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BONKDORII SHURAVI

Boyad tavzehi mukhtasare az nizomi bonkdorii shuravi bidiham, zero dar marhalai avvali ba tijorat mashgul shudanam, qoidahoi on nizom dar kor muassir budand. Bo suis- tifoda az imkonoti on, dar pahnoi SHuravi kulohbardoriho va sirqathoi azime surat girifta bud.

Bad az inqilobi surkh, bonkho dar avvalin fursat milli kunonda shuda, kori bonkdori dar inhisori davlat qaror gi- rift. Aslan, tibqi mafhumi ideologi va iqtisodii shuravi muomiloti pulivu qarzi az bayn rafta, boyad joi onro taqsimot ba ivazi mehnat (zahmat) megirift. Baroi ba in tarzi munosi- bat guzashtan, hisobdori va nazorati shadid bar mehnat va mas- raf lozim bud. In nazorat boyad az sui bonk amali meshud. In bud, ki dar zamoni Kommunizmi harbi bonkho davlati kunonda shuda, shubahoi Bonki yagonai davlati dar mintaqaho tasis doda shud. Az bayn burdani muomiloti bonki va nest kardani munosiboti pul-mol dar natijai siyosati Kommunizmi harbi ba tavarrumi shadid ovard.

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Dar natijai in tajribai puch oshkor gasht, ki Kommuniz- mi harbi siyosati khatost va hukumati SHuravi Siyosati navi iqtisodiro rohandozi kard. Siyosati navi iqtisodi nizomi bonkiro az nav zinda karda, imkon dod, ki khojagii khalq rushd kunad. Bo ba okhir rasidani Siyosati navi iqtisodi boz ham nizomi bonki markazikunonida shud va Bonki vohidi davlati shubahoi mintaqaviro tasis dod, ki ba mushtariyoni on mintaqaho khizmat merasondand. Stroybonk – bonki sokhtmon, masuli sarmoyaguzori dar sohai inshoot bud, ki dar asl yak juzi bonki davlati bud. Munosibat bo bonkhoi khoriji ba uhdai Vneshtorgbonk – bonki savdoi khoriji voguzoshta shuda bud. Dar asl in bonkho ham shokhahoi hamon bonki davlati bu- dand va tavlid, pardokht va tamomi faoliyati molii korkhona- vu muassisahoro nazorat mekardand. Gardishi baynishubaii (MFO) in bonkho yagona rohi hisobbarobarkunii bayni tamomi korkhonavu muassisahoi davlati – mushtariyoni shuravi bud.

Bonkho na hamesha juziyoti kori sohahoro ba nazar megi- riftand, ki dar natija iqtisodi kishvar toraft aqib memond. Avvali solhoi 80 kushishi digargunsozii bonkho pesh girifta shud va dar asosi shubahoi mintaqavii bonki davlati bonkhoi sohavi tasis doda shudand.

Promstroybonk dar sohai sanoatu sokhtmon, Agroprombonk dar sohai kishovarzi, Jilsotsbonk dar sohai ijtimoi tasis yoftand, vale az sababi mudiriyati nouhdabaroyona, in bonkho vazro badtar kardand. Harju marji ziyod pesh omad, zero agar qablan mushtarihoi hisobbarobarkun dar yak bonk boshand, aknun mushtarii bonkhoi mukhtalif budand va hisobbarobarkunii bayni onho vaqtu zahmati beshtarro talab mekard. In harju marj ba nizohoi baynisohavi va bayni mushtari bois shud. Bahshoi domanadori ideologivu iqtisodi ba miyon omad va afkori umumi bar on shud, ki ba iqtisodi bozori boyad guzasht. Dar natijai in muborizaho okhiri solhoi 80 bonkhoi avvalini tijorii gayridavlati tasis yoftand. Ha- min tavr, haftod sol lozim shud, to isbot shavad, ki in nizom qobili ijro nest va bonkdori bozgashtro ba on tarzi kore, ki qabl az millikunoni va inhisori davlati roij bud, sar kard. Vale hanuz dar tashkil va tartibi kor norasoi va nohamohangi ziyod bud, ki hatto suistifoda az on niz ziyod shud.

Dar davrai guzarishi nizomi bonki guruhhoi mutashakkili jinoi dar Rusiya va digar jumhurihoi shuravi sanadhoi bayni- shubavii taqallubi sokhta, mablaghoi kalonero duzdidand. Onho az shubai bonk dar yak shahr ba shahri digar sanadi taqallubi mefiristodand, az surathisobi shirkat mablaghoro girifta, gayb mezadand, ki badan dar hisobbarobarkunii marhalavi oshkor megasht. Badi oshkor shudani in duzdiho bonkho chora dida, peshi rohi onro giriftand.

Gayr az in, bonkho hini kushodani hisobi bonki ba mushtari daftarchai chek medodand, ki ismash CHeki mahdud (limitirovan- niy chek) bud. In daftarcha chekhoi ziyod dosht, ki mushtari meta- vonist ba furushanda mablagi mavridi niyozro navishta dihad va molro tahvil bigirad. Furushanda on chekro ba bonki khud me- supurd va mablagro daryoft mekard, bonk darkhosti mablagro ba shubai bonki mushtari firistoda, mablagro talab va joi onro pur mekard. Dar robita bo in CHeki mahdud yak kulohbardorii jolibe surat girifta bud, ki naqlashro dar idoma meovaram.

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