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BEMORi

bemoriBEMORi (Morbus), ikhtiloli faoliyati organizm va robitai mutaqobilai on bo muhit. Az B., odatan, qobiliyati kori muvaqqatan yo doimi sust yo gum meshavad. Odam az tasiri omilhoi ba organizm zararnok (omili kasaliovar) bemor megardad (agar tasiri onho az imkoniyathoi muhofizi yo talofii organizm zurtar boshad). Baroi paydoishi B. yak marotiba tasir rasondani omili bemorizo (mas, zarbu lat, zahroludi) kifoya ast. Az tasiri duru darozi omilhoi mazkur (mas, muttasil vayron kardani tartibi tagziya boisi dardi medayu ruda, purkhuri boisi ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho va farbehi megardad) niz kas bemor meshavad. Nuqsi inkishof yo nuqsi irsi (nig. Bemorihoi irsi) niz sababi B. megardad.
Omili bemorizo barobari ba organizm zarar rasonidan, aksulamali muhofizati va mutobiqati onro ba kor medarorad. YAne B. odatan du protsessi doroi robitai mutaqobil – oseb va muhofizatro darbar megirad. Mas., hangomi iltihob ham boftaho illat meyoband va ham dar manbai iltihob zahri bakteriyaho jam omada, in mavze bo khun nihoyat khub tamin meshavad, faoliyati hujayraho afzuda, boftai illatiro az mahsuli tajziya toza mekunad, bahri zud barqaror shudani on yori merasonad. Dard bongi illat ast. Az tarafi digar, taassuri mutobiqati az had ziyod metavonad jarayoni B.-ro vaznin gardonad. Mas., hangomi qay va ishol moddahoi zararnok va zahrolud az meda va ruda meravand va bo hamin sabab organizm ba ob muhtoj gardida, dardi sakht metavonad boisi shok shavad.
Har bemori ikhtiloli faoliyati organizm ast. Zuhuroti on aksar vaqt dar yak uzv yo silsilai uzvho ba mushohida merasad. Mas., zakhmi meda yak zuhur boshad ham, sarchashmai on ikhtiloli khun va reshmaraz buda, aslan oqibat khalal yoftani kori silsilai asabhost (binobar ikhtilol va emotsiyahoi manfi, iztirobi ruhi yo jismoni). Gamu anduh, tarzi hayoti nomurattab, vayron kardani tartibi mehnatu istirohat, tagziya va qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsi, hamchunin tamokukashi va mayparasti, ki organizmro zaif sokhta, mubodilai moddaho va faoliyati silsilai asabro vayron mekunand, oqibat bemori meorand. Har guna osebi juzi niz boisi in yo on illat megardad, az in ru behdoshti tandurusti ba omodagii tamomi nerui organizm vobasta ast. Mas., dar asnoi illati fasodnoki juzi – dumbal, puchak, va haftpust, odatan, zuhuroti umumi (baland gashtani harorati badan, tab, kamishtihoi, susti va g.) mushohida meshavand.
Sababhoi paydoishi B.-ho gunogun meboshand. B. metavonad az tasiri yak yo chand omil ba vujud oyad. Mas., bemorihoi siroyati va paraziti dar natijai ba organizm tasir kardani bakteriyaho, virusho, zanburughoi mikroskopi, kirmhoi bemoriangez va g. inkishof meyoband. Har yak bemorii siroyati angezandai muayyan dorad. Ammo bisyor mikroorganizmho dar organizmhoe, ki nerui muhofiziashon sust ast, inkishof yofta, boisi B. meshavand. Bisyor illatho bo sababhoi gunogun sar mezanand. Mas., gazaki meda (iltihobi pardai luobii meda) dar natijai duru daroz vayron kardani tartibi istemoli khurok, suiistemoli nushokihoi spirtdor, tamokukashi, ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho va g. inkishof meyobad. Vazi organizm, imkoniyathoi muqobilat va mutobiqati on niz ba paydoish va jarayoni B. musoidat menamoyand. Mas., az tasiri omili bemorizo agar yak shakhs bemor shavad, pas shakhsi digar bemor nashudanash mumkin. YO hamon yak B.-ro har kas ba tavri gunogun pasi sar mekunad.
B.-ho shadid, shadidmonand va muzmin meshavand. Inkishofu jarayoni B.-i shadid chor davra dorad: nihoni, ogoz, avj va khotima.
Davrai nihoni (dar bemorihoi siroyati davrai inkubatsiya) muddatest az lahzai tasiri omili bemoriovar to paydoishi nishonahoi avvalini klinikii B. Davrai ogozi bemori muddatest az padidoii nishonahoi avvalini klinikii B. to purra inkishof yoftani alomathoi on. Dar in davra alomathoi umumii bisyor B. (dardi sar, varaja, tablarza, beholi va g.) mushohida meshavand; alomathoi khosi B. dertar, yane dar davrai avji B. zohir megardand. Dar davrai ogozi B. tashkhisi alomathoi khosi on nomumkin ast. Dar davrai avji B. alomathoi khos padid meoyand. Vale bazan onho chandon ayon nestand (shakli mubhami kasali) yo purra inkishof nayofta, nest meshavand (shakli notamom). Agar ba B. yagon oriza (oqibati noguvori bemorii asosi) hamroh shavad, pas jarayoni on metavonad tagyir yobad. Davrai khotimai bemori zud, nogahon (yo buhron) va tadrijan meguzarad. B. purra yo nimkora shifo meyobad. Tagyiroti jiddii yagon uzv yo silsilai uzvho ba on ovarda merasonad, ki marizi shakli muzmin girad. Hangomi shifoi komil faoliyati mutadili organizm barqaror khohad shud. Badi bisyor B.-hoi siroyati organizm nisbat ba onho masuniyat (immunitet) paydo mekunad. Goho faoliyati organizm mutadil megardad, vale az baze illathoi boqimonda kori in yo on uzv noqis memonad (shifoi nopurra). B. muzmin shavad ham, tartib va tabobati tainkardai dukhturro davom boyad dod, vagarna B. boz avj megirad.
Muolijai sarivaqti va rioyai qatii tainoti dukhtur omilhoi muhimi rafi B. meboshand. Pas, agar shakhs andake notob shavad, boyad hatman ba dukhtur murojiat namoyad. Hudmuolija yo qati khudsaronai tabobat khatarnok ast. CHunin beetinoii bemor ba paydoishi orizahoi B. va muzmin gashtani on, kornoshoyami va marg ovarda merasonad.
Ilmi tib masalai B.-ro mushtarak (kompleksi) hal mekunad. Sabab va sharoiti paydoish (etiologiya), tarzi jarayon, bemorihoi alohida, tariqi muhofizat, patogenez, khususiyathoi jarayoni kliniki va alomathoi B.- hoi gunogun dar yakjoyagi omukhta meshavand. Dar in asos usulhoi tashkhis, tabobat va peshgirii B. muayyan karda khohand shud. Peshrafti tadqiqoti biologi, tibbi, kliniki va rivoji tekhnikai tibbi ba inkishofi usulhoi tashkhisi laboratori musoidat kard. Agar onho bo sharoiti paydoish va khususiyathoi jarayoni klinikii B. muqoisa nashavand, pas ahamiyati halkunandai tashkhisi paydo namekunand. Raftu hangomi muoinai bemor zuhuroti klinikii B. ba shikoyathoi u muvofiq naoyand va usulhoi asosii tadqiqot (muoina, tahlili khun, peshob, tadqiqi rentgenologi va g.) malumoti kofi nadihand, dar on surat tahlil yo usulhoi tashkhisi amali nihoyat zarurand.
Naqshai tabobati har bemor alohida ast. Dukhtur hangomi tabobat khususiyathoi fardii inkishof va holati organizmi bemor, bemorihoi az sar guzaronida, sharoiti mehnat va zindagii uro ba nazar megirad. u ba du marizi bemoriashon yakkhela doruhoi gunogun tain mekunad, chunki agar yak doru ba yak bemor shifo bakhshad, ba bemori digar metavonad zarar ovarad. Pas, khudmuolija khatarnok ast. Dukhtur doruero tain mekunad, ki ba sabab (tabobati etiologi, mas., istemoli doruhoi ziddibakteriyavi – hangomi bemorihoi siroyati) va tarzi inkishofi B. (muolijai patogenezi, mas., istemoli gormon yo ferment dar holati norasoii on) tasir merasonad. Dukhtur inchunin davoero mefarmoyad, ki nishonahoi vaznini klinikii B.-ro raf mesozad (mas, doruhoi rafi dard, ziddi surfa, khobovar). Binobar sudmandii tadbirhoi yorirasoni nerui muhofizat va muqobiliyati organizm barobari tabobati makhsus ba mariz istemoli vitaminho, khuroki sergizo va g.-ro niz mefarmoyand. Dukhtur dar har davrai B. metavonad tabobatro tagiyr doda, doruhoi nav, muolijai fizioterapevti (vannaho, barqshifoi, muolija bo nur va g.), varzishi shifoi, mash va g. tain kunad. Tabobati bisyor bemoriho oromii ruhiyu jismonii bemorro talab menamoyad. Dar davrai avji B. bistari gashtan ba maqsad muvofiq ast. Samarai tabobat, khususan dar sharoiti khona, ba nigohubini durusti bemor (bechunu charo ijro kardani tainoti dukhtur) vobastagi dorad (nig. Nigohubini bemor).
Agar yak azoi oila bemor shavad, fikru zikri digaron ba u jalb megardad. Binobar in khudi mariz boyad ba shifoyobi kushad, ba vazi khud durust munosibat namoyad, har chi zudtar ba sharoiti bemorkhona odat kunad.
Munosibati durusti azoi oila ba bemor bisyor muhim ast. Hamdardi, gamkhori, oromi, yo baraks, bepisandi, har yake az onho khosa tasire dorad. Gamkhorii samimi bemorro purtoqat mekunad, tabobatro metezonad; beparvoi yo tundmizojii atrofiyon bemorro shikastadil menamoyad. Munosibati kheshovandon ba bemor boyad muvofiqi maslihati dukhtur boshad. Dukhtur vobasta ba ruhiyai bemor tavsiyai ba maqsad muvofiq medihad.
Peshgirii B.-ho ba shakhsi va jamiyati judo meshavad. Sistemai davlatii hifzi tandurusti tadbirhoero darbar megirad, ki afzoishi nekuahvoli, sharoiti bekhatari mehnat, behsozii sharoiti manzil va zindagoni, muhofizati muhiti zist, behbudii sanitari va obodii joyhoi aholinishin, taraqqii ommaviii varzish va koru istirohati mehnatkashonro tamin mesozand. Muhofizati modaron va kudakon zuhuroti gamkhorii khosi davlat, kafolati boetimodi salomatii nasli navras ast. Kumaki despanseri ba kormandoni tib imkon medihad, ki salomatii aholiro nazorat kunand, khuruji B.-hoi muzmin va inkishofi bemorihoi navro peshgiri namoyand.
Bo vujudi in, ehtiyot kardani salomatii khud va azoi oila vazifai har yak shakhs ast. Agar kas gami salomatii khudro nakhurad, pas hama sayu kushishi dukhturon barabas meravad. Rioyai qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsi, obutobi organizm, mashgul shudan ba varzishi badan, pesh giriftani tarzi hayoti solim, rioyai tartibi mehnat va istirohat, gizoi munosib, dast kashidan az odathoi bad (suiistemoli nushokihoi spirtdor, tamoku, badakhloqii jinsi) – in hama ba salomati va faoliyati ejodii har yak shahrvandi jumhuri musoidat mekunad.

B.SH. Gadoev.

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