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BRONHIT

bronhitBRONHIT (Bronchitis), iltihobi bronkhho (naychahoi shush); yake az mamultarin illati uzvhoi nafas. Jarayoni bemori shadid va muzmin meshavad.
B.-i shadid, odatan, khususiyati siroyati doshta, aksaran boisi gazaki bini (zukom), halqum (faringit), hanjara (laringit), khirnoy (trakheit) megardad. B. dar natijai khunuk khurdani organizm, yakbora tagyir yoftani obu havo va az namii ziyod (asosan dar faslhoi bahoru tiramoh) ba vujud meoyad. Ba paydoishi bemori kashidani tamoku, istemoli nushokihoi spirti va bemadorii organizm (dar natijai yagon bemorii muzmin) musoidat mekunand. Dar baze mavridho B. az tasiri gazhoi zahrnok, ravgani efir, changu gubor va g. niz inkishof meyobad.
B.-i shadid az beholii umumi sar zada, mushakho ba dard medaroyand, zukom, nafastangi va minbad sulfai sakht paydo meshavad. Bemor kam – kam balgami sabztob ikhroj mekunad, goho harorati badan baland meshavad. Odatan, B.-i shadid dar davomi chand ruz bo shifoi purra ba okhir merasad. Vale bazan on duru daroz davom karda, ba B.-i muzmin tabdil meyobad. Jarayoni bemori dar kudakon va odamoni solkhurda baso vaznin buda, oqibat ba gazaki shush mubaddal megardad.
B.-i muzmin dar natijai durudaroz davom kardani B.-i shadid va tabobati nopurrai on, inchunin az beholii organizm sar mezanad. On metavonad dar natijai bemorii rohhoi boloi nafas va angezishi luobpardai bronkhho niz inkishof yobad. Illati bini, khalqu dimog, tamoku kashidan va sharobkhori boisi B.-i muzmin meshavad.
Hangomi B.-i muzmin iltihob qabati devorai bronkhho va boftahoi atrofro purra faro girifta, dar barobari kashol yoftani bemori ba paydoishi orizahoi noguvor, monandi bronkhoektaz, emfizemai shush, gazaki shush musoidat mekunad.
Agar bemori az nav avj girad, marizro surfai doimi va ikhroji balgami tirai sabz ozor medihad. Dar sari sina dard paydo gashta, on hangomi chuqur nafas kashidan, sulfidan, nafastangi, kori vaznini jismoni, rohravi, ba balandi baromadan va hatto dar vaqti istirohat ziyod meshavad. Dar mavridi ba ziqi nafas shabohat doshtani B.-i muzmin, nafastangi zud-zud khuruj meyobad; farqi asosii on dar dushvor budani nafasbarori ast. Harorati badan to 37,5 – 380 baland meshavad. Dar davrai khotimai bemori alomathoi zikryofta barham mekhurand. Avji B. ba fasli khunuki sol rost omada, bo dig. bemoriho yakjoya meguzarad. Farjomi davrahoi avvali B.-i muzmin chandon bad nest.
Hangomi muolijai B.-i shadid ba tavri qati rioya namudani tavsiya va tainoti dukhtur zarur ast, dar aksi hol B.-i shadid ba B.-i muzmin meguzarad. Vobasta ba shakl va marhalai B.-i shadid doruhoi gunogunro istemol mekunand. CHunin tavsiyaho, ba monandi rioyai nizomi koru zindagi, istemoli khuroki sergizo, nushokii garm (choy bo murabboi tamashk, shir bo soda yo obi minerali), nafasgiri az bugi kartoshkai obpaz, obzanhoi khardali baroi poy va g. ahvoli bemorro behtar mekunand.
B.-i muzmin az rui tainoti dukhtur tabobat karda meshavad. Dar asnoi vaznin jarayon giriftani bemori tabobatro dar kasalkhona meguzaronand.
Gayr az doru, nigohubini khubi bemor niz ahamiyati kalon dorad. Joi khobi bemor boyad garm, khushk va havoyash toza boshad. Dar vaqti toza kardani havoi khona (dar fasli zimiston) pushti marizro ba tarafi tireza gardonda, boloyashro bo kurpa nagz mepushonand, to ki az tasiri havoi khunuk sulfa va nafastangi avj nagirad. Dar mavridi az had ziyod khushk budani havoi khona dar nazdi manbai garmi zarfi obdor guzoshtan lozim ast. Hangomi sakht sulfidan yo nafastangi dastoni bemorro ba kat yo kursi takya kunonda meshinonand. Bazan nafasgirii chuqur va nafasbarorii kutoh ba judo gashtani balgam yori merasonad. Balgamro ba tufdoni alohidae, ki seyak hissai onro bo mahluli 5%-i khloramin pur mekunand, tuf kardan lozim ast.
Dar davrai avji iltihob gizo boyad ba miqdori kofi vitamin va safedai hayvonot doshta boshad, chunki organizm hangomi barziyod judo shudani balgam safedai bisyor gum mekunad. Taom boyad muvofiqi khohishi bemor gunogun va sergizo boshad; istemoli khuroki tundu tez, shur, ochor, qayla tavsiya nameshavad. Guzaronidani varzishi shifoii makhsus imkon medihad, ki nafaskashii durust va chuqur (bo ishtiroki hamai mushakhoi nafaskashi) barqaror gardad. Ba mashqi nafasbarori diqqati makhsus medihand va onro tahti rohbarii metodisti varzishi shifoi ijro mekunand. Ba mardumi shahrnishin sayrugasht dar beruni shahr khele mufid ast. Dar davrai oromii B.-i muzmin beshtar muolijai sanatoriyu kurorti tavsiya meshavad.
Obutobi organizm B.-ro peshgiri mekunad. Sayrugasht dar havoi toza organizmro ba tagiyri iqlim ustuvor megardonad; protsedurahoi obi boshand, muqobilati organizmro ba bemorii siroyati ziyod mekunand. Dar vaqti obutob dodan, khususiyathoi fardii organizmro ba nazar girifta, protsedurahoro botadrij va muntazam meguzaronand. Baroi bemoroni giriftori B.-i muzmin obutobro az vannahoi havoi sar mekunand. Badi mutobiq gashtan ba chunin protseduraho ba mashi badan (avval bo sachoqi tare, ki gijim karda shudaast; soni bo sachoqi tar) meguzarand. Pas az in ba badan rekhtani obi haroratash 30 – 320 (badtar har 2 – 3 ruz harorati obro 10 kam karda, to harorati obi vodoprovod merasonand) sudmand ast. Dar havoi toza bo sport mashgul shudan niz foida dorad. Dar peshgirii B. sarivaqt muolija kardani zukom, tonzillit, gazaki javfhoi ilovagii bini, toza nigoh doshtani havo ahamiyati kalon dorad.

U.R. Rasulov.

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