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BIOPSIYA

biopsiyaBIOPSIYA (Biopsia; az bio… va opsis – didan, tadqiq), baroi tadqiqi mikroskopi bo maqsadi tashkhisi bemori burida giriftani porchai khurdi boftai organizmi zinda.
B. imkon medihad, ki tagyiroti nonamoyoni vazoifiyu sokhtorii organizm muayyan va dar asosi on khususiyathoi bemori (iltihob, distrofiya, omos va g.) dar ibtido oshkor karda shavad. B. baroi tasdiqi bemori va intikhobi usuli tabobat zarur ast.
B. dar sohahoi gunoguni tibbi kliniki (amali) – jarrohi, urologiya, onkologiya, gematologiya, gastroenterologiya, immunologiya va g. ba kor burda meshavad. CHunonchi, tashkhisi boftai mavridi jarrohi girifta imkon medihad, ki nafaqat shakl va khususiyati manbai illat, balki tamoman yo qisman burida partoftani on, inchunin hududi boftahoi solim muayyan karda shavad.
B.-i takrori baroi tashkhisi bemorihoi mushobeh, intikhobi mavodi zaruri, nazorati tasiri doru va muolijai bemori imkon medihad.
Tekhnikai tibbi ba on qodir ast, ki baroi B. qarib az hamai uzvhoi organizm boftaho girifta shavand. Usulhoi tekhnikii B. niz khele takmil yoftaand.
B. insiziyavi (chok kardan), punksiyavi va aspiratsiyavi meshavad. Dar asnoi B.-i insiziyavi boftaro bo usuli jarrohi va hangomi B.-i punksiyavi (baroi sanjishi jigar, magzi ustukhon, guddahoi limfa, gurdaho, ispurch, gadudi prostata, omoshoi gunogun istifoda megardad) ba vositai suzanhoi makhsus megirand. B.-i aspiratsiyaviro dar tashkhisi uzvhoi javfi organizm (trakheya va bronkhho) istifoda burda, az organizm bo yorii suzan yo yagon asbobi makhsus muhtavoi onro megirand.
Gayr az in, B.-ro bo rohi «taroshida» giriftani sathi bofta niz meguzaronand. In guna usuli B. dar mavridi muoinai luobparda va gardanai bachadon kor farmuda meshavad. B.-i ojili (ekspress-biopsiya) niz mavjud ast. Onro dar vaqti amaliyoti jarrohi ba kor mebarand. Imkoniyathoi B. binobar rivoji tekhnikai endoskopi (nig. Endoskopiya), ki baroi bevosita giriftani porahoi luobpardai meda, ruda, bronkhho, peshobdon va g. sharoiti musoid faroham meorad, khele vase gashtand. Dar zaminai inkishofi kardiokhirurgiya B.-i dil imkonpazir gasht.
B. faqat dar muassisahoi tibbi ba jo ovarda meshavad. Dar asnoi B. ba qoidahoi tozagi (nig. Aseptika) qati rioya menamoyand. Ahvoli bemorro ba nazar girifta, amaliyotro tavre ijro mekunand, ki ba salomatii u oseb narasad. Bazan hangomi B. az usuli bedardgardoni niz istifoda burda meshavad (ba bemor zarurati in amalro mefahmonand). Agar bemor ba sarivaqt guzaronidani B. rozi nashavad, salomatiashro zeri khatar meguzorad.
Boftai az organizm giriftaro baroi tashkhis makhsus tayyor mekunand. Hangomi intiqol va nigoh doshtani bofta qoidahoi zaruri rioya karda meshavand. Dukhturi patologoanatom dar asosi tadqiqi mikroskopii bofta oid ba khususiyati tagyiroti uzvhoi bemor va nishonahoi bemori khulosa mebarorad.
Dar jumhuri dar kori tatbiqi B.-i jigar sahmi Pajuhishgohi gastroenterologiya nazarras meboshad. Kormandoni pajuhishgohi mazkur zeri rohbarii akad. AI JT Mansurov H. H. dar sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi yake az avvalinho shuda ba in amal dast zadand. Dar pajuhishgoh isboti yakkhelagii malumoti tadqiqi biopsiyavii uzv va tagyiroti sokhtorii mavjudai on peshnihod gasht, roje ba ahamiyati tashkhisii B. mavodi ziyod gird ovarda shud. Kormandoni pajuhishgoh nishondodro dar robita ba B. dar Atlasi tadqiqi gistologii jigar ba tab rasondand. On dar kori B. – i jigar dasturi asosi mahsub meshavad.
Ad.: Mansurov H.H., Biopsiya pecheni, D., 1964; Hamon muallif, Atlas gistologicheskikh issledovaniy pecheni, D., 1964.
H. H. Mansurov.

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