani janri hajv ba on vobasta ast, ki to chi andoza Ittifoqi navisandagoni Tojikiston kori khudro muvofiqi talaboti zamon ba roh monda metavonad. Qobili zikr ast, ki mo hajvnigoroni puristedod va javononi qobil dorem. Zamon ehsosi masuliyatro taqozo mekunad. To tavonem ba ejodkoron gamkhori va dasti yori daroz namoem.

        To tavoni mardumi sohibhunarro kun madad,

        Rohi khudro behunar bo sad hiyal paydo kunad.

Buzurgon mefarmoyand: “Du chiz tiragii aql ast: khomushi ba vaqti guftanu guftan ba vaqti khomushi”. Bale, vazifai hajvnigoron nuqsonhoi jomiashro fosh kardan ast. Tavre, ki shaykh Sadi meguyad:

          Agar bini, ki nobinovu choh ast,

          Agar khomush binshini gunoh ast.

Dar hama davru zamon, dar hama guna jamiyat shakhsone, ki nuqsonro mebinandu khomush menishinand, dar nazdi Hudoyu khalqu davlat gunahkorand. Ba in mani Prezidenti kishvar, muhtaram E. SH. Rahmonov chunin guftaast: “Kase, ki dar rohi muborizai ziddi jinoyatkori shirkat namekunad, khudi u gunahkor ast va kase ki jinoyatkoriro mepushonad, khudi u jinoyatkor ast”.

Oshkor solkhtani illathoi jomea behtarin vositai faro khondan ba hushyorist. Imruz meboyad darakhti dustiro beshtar binshond. Hofizi Buzurg chi durbinona gufta:

    Darakhti dusti binshon, ki komi dil ba bor orad,

    Niholi dushmani barkan, ki ranji beshumor orad.

“Niholi dushmani” ana hamin illathoi jomea meboshand. Meboyad onro reshakan kard, zero: “Dushmani orad ba mardum ruzi sakht!”.

Ore, dusti sozanda astu dushmani suzanda!

Ammo dar barobari in boyad ehtiyot kunem, ba hayajon va hassosiyat doda nashavem. Nuqsonhoro purshuru purehtiros ne, oromona va boadabona fosh sozem. Dar aksi hol hajvi mo boisi bardoshti nodurust gardida, metavonad igvoi nav va kinavu adovati navro barangezad.

      Sukhan donista gu, to dustro dushman nagardoni,

      Zi harfi bumuruvvat oshno begona megardad.

Hajv naboyad tahqir boshad va chun khor ba dil khalad.

         Hor dar po inchunin dushvoryob,

         Hor dar dil chun buvad, vodeh javob.

Islom ham onro mahkum mekunad: “Izoi bandai mumin harom ast”.

Vaqti gaflatu tanbalgari guzasht. Vaqti iqdom astu sayu jiddu jahd.

    Vaqti on ast, ey qalam, burrandatar gardi zi teg,

    Vaqti on ast, ey sukhan, gurrandatar gardi zi barq.

Habib YUsufi in satrhoi hayajonbakhshro dar ruzi avvali Jangi Buzurgi Vatani navishtaast.

Imruz ham jang ast. Jang bo badakhloqi. Hajvnigoron   boyad bo tamomi vujudashon in padidai nomatlubro nafrat kunand va bo khanjari tezi hajv onro pora-pora sozand. Bale, hajv boyad in hamaro chun khasu khoshok suzonada khokistar kunad. Zero: “Has kamu jahon pok!”.

28 marti soli 2006

 

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Kitobi Rudaki

Maqomi voloi sher, hunari ofarandagi va khizmathoi buzurgi adabii Ustod Rudakiro bisyor shoironi qarnhoi jahorum …