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BERUNi

biruniBERUNi Aburayhon Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Horazmi (4. 9. 973 Kot, Horazm – 11. 12. 1048), allomai buzurgi mashriqzamin. Asoshoi ilmro dar zodgohash nazdi Abunasri Mansur shogirdi Abulvafoi Buzajoni (940 – 998) meomuzad. B. zabonhoi khorazmi, dari, arabi, sugdi, suryoni va yunoniyu sanskritro azkhud namuda, ba qisme az onho asarhoi ilmi talif kardaast. B. az ovoni javoni ba mushohidai astronomi shugl mevarzad.
S-hoi 995 – 997 B. dar safar buda, guzarash ba sh. Ray meaftad va bo Abumahmudi Hujandi shinos shuda, sekstant (suds)-i uro meomuzad. S. 997 ba zodgohash bargashta, globus mesozad va onro baroi muayyan kardani tulu arzi shahrho istifoda mebarad. S.-hoi 998 – 1004 faoliyati ilmii u dar sh. Gurgon, dar darbori SHamsulmaoli Qobus ibni Vushmagir (967 – 1012) meguzarad. Dar on jo «Osor-ul-boqiya» (s. 1000)-ro talif mekunad. S-hoi 1004 – 17 dar sh. Gurgon ba omuzish va tashehi zijho mashgul meshavad.
S. 1018 Sulton Mahmud (80 – 1030) Horazmro zabt karda, B.-ro ba Gaznin mebarad. Faoliyati minbadai u to okhiri umrash asosan dar hamin shahr meguzarad. Sulton Mahmud dar lashkarkashihoyash ba kishv. Hind B.-ro niz hamroh girifta bud. Donishmand dar in muddat bo tarzi zindagoni, tarikh, afkori ilmiyu falsafi va oinu keshhoi mardumi Hind shinos shuda, zaboni snaskritro meomuzad va baze asarhoi ilmiro az sanskrit ba arabi va chand asari mutafakkironi YUnonro az arabi ba sanskrit tarjuma mekunad. Mushohidaho va tadqiqoti daqiqi olim roje ba Hinduston dar asari u «Mo-li-l-Hind» sabt shudaand. B. mahz dar hamin asar qayd mekunad, ki taassubi dini va qatli omu tokhtutozhoi goratgaronai istilogaron khalqi sarzamini moro az mardumi zahmatkashi Hind judo karda budand.
B. qarib dar hamai sohai ilmhoi mamuli zamoni khud quvvaozmoi namuda, doir ba har kadom asarhoi purarzishe talif kardaast. Bino ba malumoti makhazhoi tarikhi adadi asarhoi u az 103 to 180 nomguy meboshand. Vale boisi taassuf ast, ki beshtari on talifoti garonmoya dar changoli osebi davru zamonhoi nomusoid nobud shudaand. Az osori boqimondai B. ham huvaydost, ki u ba inkishofi minbadai ilmi jahoni sahmi garonbahoe guzoshtaast.
YAke az talifothoi muhimi B. «Kitobu-s-saydana fi-t-tib» meboshad. Dar on oid ba tarzi az nabototi sarzamini tojikon tayyoru omoda sokhtani har guna doruho sukhan raftaast. u giyohhoi shifobakhshro omukhta, nomi onhoro ba zabonhoi gunogun meorad va bad-in vasila dar tashakkuli istilohoti ilmi hissa meguzorad.

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