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BUHORSHAVII OB VA PAYDOISHI ABR

Bukhori ob dar havo. Dar hama joi havo bugi ob khast. On khangomi bukhorshavy, ki dar harorati musbatu manfy doimo az sathi khushki. nabotot, hayvonot, kulu daryo, obanborkho, barfu yakh ba amal meoyad. ba atmosfsra dokhil meshavad. Manbai asosii obi atmosfera bukhorshavy az sathi bahru uqyonuskho (qarib 86% bugi khavo) meboshad. Miqdori bugi ob dar havo ba harorati havo vobasta ast. \ar qadar sathi Zamin garm boshad, bukhorshavi hamon qadar ziyod meshavad. Bod niz bukhorshaviro afzun menamoyad. Albatta, mushohida kardaed, ki hangomi vazidani bodi sust ham kulmakho va libos zud khushk meshavand. Hatto dar havoi khunuki zimiston ham ob bukhor meshavad. Inro az khushk shudani libosi tar pay burdan mumkin ast.

bugshavi

Bukhori ob noayon va az havo sabuktar ast. On vaqte ayon megardad, ki havo khunuk shavad va zarrahoi noayoni ob yakh karda, qatrahoi khurdtarini ob tumanro ba vujud meorad. Masalan, shabongah badi ruzi sofu garm hangomi khunuk shudani sathi Zamin dar khamiho pardai tuman mekhobad, dar boloi alaf qatrahoi shabnamro mebinem. Zimiston, hangomi az had ziyod shudani sardy, dar darakhton qirav paydo meshavad (Dar daftari havosanji dar mohhoi zimiston ruzhoero yobed, ki tuman, qirav mushohida shudaast. Havo az in ruzho peshtar chi khel bud va on chy khel tagyir yoft?).

Bahoron, avvali tobiston dar natijai tafsidani sathi Zamin havoi garmi serrutubat bolo baromada, dar balandii muayyan khunuk meshavad, abrhoi gafsi tudagy hosil megardand.

Miqdori bugi obe, ki 1 metri mukaabi havo dar harorati muayyan dar khud nigoh doshta metavonad, qobiliyati namigunjoishi havo nomida meshavad. Qobiliyati namigunjoishi 1 m3 havo dar harorathoi gunogun chunin ast:

–     10° C to 1 gramm ob

–    5° C to 2 gramm ob

–    0° C to 5 gramm ob

+10° C to 9 gramm ob

+20° C to 17 gramm ob

+30° C to 30 gramm ob

Havoi az bugi ob ser va noser. Hangomi bukhorshavy havo obro ba miqdori nomahdud dar khud nigoh doshta nametavonad. In had ba harorati havo vobasta ast. Masalan, 1 m3 havo dar harorati 20 m3 S go 17 g bugi ob doshta metavonad. Havoero, ki bukhori obi doshtaash beshtar onro joy doda nametavonad, bugi ser menomand (Az rui rasmi muayyan kuned, ki baroi be bukhori ob ser shudani havo hangomi tagyir yoftani harorat dar har 10 daraja S az – 20″ S to 30° S chand gramm ob darkor ast. In ifodaro ba okhir rasoned: ”Har qadar harorat baland boshad hamon kadar…….”). Havoe, ki dar sathi garm, vale khushk mavjud ast. odatan kamtar bukhori ob dorad. CHunin havoro havoi khushk) noser menomand. Hangomi khunukshavii on ob na hamesha judo meshavad. Masalan, agar harorati havo 30 daraja S va nami dar 1 m hamagi 16 g boshad, hangomi to 20″ S khunuk shudan ob judo nameshavad.

Agar havoi ser garm shavad, havoi noser megardad.

Inro bahoron, vakte ki pagohiruzi nurhoi Oftob sathi Zaminro garm mekunandu qatrahoi shabnam, tuman nest meshavand, mushohida namudan mumkin ast (Az rui rasmm muqarrar kuned, ki 1 m mukaab havoi dar harorati 10 daraja S sershuda dar zurati to 20 daraja S ziyod shudani harorat chi qadar bukhori ob gunjonda metavonad?).

Rutubati havo. Dar malumoti obu havo az radio va televizion shumo meshunaved: rutubati havo, masalan, 60%. In chi mano dorad?

Rutubati havo odatan du khel meshavad: nisbi va mutlaq. Rutubati nisbi darajai az bukhori ob ser shudani havo meboshad. YAne nisbati miqdori namii havo ba on miqdore, ki dar chunin harorat doshta metavonad. Onro bo foiz ifoda mekunand. Agar, masalan, hangomi 30″ S budani harorat dar havo tanho 15 g ob. yane nisfi miqdori ehtimoli boshad, on goh rutubati nisbi ba 50% barobar ast. Rutubati tobiston rutubati nisbi, hatto 30- 20% meshavad. Rutubati nisbii havoi ser ba 1 00% barobar ast.

Dar ayni vakt dar 1 metr murabba havo chand gramm mavjud budani bukhori obro rutubati mutlaq menomand. On bo gramm dar m mukaab (g/m ’) ifoda karda meshavad.

Havo tabiatan az bukhori ob ahyon-ahyon ser ast, vale khamesha yagon miqdori onro dorad. Dar yagon joi Zamin 0 foiz rutubati nisbi mushohida nashudaast.

Dar stansiyahoi meteorologi rutubati havo bo asbobn gigrometr (az yunoni “gigro” rutubat), chen karda meshavad; gayr az in asbobi khudnavisi gigrografro istifoda mebarand.

Abr va tuman. Gunshavii qatrahoi ob yo kristallhoi maydai yakhro, ki az sathi Zamin khele baland meboshand, gayr menomand. Agar gunshavii qatrahoi ob dar havo ba vujud oyad, onro tuman menomand. Sababi asosii paydoishi ham abr va ham tuman yak ast: judoshavii qatrahoi ob hangomi khunuk shudani havoe, ki az buhori ob ser ast. Dar havoi haroratash az 0” S past abr az kristallkhoi maydai yakh iborat meboshad.

Abrho shaklhoi gunogun dorand, ki az holathoi paydoish, balandi, bod vobasta ast (rasmhoi 73 va 74). Albatta, didaed, ki abr shaklashro doim tagyir medihad.

Hama namudhoi abrro az rui shakl ba se guruhi asosi judo mekunand: abrhoi parmonand, abrhoi gafsi tudagi va abrhoi serqabat. Har yaki onho shaklhoi gunogun dorand.

Abrhoi parmonand dar balandikhoi 6 km va az in ham ziyod hosil meshavand; in abrho az hama baland buda, az kristallchahoi yakh iboratand. Abrkhoi parmonandro ruzi oftoby ham dar osmon didan mumkin ast.

Abri gafsi tudagi qismi poyonash az sathi Zamin 1-2 km baland buda, qismi boloyash to 6 km merasad. Agar jarayoni zuri havoi garmshavanda zud baland shavad, on goh abri gafsi tudagi dar balandy zud kalon va domanai on siyoh shuda, ba nazar chunin merasad, ki darhol boron meborad. Dar marzi Tojikiston az in abr bazan boroni sel meborad va in abrro abri tudagii boroni yo selboroni menomand (Oyo shumo dar mahalaton chunin abrhoro mushohida kardaed? Dar kadom fasli sol beabrirdidaed?).

Abri serqabat (qabat-qabat) odatan az yakchand qabat iborat buda. dar balandii 2 6 km. hosil meshavad. Bazan nn abrho tamomi osmonro purra mepushonand, ki hatto dar kujo budani oftobro muayyan kardan dushvor ast. Hama navhoi abr dar natijai harakati amudii havo ba vujud meoyand.

Ahamiyati abr kalon ast. Abr haroratro dar qabati troposfera az nihoyat khunuk va nihoyat garmshavi nigoh medorad. Zimiston, agar havo abrnok boshad, garmtar tobiston abrnok boshad, salqintar meshavad (baroi chy?).

Dar sharoiti kuhsori Tojikiston mushohida kardaed, ki  abrho shaklashonro tagyir medihand.

Dar stansiyahoi meteorologi shakl va balandii abrhoro mushohida karda, darajai abrnokiro muayyan menamoyand. CHunin korro shumo ham karda metavoned. CHunonchi agar osmon tamoman abrpush boshad, abrnoki 10 ball, nisfi on pushida boshad, 5 ball va agar havo sof boshad, abrnoki 0 ball ast.

Radifhoi meteorologi va stayasiyahoi madory dar borai abrnoki akhboroti muhim va aniq medihand.

Dar Tojikiston dar fasli zimiston va avvali bahor beshtar dar vodiho paydo shudani tuman mushohida karda meshavad. Tuman dar vaqti khunuk budani sathi Zamin ba vujud meoyad. Havoi boloi on ham sard meshavad. Havo, ki khunuk shud, bukhori ob ba tuman tabdil meyobad.

Baroi durusttar fahmidani hosilshavii abr va tuman chy tavr dar choynik chushidani obro mushohida namoed. Havoi garm- az jumaki choynik khorij shuda, havoi atrofashro niz garm mekunad. Az hamin sabab bukhor dida nameshavad. Badi on ki bukhor az jumaki choynik durtar rafta, haroratash andake past shud, ba nazar namoyon megardad.

Savol va suporish

  1. 1. Troposfera beshtar az kujo bukhori obro megirad.
  2. Bukhori ob chi khosiyat dorad? Dar kadom sharoit ob az holati bukhor ba holati moe (yo kristallhoi yakh) va baraks meguzarad?
  3. Oyo dar harorati manfii zimiston ob bukhor meshavad? Az mushohidai khud naql kuned. 4. Miqdori bukhorya ob dar havo az chy vobasta ast?
  4. Az radio khabar dodand: hangomi 10°S budani harorat rutubati nisbii havo 50% ast. 1 m’ chunin havo chand gramm ob dorad?
  5. Baroi ser shudani on chy qadar ob lozim ast?
  6. Sababi asosii paydoishi abr chist. Sabab chist, ki shakli abr doimo tagyir meyobad?
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