Home / Ilm / BEMORIHOI RuHi

BEMORIHOI RuHi

bemorii-ruhiBEMORIHOI RuHi (Psychoses), bemorihoe, ki beshtar bo ikhtiloli ruh padid meoyand. Faoliyati ruhii inson, tabiatan chi khele, ki naboshad, dar natijai ikhtiloli kori magzi sar kharob megardad. Ammo hama guna ikhtilol boisi B. r. nakhohad shud. Mas., zimni yak qator bemorihoi asab, sarfi nazar az on ki magzi sar illat (gazak, zarbulat) dorad, ikhtiloli ruhi metavonad ruy nadihad.
Dar mavridi B. r. beshtar inikosi durusti voqeiyat khalal meyobad va farqiyati onho az amrozi uzvhoi dokhili niz dar hamin ast. Mas., odame, ki sharoiti muqarrari ba nazarash begona menamoyad va onro chizi digar mepindorad, atrofiyonro hamchun odamoni badkhoh yo dushman medonad; dar brobari durust dark kardani olami voqei zeri taassuroti tavahhumoti binoi va shunavoi be yagon sabab dar tarsu vahm memonad yo az had ziyod shod megardad, olami voqei peshi nazarash nodurust (vayron) inikos meyobad va vobasta ba in raftori nodurust zohir mekunad, yane az dushmanoni khayoli megurezad, ba raqibi khayoli hamla meorad, kushishi khudkushi mekunad va g. In misoli bemori haqiqii ruhi meboshad, ki zimni on qobiliyati durust baho dodan ba hamai on chize, ki dar atrofi bemor va bo khudi u ruy medihad, khalalpazir gashtaast.
B. r. ham az jihati namud va ham az jihati darajai zuhurot gunogun meshavand. Onho ba qatori bemorihoi khele pahnshuda mansuband. SHumorai bemoroni ruhi dar kurai zamin ba 150 million merasad, ilova bar in az sababi tagyir yoftani tarkibi sinnusolii aholi, ziyod shudani hisobi miyonai umr va g. mayli afzudani in tedod mushohida megardad.
Sababhoi B. r. gunogun meboshand.Dar bayni onho omilhoi irsi maqomi khosa dorand. Mas., mavqei (maqomi) in omilho dar paydoishi oligofreniya (noqisulaqli), devonagi (psikhopatiya), vasvosi jununiyu afsurdaruhi, sar va shizofreniya khele kalon ast. Paydoish va inkishofi B. r. dar baze mavridho ba hamsozii tamoyuli irsiyu omilhoi nomusoidi beruni (siroyat, zarbu lat, zahroludi, sadomoti ruhi) niz vobasta meboshad.
Dar batn illat yoftani nasl binobar bemori yo zarbu lat khurdani modar hangomi homilagi, metavonad boisi takhiri inkishofi ruhii kudak, sar va ikhtiloloti digari ruhi gardad. Badmastii volidayn, bordorshavi dar holati masti (hatto mastii yake az volidayn) yo suyistemoli mashruboti spirtdor (ayyomi homilagi) niz ba nasl tasiri noguvor merasonand.
Zahroludi, zarbu lati sar, amrozi uzvhoi daruni va bemorihoi siroyati aksar vaqt boisi B. r. megardand. Mayzadagii muzmin va nashamandi misoli B. r.-i zahri meboshand. Bemorihoi siroyati – ensefalit, siflisi magzi sar , brutselyoz, toksoplazmoz, hasba va baze namudhoi gripp niz metavonand mujibi psikhozho gardand.
Dar paydoishi nevrozho osebhoi ruhie, ki goho tamoyuli irsiro ba khuruji bemori tabdil medihand, mavqei asosi dorand. Dar inkishofi B. r. tasiri mushtaraki sababho va khususiyathoi fardii inson maqomi muayyanro sohib ast. Mas., nahamai ashkhosi giriftori sifilis ba psikhozi sifilisi giriftor meshavand; yo khud faqat dar shumorai kami odamone, ki ba aterosklerozi khunraghoi magzi sar giriftorand, kamaqli yo psikhozi tavahhumu hazyoni rukh menamoyad. Dar in guna mavridho ba B. r. zarbu lati magzi sar, zahroludii maishi (mayzadagi), baze amrozi uzvhoi darun, tamoyuli modarzodi doshtan ba psikhozho musoidat mekunand.
Baroi inkishofi B. r. jins va sinnu sol niz tasiri muayyan dorand. Mas., ikhtiloli ruhi dar bayni mardho nisbat ba zanon beshtar ba mushohida merasad. Dar ayni hol mardho beshtar ba psikhozi sadamavi va alkogoli, zanho ba psikhozi jununiyu afsurdaruhi, kuhansolon boshand, ba psikhozi involyutsiyavi va afsurdaruhi giriftor meshavand. Sababi in az aftash, na khususiyathoi biologii jins, balki omilhoi ijtimoi meboshand. Mardho, muvofiqi anana, az mashruboti spirtdor aksar vaqt suiistemol mekunand va binobar in tabiist, ki dar bayni onho psikhozi alkologi beshtar mushohida meshavad. Ba psikhozi sadamavi beshtar giriftor shudani mardho niz nachandon az biologiyai jins, balki az sharoiti ijtimoi vobasta ast. Dar khususi sinnu sol boshad, komilan fahmost, ki bisyor B. r. faqat dar kudakon yo tanho dar sinni pironsoli, yo beshtar dar yagon sinnu soli muayyan mushohida meshavand. Basomadi yak qator bemoriho, mas., shizofreniya dar sinni az 20 to 35-solagi afzuda, dar pironsoli kam megardad.
Sababi paydoishi B. r. har qadar ziyod boshad, shaklu navi onho hamon qadar gunogun meshavad. Bazei onho ba tavri shadid (psikhozi shadid az zahroludi, tasiri siroyat va sadama) ogoz yofta zud bartaraf meshavand. Bemorihoi digar noayon inkishof meyoband va ba tavri muzmin jarayon girifta, vazninii ikhtiloli ruhi toraft meafzoyad (baze shaklhoi shizofreniya, psikhozhoi pironsoli). Helhoi digari B. r. dar davrai kudaki oshkor gardida, illati paydoshuda dar tuli hayot ustuvor va betagyir boqi memonad (oligofreniya). YAk qator B. r. hamchun khuruj yo davra (faza) jarayon girifta, bo shifoi komil anjom meyoband (psikhozi jununiyu afsurdaruhi, baze namudhoi shizofreniya).
Hamin tavr, aqidae ki guyo B. r. hamesha oqibati nokhush ba bor meorand, asosi kofi nadorad. Tashkhis va peshguii B. r. gunogun ast. Bazei onho bezarar jarayon yofta, boisi mayubi nameshavand. Bemorihoi digar boshand, andake zarar merasonand, vale ba har hol dar surati sarivaqt tabobat kardan, purra yo qisman raf megardand. Az tasavvurot dar borai boisi sharmsori gashtani B. r. ehtiyot boyad shud. Rukh namudani hodisahoi nokhush ba bemoroni ruhi va muzmin gashtani jarayoni psikhozho, ki muolijaashon dushvor ast, mahz ba hamin aqidai galat vobastaand.
Nishonahoi nisbatan mamuli B. r. tavahhum, hazyon, holati muzohim, purhayajoni, ikhtiloli shuur, berabtii hofiza va zaifaqli meboshand.
Tavahhum (gallyutsinatsiya) yake az shaklhoi darki nodurusti voqeiyati muhit buda, biduni angezish ba vujud meoyad. Tavahhum gunogun meshavad: binoi, shunavoi, shommavi (buy), zoiqavi (maza) va lomisavi. Dar asnoi tavahhum bemoron biduni tasavvur chizi nabudaro ravshan mebinand, meshunavand, mebuyand.
Hazyon mulohiza (aqida)-i galatest, ki be yagon sababi muayyan ba vujud meoyad. Rafi in qabil aqida, sarfi nazar az on ki bar khilofi haqiqat va tamomi tajribai peshtarai bemor meboshad, imkonnopazir ast. Hazyon ba hama guna burhoni qote (isbotu dalel) muqobil meistad va bo hamin az khatohoi odditarini muhokima farq mekunad. Mazmunan hazyon gunogun meshavad: hazyoni khudsitoi (sarvatmandi, aslu nasabi khos, ikhtirokori, islohotchigi, oshiqi); hazyoni taqib (zahroldushavi, aybdorkuni, gorat, rashk); hazyoni khudtahqirkuni (purgunohi, bemori, nobud shudani uzvhoi dokhili).
Holati vasvos (muzohim) ba paydoishi gayriikhtiyor va rafnopazirii fikrho, tasavvurot, khotira, shubha, vahm, ragbat, harakat padid meoyad. Bemor nojuri budani in hamaro dark mekunad, ba nazari tanqidi menigarad va doimo kushish mekunad bo onho muboriza barad.
Pareshonii affektivi holati vasvosiest, ki bo ikhtiloli kayfiyat aloqamand meboshad. Onro ba du guruh judo mekunand: holati jununi (maniaki) va afsurdaruhi. Baroi holati maniaki kayfiyati khele khushholona, kushishi faoliyat, tezonidani surati tafakkur khos ast. Baroi holati afsurdaruhi kayfiyati huznangez, zaifii tafakkur khos meboshad.
Ikhtiloli hush khalalyobii darguzaru kutohmuddati (soatho, ruzho) faoliyati ruhi ast. Baroi chunin bemoron dunyobezori, ikhtiloli tafakkur bo imkonnopazir budani muhokimaronii durust, purra yo qisman az khotir barovardani hodisahoi davrai ikhtiloli hush khos meboshand. Ikhtiloli hofiza ba kam shudani qobiliyati dar khotir doshtan va barqaror namudani faktho va hodisaho padid meoyad.
Zaifaqli kohishi bebozgashti tamomi faoliyati ruhist. On bo raf shudan yo kam gashtani donishu malakahoe, ki dar guzashta andukhta shuda budand, padid meoyad. Zaifaqli modarzod (nig. Oligofreniya) yo dar natijai bemorihoi az sar guzaronida paydo meshavad.
B. r.-ro dar bemorkhonahoi amrozi ruhi va dispanserho muolija mekunand. Sabab, jarayon, peshgiri va tabobati B. r. dar kafedrai psikhiatriya va narkologiyai ba nomi M.G. Gulomovi DDTT omukhta meshavad. Ruhshinosoni jumhuri dar tadqiqi jihathoi gunoguni shizofreniya, psikhozhoi alkogoli, psikhozhoi siroyati (zukomi va sifilisi) sahmi arzanda guzoshtaand.
Ad.: Gilyarovskiy V.A., Pskhiatriya, M., 1954; Gulyamov M.G., Voprosi klinicheskoy psikhiatrii, D., 1963; Hamon muallif, Psikhiatriya, D., 1993; Hamon muallif, Ravonpizishki, D., 1996.

N. M. SHarofova.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

planet

ZAMIN – SAYYORAI SISTEMAM OFTOBI

Sababhoi tagyiryobii faslhoi sol. Az kursi tabiatshinosi mo medonem, ki Oftob in markazi sistemai oftobii mo …