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BEMORIHOI ZuHRAVi

bemorii-zuhraviBEMORIHOI ZuHRAVi (Morbi venerisi), bemorihoi jimoi, bemorihoi siroyatie, ki az rui alomathoi intiqoli angezanda (beshtar tavassuti uzvhoi tanosul) ba yak guruh muttahid shudaaand. B.z. sifilis, suzok, otashak, trikhomonoz, VICH/SPID, gepatithoi virusi, limfogranulemai qadkashak, granulemai zuhravi va g.-ro darbar megirand.
B.z. az davrahoi qadim malumand. Malumoti avvalin oid ba chunin amroz 2500 sol muqaddam vujud doshtand; nishonahoi suzok dar asarhoi tabiboni barjastai atiqa Buqrot (a. 4 to m.), A. Sels (a. 1 m.), Jolinus (a. 2 m.) tasvir yoftaand. Dar a. 1 m. dar Rimi Qadim bemorie pahn shuda bud, ki az rui oriza va nishonahoi kliniki ba suzok monandi dosht. Tabiboni arab va avrupoi suzok va orizahoi onro mufassal tasvir karda, dar ayni hol rohhoi tabobati onhoro niz bayon namudaand. S. 1162 usqufi Vinchester ba zanoni fohishakhonahoi London, ki «bemoriashon bo suzish» meguzasht, hamkhoba shudan bo mardonro man kard. S. 1347 malikai Sitsiliya Ioannai I muoinai hatmii zanhoi fohishakhonahoro jori namud. Dar okh. a. 15 va ibt. a. 16 siflis dar Evropa khele pahn gardid; az rui aqidai aksari muhaqqiqon onro bahrnavardoni H. Kolumb az Amerika ovarda budand. Baze olimon chunin meshumorand, ki siflis dar Evropa dar zamonhoi pesh ham vujud dosht, vale on pahn nagashta bud; takhmin mekunand, ki onro az qitai Afrika ovardaand. Masalai paydoishi siflis to hol hal nashudaast.
Justujui angezandai B. z. to okh. a. 19 benatija mond. Bisyor olimon B. z.-ro shaklhoi gunoguni yak bemori mepindoshtand. S. 1879 venerologi nemis A. Neyser angezandai suzok, s. 1889 venerologi italyavi P. Ferrari batsillai otashak, s.1905 olimoni nemis F. SHaudin va E. Goffman angezandai sifilis (treponemai safedcha)-ro kashf namudand. Justujui usulhoi bosamar va ilman asosonoki tashkhis, tabobat va peshgirii B. z. az hamon vaqt sar shud. Hususan kashfi antibiotikho baroi muolijai B. z. ahamiyati kalon dosht.
Bo vujudi komiyobihoi nazarrasi venerologiyai muosir va muborizai ziddi B. z. in bemoriho to imruz dar hama jo pahn shuda, yake az problemahoi muhimi ijtimoiyu akhloqii zamoni hozira gashtaand. B. z. baroi salomatii bemor va jamiyat khatarnok meboshand. Onho zud pahn shuda, ba nasl tasir merasonand. Jarayoni B. z. (khususan sifilis va suzok) hangomi nodurust molija kardan muzmin gashta, bemorro ba muddati daroz az mehnat bozmedorad, bisyor vaqt mayub megardonad. Hudmuolijai B. z. yo murojiat kardan ba shakhsone, ki malumoti tibbi nadorand, bilkul noravo va khatarnok ast. Bisyor bemorihoi zanona oqibati suzoki tabobatnayofta yo nimkora tabobatshuda meboshand. Benaslii zanon va mardon aksar natijai suzok yo orizai on ast. Agar shakhsi ba siflis giriftor muolijaro purra naguzarad, oqibati bemori vaznin megardad. Dar kishvarhoe, ki siflis bagoyat vusat yoftaast, on yake az sababhoi asosii favti aholi buda, az nasl ba nasl meguzarad, kudakoni noqis tavallud meyoband. B. z. boisi nobinoi (az suzok) va karii modarzodi (az siflis) gashta, dar natija kudakon gung meshavand. Az bemuolija mondan yo nimkora tabobat kardani siflis, silsilai asabhoi markazi sakht ziyon mebinad.
Komyobihoi tibbi hozira imkon medihand, ki B. z. muolija shavand. In kor dar surate natijai dilkhoh ba bor meorad, ki agar mariz sarivaqt ba dukhturi dispanseri bemorihoi pust va zuhravi murojiat karda, tavsiyahoi uro oid ba tabobat va nizomi hatmi ijro binmoyad.
Sababi asosii gustarish yoftani B. z. aloqai jinsii betartib ast. Padaru modar va rafiqon dar tarbiyai jinsii kudak mavqei muhim dorand. B. z. beshtar dar bayni javonone vomekhurad, ki volidaynashon nisbat ba hamdigar bevafoi mekunand, ba tarbiyai kudakon diqqati zaruri namedihand.
Mayzadagi ham yake az sababhoi asosii badakhloqii jinsi meboshad. Masti ba aloqai jinsii tasodufi roh mekushoyad, odamro ba zohir namudani raftori behayoona vodor mesozad, oilaro vayron mekunad.
Ba mujomiati benizom beshtar noboligon va odamone, ki qoidahoi akhloqi umumiro rioya namekunand, mayl dorand. Bo dilkhushi guzaronidani vaqt maqsadi yagonai in guna kason va aloqai jinsi baroi onho sharti zaruri va dilkhoh ast; onho chi budani muhabbatro namedonand. CHunin shahvatparasti baso khavfnok buda, nafaqat boisi badakhloqii javonon megardad, balki ba salomati niz oseb merasonad. Dar chunin holatho nevrozi shahvatparasti inkishof meyobad, ki anjomi on tahrifi shahvoni yo hezi (impotensiya) meboshad.
Aloqai jinsii barmahal va betartib, ki boisi B. z. megardad, ba hodisai akseleratsiya marbut donista meshavad. Baroi on ki dar navrason hissi shahvat barmahal paydo nagardad, onhoro bo vasilahoi gunoguni istirohati madani, khususan ba korhoi jamiyati, sport, rassomi, musiqi va teatr jalb namudan ahamiyati kalon dorad. Padaru modaron boyad ba har roh farzandonashonro ba faoliyati jamiyati havasmand karda, dar ayni hol bedor shudani hissi avvalini onhoro, ki ohangi romantiki dorad, dastgiri namoyand (nig. Tarbiyai jinsi, Sinni navrasi).
Dar jumhuri baroi barham dodani B. z. tadbirhoi makhsusi tibbi meandeshand. Ba tarbiyai jinsi va akhloqii javonon diqqati jiddi doda meshavad. Onhoro ba korhoi jamiyati, mas, ba sport, sanat va dig. navhoi istirohati madani jalb mekunand. Ba mustahkam namudani munosibathoi oilavi va tarbiyai oila etibori zaruri medihand.
Tadbirhoi tibbi dar barobari guzaronidani korhoi sudmandi maorifi sanitari va tabobati barmahali bemoron, ba peshgirii B. z. niz nigaronida shudaand. Dar jumhuri shabakai vasei dispanserhoi bemorihoi pust va jimoi mavjudand, ki ba vositahoi hozirai peshgiri va tashkhisu tabobat mujahhaz meboshand. Onho bemoronro ba qayd girifta, hatman tabobat va manbahoi bemoriro oshkor mekunand (faqat badi purra sihat shudan, onhoro az qayd mebarorand). Sirri bemoronero, ki baroi muolija yo peshgirii B. z. ba dukhtur murojiat namudaand, oshkor namesozand (nomi bemoriro dar varaqai bemori namenavisand). Vale agar raftori bemor ba atrofiyon khavfnok boshad va u tavsiyahoi dukhturro ijro nakunad yo az tabobat sar kashad, dar on surat in shart rioya karda nameshavad. Dar qonunguzorii jinoyati baroi oshkoro pahn kardani B. z. jazo peshbini shudaast. Mas., muvofiqi moddai 126 Kodeksi jinoyatii Jumhurii Tojikiston (siroyat kardan ba kasalii zuhravi) agar shakhs ba bemorihoi zuhravi giriftor budanashro donista bemoriashro ba shakhsi digar guzaronad, «Bo jarima ba andozai az dusad to panjsad maoshi haddi aqal yo korhoi islohi ba muddati az yak to du sol jazo doda meshavad. Hamin kirdor agar nisbati du va ziyoda ashkhos, nisbati shakhsi baralo nobolig sodir shuda boshad, bo jarima ba andozai az panjsad to hafsad maoshi haddi aqal yo mahrum sokhtan az ozodi ba muhlati to du sol jazo doda meshavad».
Ad.: Zoirov P.T., Sifilis, D., 1998; Hamon muallif, Sindromi i simptomi v dermato-venerologii, D., 2002; Hamon muallif, Venericheskie bolezni, D., 2005; Hamon muallif, CHastnaya dermatologiya i venerologiya, D., 2007.

P.T. Zoirov.

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