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BEDILI DEHLAVI

Bedil, maro harzasaroi shon nest,
Madhi miru sitoishi sulton nest.
Hayot va e
jodiyoti Bedili Dehlavi

bedili-dehlaviBuzurgtarin shoir, mutafakkir va navisandai zabardast Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil, yake az on ejodkoronest, ki na tanho ba adabiyoti davr balki ba jarayoni minbadai tarikhi adabiyot niz hamajoniba tasir rasonidaast. Bedili Dehlavi soli 1644 dar shahri Azimobodi viloyati Bangolai Hinduston ba dunyo omadaast. Badho u dar qitae roje ba sanai valodati khesh chunin ishorai sudmand namudaast:

Ba sole, ki Bedil ba mulki zuhur,

Zi fayzi azal toft chun oftob.

Buzurge khabar dod az mavludash,

Ki ham «fayzi quds» astu ham «intikhob».

Dar misrai chahorumi qitai mazkur, ki moddai tarikh omadaast, agar adadi harfho tibqi hisobi abjad guzoshta shavad, soli 1054 hijri hosil meshavad. Az in sana (1054) 32 tarh karda shavad, 1022 memonad va on bo 622 jam karda shavad, soli 1644 hosil meshavad, ki sanai volodati Bedili Dehlavi meboshad. Abdulqodir nom va Bedil takhallusi adabii shoir buda, unvoni aftikhorii ejodiash Abulmaoni meboshad. Bedil ba manii dildoda, yane oshiq sharh doda shudaast. Padaru boboyoni Bedil az mardumoni atrofi Samarqand buda, az sababi nobasomonihoi avzoi tarikhii Movarounnahr ba Hinduston rafta budaand. Ba tarkibi nomi kheshovandon va nomi khudi shoir ilova gardidani vojai mirzo guvohi on ast, ki nafare az ajdodi u sardori buzurg guzashta budaast. Guzashtagoni Bedil az toifai sipohiyon budaand.

Bedil dar ovoni tifli az padar yatim monda, tarbiya va talimi ibtidoiro az modar giriftaast. U dar 5-6 – solagi ba maktab doda meshavad. Bedil, dar 7- solagi «Quron»-ro hifz namud. Badtar ilmhoi digari zamonai khesh: sarfu nahvi arabi, mantiqu hikmat, fiqhu kalom, tafsiru hadis, adabiyot, tasavvufu irfon va gayraro komilan faro giriftaast. Ustodoni Bedil amakash Mirzo Qalandar, tagoyash – Mirzo Zarif, donishmandonu orifoni digar: SHohqosimi Huvallohi, SHaykh Kamol, ustod Abulqosim, SHaykh Fozil va digaron budaand.

Bedil az musohibahoi ahli ilmu fazl dar koshonahoi – Mirzo Qalandaru Mirzo Zarif bahrai komil bardoshtaast.

Istedodi shoirii Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil dar sinni 10-solagiash oshkor shudaast. Zero Bedil dar «CHor unsur» khotirrason mekunad, ki solhoi maktabkhoniash allakay sher meguftaast. U taqriban dar 10- solagi ba yake az hamsabaqhoyash ruboii zaylro bakhshidaast:

YOram har goh dar sukhan meoyad,

Bui ajabesh az dahan meoyad.

In bui qalanfur ast, yo nakhati gul,

YO roihai mushki Hutan meoyad.

Bedil soli 1665 az Bihor ba shahri Dehli meoyad.

Az mulki Bihor sui Dehli

CHun ashk ravon shudem bekas.

Bedil dar sinni 25-solagi khonador meshavad va baroi kasbi maosh ba khidmati pisari Avrangzeb – Azamshoh ba haysi sipohi ba faoliyat mepardozad. Nafare az nazdikoni Bedil shoir budani uro ba Azamshoh khabar medihad. SHoh Bedilro davat namuda, az u khohish menamoyad, ki baroyash madhiyae binavisad. In raftori hokim Bedilro ozurda mekunad va u az khizmat dast mekashad. Aslan Bedil yak mardi sarbaland, boviqor, bonang, khudogoh budaast, ki meguyad:

Ay baso manii ravshan, ki zi hirsi shuaro

Hoki javlongahi aspu khari ahli choh ast.

V-ay baso nuskha, ki dar maktabi tashvishi tama,

Rusiyohi adab az madhi amiru shoh ast.

Marjai manii in sustkhayolon daryob,

To bidoni chi qadar fitratashon kutoh ast.

Silamushtoqi gadotab zi mazmuni baland

Gar hama poy dar aflok nihad dar choh ast.

Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil bad ba Akbarobod rafta dar mahfilhoi adabi ishtirok menamoyad va bo shoironi khushzavqu donishmandoni zamon – Izzat, Zuhuri va digaron shinosoi paydo mekunad.

SHoir badan ba shahrhoi Panjob, Lohur, Kashmir, Multon, Sarhind va gayraro sayr karda, taassurotashro oid ba shahrhoi zikrshuda dar asari khud «CHor unsur» khele mufassal bayon namudaast. In safarho baroi shoir yak darsi zindagi bud, charo ki khosi u tavonist ba hayoti tabaqahoi mukhtalifi ijtimoii jamiyat shinos shavad.

Umuman, in shoiri mutafakkir az nigohi tangii maishi baso tanqisiho kashidaast. Bedil hatto to sinni 41-solagi manzili istiqomati nadoshtaast. Badtar bo dastgirii duston shoir sohibi manzili shakhsi meshavad. Zero ikhlosmandonash ba u az shahri Dehli havlii istiqomati yofta medihand.

Hamsari avvalai Bedil dar sinni 38-solagii shoir az olam chashm mepushad va u bori digar khonador shuda, badho dar sinni 64-solagi pisardor gardidaast. Darego, pisari shoir dar ovoni tifli az olam guzashtaast.

SHoiri mutafakkir poyoni ruzgori kheshro dar shahri Dehli guzaronida, dar hamon jo, dar sinni 77-solagi, yane soli 1721 vafot kardaast.

Muallifi tazkirai «Hizonai omira» – Mir Gulomalikhoni Ozod dar vafoti Bedil qiai zerinro surudaast:

Saru sarkadai arbobi sukhan

Az gamobodi jahon khurram raft.

Guft tarikhi vafotash Ozod:

«Mirzo Bedil az olam raft».

Dar qitai mazkur moddai tarikh misrai chorum ast. Agar qimati harfhoi in misra az rui hisobi abjad durust guzoshta shavad, soli 1133 hijri hosil megardad va az on 34 tarh karda shavad, 1099 boqi memonad. 1099 bo 622 jam karda shavad, soli 1331 hijri hosil megardad va az on 34 tarh karda shavad, 1099 boqi memonad, 1099 bo 622 jam karda shavad, soli 1721 hosil megardad, ki on soli vafoti Bedil ast.

Kulliyoti Bedil

SHeram, ki ba sad zabon furud omadaast,

Dar chandin vaqt on furud omadaast.

«Tavrot» nabud, to biguyam, ki hama

YAkbora zi osmon furud omadaast.

Ejodiyoti in shoiri mutafakkir khele gunogunmavzu va sersoha buda, dar shaklhoi nazmu nasr boqi mondaast, ki «Kulliyot»-i uro faroham meorad. Muhim on ast, ki Bedil az ovoni khurdsoli ba korhoi ejodi ru ovarda, fuzun az 65 sol ejod kardaast.

Tarkibi «Kulliyot»-i Bedil dar majmu shomili 65 hazor bayt buda chunin ast:

1) «Debocha», 2) «Irfon», 3) «Turi marifat», 4) « Nukot», 5) «Ishorot va hikoyot», 6) «Ruqaot», 7) «CHor unsur», 8) «Muhiti azam», 9) «Tilismi hayrat», 10) «Gazaliyot», 11) «Ruboiyot», 12) «Qasoid», 13) «Qitaot», 14) «Tarkibot va tarjeot», 15) «Tashbehot va tamsilot».

Devoni Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil, ki dar dokhili « Kulliyot»-i u omadaast, az gazaliyot, ruboiyot, qasoid, qitaot, tarkibotu tarjeot, tashbehot va tamsilot iborat meboshad. Miqdori umumii abyoti tarkibi devoni Bedil 37500 baytro tashkil medihad.

Dar devon joi avvalro gazaliyot ishgol menamoyad, ki miqdoran 2165 gazal buda, 23 hazor baytro darbar megirad.

YAke az navhoi adabii digar, ki dar devoni Bedili Dehlavi mavqei namoyon dorad, ruboi meboshad. Dar devoni shoir 3500 ruboi darj gardidaast. SHoyad sababi asosii ba ruboi nisbatan tavajjuh zohir namudani Bedil on boshad, ki dar in janr joy dodani afkori falsafi, irfoni-tasavvufi, ishqi, pandu andarzi khele muvofiqu sozgor ast.

Mavqei janrhoi digari sheri: qasoid, qitot, tarkibotu tarjeot, tashbehot va tamsilot, ki dar devon omadaand, ba mavzuhoi mukhtalifu masoili gunogun bakhshida shudaand. Az jumla, ishqu irfon, sitoishi inson, tasviri manoziri olam, masoili falsafi, hayoti – ijtimoi, tarbiyavi-akhloqi, adabi-estetiki va gayra.

Masnavi dar ejodiyoti Bedil mavqei muhim dorad, ki nomgui onho chunin ast:

  1. «Tilismi hayrat». Nakhustin masnavii Bedil buda, soli 1669 talif shudaast. Asar az 3750 bayt iborat meboshad va dar bahri Hazaji musaddasi maqsur yo mahzuf navishta shudaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

V – – – / V – – – / V – ~

YAne, mafoilun, mafoilun, faulon. Dar in masnavii Bedil nufuzi talimoti majzubiya ba mushohida merasad.

  1. «Muhiti azam». Masnavii mazkur soli 1681 talif shuda, az 4500 bayt iborat meboshad. Asar dar janri soqinoma navishta shudaast va vazni on Mutaqoribi musammani maqsur buda, shakli afoili on chunin ast:

V – – / V – – / V – – / V ~

YAne, faulun, faulun, faulun, faul. Masnavi doroi hasht bob buda, tasavvufist va tasvirhoi majozii asbobi tarab: may, khum, jom, daf, nay, chang, tanbur, qonun va gayra dar on mavqei asosi dorand. Dar asar doir ba sarguzashti simohoi tasavvufu irfon hikoyatho ovarda meshavad.

  1. «Turi marifat». Masnavii mazkur soli 1687 talif gardida, doroi 1500 bayt meboshad. «Turi marifat» dar bahri Hazaji musaddasi mahzuf yo maqsur ejod shudaast, ki shakli afoili on chunin ast:

V – – – / V – – – / V – ~

YAne, mafoilun, mafoilun, faulon. Masnavii «Turi marifat»- ro Bedil «Maktubi manzum» niz nomguzori namuda, onro ba dusti khud, shoiru donishmandi muosirash – SHukrullohkhon mebakhshad. Dar masnavii mazkur asosan kuhi Bayroti Hinduston ba tasvir girifta meshavad. CHunonchi, shoir meguyad:

Tapish farsud shavqi nolatimsol,

Zi tahriki nafas vomekunad bol.

Ki khomushi navosoz ast imruz,

Gubori surmavu soz ast imruz.

Zi turi marifat mani saroyam,

Ba chandin kuh menozad sadoyam.

SHoir manzarahoi zeboi kuhi Bayrotro dar qiyos bo kuhi Tur, ki Muso dar on jo nuri Ilohiro didaast, ba tasvir giriftaast:

Kunun dar kuhi Bayrot obu rangest,

Ki har sangash ba dil burdan farangest.

  1. «Ishorot va hikoyot». In asari Bedil az majmui porahoi sheri, ki dar shakli masnavi talif shudaand, iborat ast. SHerho dar shakli masnavi navishta shuda boshand ham, dar vaznhoi gunogun insho shudaand. Hajmi umumii abyoti masnavi 1300 bayt buda, asosan mavzui asar tasvirhoi khele sershumori tabiatro niz faro megirad. Masalan, namunae az ishoroti yakum:

Sahar oina hampardozi dil bud,

Safoe imtiyozi obu gil bud.

Nakhustin, ki zi tahqiq kardam ogoz,

Ba ramzi obu khokam chashm shud boz.

Taammul sarfi kori inu on shud,

CHarogi khilvati har yak ayon shud.

Nihol az khoki gulshan dar qafas dosht,

Hubob az obi khud jushi nafas dosht.

YAqinam shud, ki dar har qatra jonest,

Nihon dar har kafi khoke jahonest.

  1. «Irfon» dar merosi adabii Bedil kalontarin asar buda, az 11 hazor bayt iborat ast va dar shakli masnavi ejod shudaast. Sanai talifi asar soli 1712 buda, dar in asar shoiri mutafakkir ba muhimtarin masalahoi irfonu tasavvuf, masoili mukhtalifi hayot, qonuniyathoi rushdi jomea, maqomi inson dar hayot, voqeiyati zindagii purziddiyathoi insoni ru ovardaast. Inchunin, dar on aqidahoi ilmi, falsafi, irfoni, tasavvufi, ijtimoi, akhloqii mutafakkir inikos yoftaand, ki baso muhimu arzishmandand. Dar asar zararu ofathoi bekori bayon gardida, peshai kishovarzi, dehqoni az tamomi kasbhoi digar afzaliyatnok donista meshavad. Makhsusan, dar hikoyati «Komde va Madan» adolat va noadolati qiyosan ba tasvir girifta shuda, bebaqoii zulmu istibdod nishon doda meshavad.

Masnavii «Irfon» doroi 10 bob boshad ham, irtiboti mantiqii bobho ba mushohida merasad. Asar asosan aqoidi falsafi – irfoni, tasavvufi, hayoti – ijtimoi, akhloqi – tarbiyavi va gayraro faro megirad. Az in ru, masnavii «Irfon» baroi muayyan namudani jahonbinii Bedil, maqomu martabai u dar tarikhi adabiyot, hunari shoir dar ejodi masnavi va umuman poyai sukhanvarii u arzishmandu muhim va jolibu zarurist.

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