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BEMORIHOI SIROYATi

infekcionniye-zabolevaniyaBEMORIHOI SIROYATi (Morbi infectiost), bemorihoe, ki binobar ba organizm dokhil shuda afzoish yoftani mikrobho, zanburugho, virusho, tukhmi kirmhoi parazit va soddatarinhoi kasaliangez ba vujud meoyand. Jihati khosi B. s. imkoniyati guzashtani onho az organizmi siroyatyofta ba organizmi solim ast. Muvaffaqiyathoi olimoni sohahoi bakteriologiya, mikrobiologiya va immunologiya dar a. 19 ba oshkor gashtani tabiati B. s. musoidat namudand. Dar omuzishi nazari va amalii B. s. biologi fransavi L. Paster va bakteriologi nemis R. Kokh sahmi nazarras guzoshtaand. Mikroorganizmhoi siroyatovar ba organizm tavassuti havo (nafas), gizo, nushoki, peshobroha, pust va g. dokhil shuda, afzoish meyoband va faoliyati fiziologii organizmro khalaldor mesozand. Inkishof va jarayoni B. s. ba nerui angezandaho, hassosi va ustuvorii organizm vobasta ast.
Az davrahoi qadim khuruji baze B. s. dar bayni aholii yak mamlakat (epidemiya) yo mamlakathoi gunogun (pandemiya) oqibati jangro muayyan namuda, taqdiri shahrho va davlathoro hal mesokht. Mas., dar a. 6 pandemiyai toun Imperiyai SHarqii Rimro ba tanazzul va qismi ziyodi aholii onro ba marg rasond.
B. s. az se omili asosi tarkib yoftaand: manbai siroyat (odam yo hayvoni siroyatyofta); noqili angezanda; odamoni ba siroyat hassos. Nisbat ba B. s. hasos budani organizmi odamro yak qator omilhoi biologi va ijtimoi (sinnu sol, tarzi gizogiri, sharoiti zindagi va g) muayyan mekunand. Ba paydoishi B. s chunin omilho, mas., gurusnagi, gizoi nomuntazamu yakkhela, norasoii vitaminho, safedahoi khurok, khastagi, garmii az had ziyod, khunukkhuri, gelmintozho, zichii aholi va g. musoidat menamoyand.
Unsurhoi gunoguni muhit omilhoi intiqoli angezandahoi B. s. meboshand. CHunonchi, angezandahoi B. s.-i ruda (domana, isholi khunin va g.) az obu khurok, kosavu tabaq va dig. ashyo pahn meshavand; intiqoli angezandahoi gripp, surkhcha, khunoq va g. ba shakhsi solim az havo (hangomi sulfidan, atsa zadan, guftugu) ba amal meoyad; B. s.-i pust dar asnoi tamos bo hayvonot yo bemor (bemorihoi zanburugi va g.) meguzarand; hasba, tifi raji, ensefalitho va g.-ro az odam (yo hayvonot) ba odam hasharoti khunmak (shabush, pashsha, kana, magilmak va g.) meguzaronand.
Inkishofi B. s. az davrahoi nihoni, ogoz, zuhuroti asosi, sabukshudan va shifo iborat ast.
Dar davrai zuhuri asosii bemori ham alomathoi baroi B. s. umumi (mas., zahroludi – tablarza, harorati baland, susti, dardi sar va g.), ham alomathoi khosi har yak B. s. (mas., zud-zud ba hojatkhona raftan, besaranjom kardani khohishi durugini qazoi hojat, bo khun va luob oluda gardidani najosat zimni isholi khunin) paydo meshavand. Dar davrai ru ba behbudi ovardani marizi nishonahoi asosii on kam megardand yo purra barham khurda, harorati badan tadrijan yo zud past meshavad, bemor shifo meyobad yo bemori muzmin davom mekunad.
Dar davrai ofiyat, sarfi nazar az barham khurdani alomathoi kliniki, dar uzvhoi illati tagyirot boqi memonad, mas., osebi luobpardahoi rudai rost hangomi isholi khunin kamash badi yak moh durust meshavad, ammo shifoi kliniki badi chand ruz faro merasad. Dar asnoi baze B. s. pas az zuhuri klinikii bemori angezandaho dar organizmi shakhs mahfuz memonand. Onho ba atrof pahn shuda, ba odamoni solim siroyat mekunand. Bisyor vaqt badi B. s. organizmi odam bar ziddi onho masuniyat hosil menamoyad ( nig. Immunitet).
B. s. ba antroponozho va zoonozho judo karda meshavand. Antroponozho faqat ba odam khosand va odam tanho az odam siroyat meyobad (vabo, nagzak, domana, isholi khunin, khunoq, surkhcha va g.). Zoonozho khosi hayvonot buda, ba onho odam niz giriftor meshavand. Az zoonozho odam bo rohhoi gunogun, mas., hangomi tamos bo hayvoni kasal, tavvasuti pusti osebyofta yo pardahoi luobi (sukhtani, manqagi, oqsil), gazidani sagi kasal (hori), hasharoti khunmak (toun, varaja) siroyat meyobad. Baroi peshgirii zoonozho bemoriro oshkor karda, hayvoni kasalro judo medorand (yo nobud mekunand), joi nigohdorii chorvoro dezinfeksiya namuda, ziddi khoyandaho va hasharoti khunmak muboriza mebarand (nig. Deratizatsiya), ba chorvodoron moya (bo maqsadi peshgiri) meguzaronand.
Hangomi B. s.-i ruda (isholi khunin, tifi shikam, paratifho, vabo va g.) angezandaho ba muhit asosan bo pasafkandi bemoron yo homili bakteriya pahn va ba organizmi odami solim hamrohi gizo dokhil meshavand. Tobiston B. s.-i rudaro asosan pashshaho meguzaronand.
Baroi peshgirii B. s.-i ruda bemor va homili bakteriyaro judo nigoh doshta, tabobat mekunand, khonavu joyro dezinfeksiya va pashshahoro nest menamoyand. Har shakhs boyad dastashro pesh az istemoli taom va badi qazoi hojat bo sobun shuyad, sabzavotu mevaro avval shusta, bad bo obi jush choyqonidan lozim; khurokvoriro az pashsha muhofizat boyad kard.
Hangomi B. s.-i rohhoi nafas (gripp, nazla, guluzindonak, khanozir, surkhcha, sulfakabutak va g.) angezandaho ba muhit dar vaqti guftugu, sulfa va atsa zadan pahn megardand. Onho ba organizmi odami solim bo rohi nafas vorid meshavand. Baze B. s.-i rohi nafas (mas., gripp) dar bayni odamon zud gustarish meyoband. Binobar in dar mavsimi khuruji gripp hangomi sulfidan yo tab kardan, bemorro dar khona nigoh doshta, boyad dukhturo davat kard; dar asnoi parastorii bemor shakhsi solim boyad dahonu biniashro bo dokai chorqabata bandad, bemor hangomi gap zadan , sulfidan yo atsa zadan dahonu biniashro bo ruymolcha pushad (nig. Gripp, Nazla).
Hangomi B. s.-i khun angezandaho bo khun gird gashta, binobar bo muhit aloqa nadoshtan, az bemor ba shakhsi solim faqat tavassuti hasharoti khunmak meguzarand. Angezandahoi B. s.-i khunro pashsha (varaja, pashshakhurda, varajai zard va g.), shabush (hasba va tifi raji), kana (rikketsiozhoi kanagi, ensefaliti kanagi va g.) va kayk (toun, tifi kanagi) intiqol medihand.
Dar mavridi B. s.-i pust angezandaho ba organizmi odam az pardai luobi va pusti illatyofta dokhil meshavand. Odam chi dar asnoi tamos (bemorihoi oloti tanosul) va chi az istifodai kurpavu bolin yo sachoqi bemor (trakhoma, khorishak, bemorihoi zanburugii pust va g.) siroyat meyobad. Rioya kardani qoidahoi behdosht (istifodai saru libos, sachoq, kurpavu bolini alohida) baroi peshgirii B. s. ahamiyati kalon dorad.
SHakhsoni giriftori B. s.-ro dar bemorkhona,dar baze holatho dar khona tabobat mekunand (nig. Nigohubini bemor). Nigohubini durust va gizoi khub tabobati bisyor B. s. – ro oson megardonad.
Baroi peshgirii B. s az moyaguzaronii peshgirikunanda istifoda mebarand. Kam shudan va barham khurdani B. s. beshtar ba sokhti jamiyat, taraqqiyoti khojagii khalq, darajai nekuahvolii aholi, khadamoti tandurusti va g. vobastagi dorad.
Ad.: Qamardinov H.Q., Rahmonov E.R., Bemorihoi siroyati, D., 2000; Hamon muallif, Klinika opasnikh infeksionnikh bolezney, D., 2007; Kamardinov H.K., Infeksionnie i parazitarnie bolezni, D., 2009.

E. R. Rahmonov.

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