Home / Jamiyat / BARNOMAI SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNII TOJIKISTON cc. 2016-2020

BARNOMAI SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNII TOJIKISTON cc. 2016-2020

Zamimai 1 Bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az “26” noyabri soli 2016, № 503 tasdiq shudaast

BARNOMAI DAVLATII MUSOIDAT BA SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNII JUMHURII TOJIKISTON BAROI SOLHOI 2016-2020

1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMi

  1. Barnomai davlatii musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkunii Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2020 (minbad-Barnoma) jihati faroham ovardani sharoiti musoid ba amalishavii siyosati davlatii iqtisodii khoriji, baland bardoshtani raqobatnokii mahsuloti vatani dar bozori dokhili va khoriji tahiya gashta, ba afzun gardonidani hajmi sodirot, kohish dodani hissai molhoi istemoli va khizmatrasoni dar hajmi umumii voridot ravona gardidaast.
  2. Baroi noil gardidan ba on dar doirai Barnoma ijroi vazifahoi strategii zerin, ki dar Strategiyai millii rushd baroi davrai to soli 2030 muayyan gardidaand, ogoz karda meshavad:

voridot-sodirot

– ba tavri nazarras kam kardani vobastagi az mahsuloti voridotii asosii niyozi mardum;

– tamini boloravii istehsoli mahsuloti sodiroti va voridotivazkunanda tavassuti andeshidani tadbirho dar samthoi peshnihodi mekhanizmi samaranoki dastgiri va havasmandgardonii istehsolkunandagon va sodirkunandagoni molhoi vatani va guzaronidani islohoti zaruri dar bakhshhoi voqei;

– tasis dodani markazhoi muosiri logistiki va vase kardani dolonhoi baynalmilalii kommunikatsioni, naqliyoti va iqtisodi;

– ba talaboti standarthoi baynalmilali mutobiq kardani khizmatrasonii khatsayrhoi rohi ohan, avtomobili, havoi va namudhoi digari naqliyot;

– tamin namudani boloravii istehsoli mahsuloti sodiroti va voridotivazkunanda tavassuti andeshidani tadbirho jihati musoidat ba sodirkunandagonu sarmoyaguzoroni ehtimoli, inkishofi hamkori, zanjirhoi arzishi ilovashuda va guruhbandi.

  1. Zimni tahiyai Barnoma tajribai amalishavi va sabaqhoi az tatbiqi Barnomai rushdi sodiroti Jumhurii Tojikiston to soli 2015 giriftashuda, inchunin khususiyathoi vazi jorii savdoi baynalmilali va tamoyulhoi nav dar sohai jahonishavi va hamgiroii mintaqavi ba nazar girifta shudand.
  2. Dar asosi natijahoi tahlili guzaronidashudai taqrizii faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji dar davrai az soli 2000 to soli 2014 mushkiloti asosi va omilhoi bozdorandai sodirot va voridotivazkuni oshkor gardida, omilu sababhoi raqobatpazir nabudani istehsolkunandagoni vatani muayyan karda shudand. Intikhobi samthoi strategii sodiroti doroi afzaliyatho baroi raqobat bo darnazardoshti tahlili samthoi oyandador va bozorhoi maqsadnok asosnok karda shudaast. Bo darnazardoshti durnamoi voridotivazkuni va imkoniyathoe, ki dar bobati tasis az sifr, ehyo va afzun namudani iqtidorho dar bozori dokhili mavjudand, afzaliyathoi bakhshu sohaho muayyan karda shuda, mavqehoi moli daqiq karda shudand.
  3. Mushkiloti rushdi institutsionalii sodirot va voridotivazkuni dar Barnoma mavqei asosi doshta, rohi halli mantiqii khudro dar chorabiniho oid ba takmili zaminai meyorii huquqii islohoti siyosati savdo va soddagardonii rasmiyoti sodirotu voridot, musoidat ba jalbi sarmoyaguzorii mustaqimi khoriji va tekhnologiyahoi nav, bunyodi sokhtorhoi dastgirii sodirot, behtar namudani infrasokhtori sodirot va sodiroti dar mintaqahoi ozodi iqtisodi, tashkili shabakai intiqol va furushi mol dar khorija, taqviyati nerui insoni va tarbiyai kadrho baroi sokhtorhoi dastgirii sodirot va voridotivazkuni paydo namudand.
  4. Dastgirii davlatii sodirot va voridotivazkuni dar doirai Barnomai mazkur tadbirhoi voridoti be andozu be boji tekhnologiyaho va tajhizoti nav, havasmandgardonii sodirot dar doirai sozishnomahoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo, takmili batanzimdarorii gumruki va asori, chorahoi ziddidempingi va muhofizati, omilhoi andozi va mekhanizmhoi moliyaviyu qarzi, az jumla behtar namudani dastrasi ba moliyai sodirotkunandagon va istehsoloti voridotivazkunanda, inchunin tadbirhoi makhsusi sohaviro peshbini menamoyad.
  5. Baland bardoshtani raqobatnokii mahsulot dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji hamchun omili muhimtarini rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni dar tadbirhoi mushakhkhas oid ba behtar namudani sifati mahsulot mutobiqi meyoru standarthoi baynalmilali, az jumla Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo, Ittihodi iqtisodii Evraziya va bozorhoi digari ehtimolii furush, mukammalsozii borbandi, tamga va nomi tijoratii mol, jori namudani innovatsiya dar istehsoloti ba sodirot nigaronidashuda va voridotivazkunanda, mukammalsozii logistika, infrasokhtori naqliyot va inkishofi menejmenti sifat inikos meyobad.
  6. Dar qismi khotimavii Barnoma parametrhoi asosii durnamoi rushdi faoliyati savdoi khorijii Tojikiston dar solhoi 2016-2020, tanosubi sodirot va voridot, inchunin durnamoi sodirot, voridot va voridotivazkuni az rui 20 mahsuloti asosi peshnihod gardida, mekhanizmhoi tatbiq, inchunin monitoring va nazorati jarayoni ijroi Barnoma muayyan karda shudaand. Barnoma tibqi muqarraroti qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai durnamohoi davlati, konsepsiyaho, strategiyaho va barnomahoi inkishofi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston”, “Dar borai savdo va khizmatrasonii maishi”, “Dar borai faoliyati savdoi khoriji”, “Dar borai tanzimi asor va nazorati asor”, “Dar borai mintaqahoi ozodi iqtisodi dar Jumhurii Tojikiston”, “Dar borai nazorati sodirot”, “Dar borai sharikii davlat va bakhshi khususi” va digar sarchashmahoi tanzimkunandai sohahoi zikrshuda tahiya gardidaast.
  7. Darajai noilshavi ba vazifahoi peshbinigardidai strategi va maqsadnok bo indikatorhoe, ki nishondihandahoi makroiqtisodi va parametrhoi asosii rushdi sodirot, voridot va voridotivazkunii molu khizmatrasonihoi asosii alohidaro dar bar megirand, nazorat karda meshavad.
  8. Durnamoi rushdi faoliyati savdoi khorijii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar davrai to soli 2020 tagyiroti hajm va sokhtori sodirot va voridotro dar doirai se senariya peshbini menamoyad: “mayusona” (pessimisti), “voqebinona” va “nekbinona” (optimisti), ki bo darajai taminot bo sarmoyaguzori va darajai bo dastgirii moliyavi qone namudani chorabinihoi Barnoma muayyan megardand. Az rui voqebinona amali shudani Barnoma imkoniyat medihad, ki to soli 2020 sodirot az rui arzish qarib 80 foiz ziyod gardida, tanosubi sodirot nisbat ba voridot az 25, foiz to sathi 40 foiz rasonida shuda, savdo to 5,9 foiz ikhtisor karda shavad.
  9. Tatbiqi chorabinihoi asosii Barnoma dar Naqshai chorabiniho inikos yoftaast, ki ba se samti ba ham aloqamand asos meyobad: takmili asoshoi institutsionalii rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni, taqviyati dastgirii davlatii istehsoloti vatanii ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni nigaronidashuda, inchunin baland bardoshtani raqobatpazirii molhoi istehsoli Tojikiston dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji. Beshubha, dar doirai yak barnoma hal namudani hamai mushkiloti marbut ba rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni imkonnopazir ast, binobar in tadbirhoi alohidai mushakhkhas va chorabinihoi makhsus dar doirai barnomahoi sohavii tahiyashavanda oid ba rushdi bakhshhoi afzaliyatnoki iqtisodiyoti milli bo tamoyuli daqiq ba taqviyati imkoniyathoi sodiroti va afzun gardonidani voridotivazkunii raqobatnok peshbini karda khohand shud.
  10. Tatbiqi Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 va Barnomai miyonamuhlati rushdi Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2020 hangomi tahiya va tatbiqi Barnomai mazkur ba samaranoki, gunogunshakli (diversifikatsiya) va raqobatpazirii bakhshi voqeii iqtisodiyot, rushdi nerui insoni, taqviyati institutsionali va guzaronidani islohotu digargunihoi jiddi afzaliyati asosi doda meshavad. Vobasta ba in dar nazar ast, ki Barnomai rushdi kompleksi agrosanoati baroi solhoi 2016-2020 to okhiri soli 2016 tahiya va peshnihod gardida, tadbirhoi muhimu farogirro oid ba samthoi afzaliyatnoki nomburda dar sathi sohaho va mintaqaho mufassal dar bar girad.

2. HOLAT VA MUSHKILOTI SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNi DAR JUMHURII TOJIKISTON

§1. Tahlili holati faoliyati iqtisodii khorijii Tojikiston

  1. Tojikiston doroi iqtisodiyoti kushoda buda, dar on voridoti molu khizmatrasoniho az sodiroti onho beshtar ast. Ozodkunii savdoi khoriji dar nimai solhoi 90-umi asri guzashta surat girift. Soli 2012 dar reytingi savdoi globalii moli Tojikiston az rui sodirot va voridot mutanosiban dar mavqei 143 va 140-um qaror dosht (Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo, soli 2014).
  2. Pas az ba dast ovardani istiqloliyat sokhtori jugrofii sodiroti kishvar komilan tagyir yoft. Agar soli 1992 sodirot ba kishvarhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil 62 foiz va ba kishvarhoi khorijai dur 38 foizro tashkil karda boshad, pas soli 2014 in tanosub qatiyan tagyir yoft: ba hissai kishvarhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil 26 foiz va ba khorijai dur, asosan kishvarhoi Osiyo 74 foiz hajmi umumii sodirot rost meoyad.
  3. Binobar mahdud budani nomgui molhoi sodiroti, ki dar on alyuminiyi avvaliya va nakhi pakhta bartariyat doshtand, dar davrai mushohidashavanda bo ifodai arzish tagyiroti jiddi mushohida karda nameshavad. Kohish yo afzoishi sodirot beshtar bo tagyiryobii narkhi jahonii molho dar shakli ashyoi khomi az Tojikiston sodirotshavanda vobasta meboshad.
  4. Dar mavridi voridot holat digargun ast. Soli 2014 hajmi voridot bo ifodai arzishi dar muqoisa bo soli 2000-um 6,4 barobar, zimnan az kishvarhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil 3,9 barobar, az on jumla az Rossiya 11,3 barobar va az kishvarhoi khorijai dur 19 barobar, az jumla az kishvarhoi Osiyo 45,3 barobar ziyod gardid. Afzoishi nazarrasi hajmi voridot pesh az hama bo ziyodshavii hajmi voridoti intiqoli pulii muhojiron, talaboti istemolii aholi va istehsolii korkhonavu inshoothoi infrasokhtori, nokifoyagii hajmi istehsoloti vatani baroi qonegardonii talaboti dokhila, mahdud va kuhna budani iqtidorhoi mavjudai istehsoli aloqamand ast.
  5. Tagyiryobii sokhtori jugrofii voridot beshtar az hisobi raqobatpazir nabudani molhoi kishvarhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil az rui meyori narkhu sifat va darajai balandtari diversifikatsiyai mol, tekhnologiya va khizmathoi az jonibi kishvarhoi khorijai dur, az jumla az tarafi Hitoy va Turkiya peshnihodshavanda ba amal omad.
  6. Soli 2015 sharikhoi asosii tijoratii Tojikiston az rui sodirot Turkiya (28,7 foiz), SHveytsariya (23,1 foiz), Qazoqiston (16,4 foiz), Eron (6,7 foiz), Afgoniston (6,3 foiz) va az rui voridot Rossiya (30,5 foiz), Hitoy (22,2 foiz), Qazoqiston (16,2 foiz), SHveytsariya (3,1 foiz) va Litva (2,4 foiz) budand.
  7. Molhoi asosii sodiroti dar soli 2015 alyuminiyi avvaliya (24,8 foiz), madani tozakardashuda (17,1 foiz), nakhi pakhta (17,5 foiz), nerui barq (5,5 foiz), molhoi asosii voridoti boshand, mahsuloti nafti (11,7 foiz), gandum (7,1 foiz), gazi moe (4,3 foiz), gilkhok (3,9 foiz) va ord (1,8 foiz) budand.
  8. Bo tavajjuh ba prinsipi davomoti tahiyai sanadhoi strategi, tahlili tatbiqi Barnomai rushdi sodiroti Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2015 guzaronida shud. Arzyobii tatbiqi Barnomai peshina imkoniyat dod, ki sabaqhoi zerini asosi girifta shavand, ki zimni tahiyai Barnomai mazkur ba nazar girifta shudand:

– Barnoma pesh az Strategiyai millii rushd qabul gardida, dar on afzaliyatho va indikatorhoi maqsadnoki ba tavri purra ba inobat girifta nashudaand;

– halli mushkiloti institutsionalii rushdi sodirot hamchun vazifai afzaliyatnok muayyan nagardidaast;

– bahisobgirii nokifoyai tagyiroti suratgirandai sokhtori va takya ba sodiroti ashyoi khom;

– tavajjuhi nokifoya ba tarbiyai kadrho, nizomi marketing va menejment;

– darajai pasti jalbi bakhshi khususi, peshguii az had nekbinonai umedvori az sarmoyaguzoroni khoriji;

– hamohangsozii susti amalhoi bayni vazoratu idorahoi sohavi va bakhshi khususi, nabudani maqomi mushakhkhasi vakolatdor oid ba tatbiqi Barnoma bo vakolathoi kofi;

– peshbini nashudani mekhanizmi tajdidi nazar va daqiqsozii nishondihandahoi durnamo bo darnazardoshti vazi voqeii tagyiryobanda.

  1. Tojikiston ishtirokchii sozishnomahoi bisyorjoniba dar borai savdoi ozod dar doirai Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil, Sozmoni hamkorii iqtisodi va Hamkorii mintaqavii iqtisodii Osiyoi Markazi meboshad. Gayr az in, mamlakat bo aksariyati kishvarhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil sozishnomahoi dujoniba dorad. Ba sharofati ishtiroki kishvar dar ittihodiyahoi mintaqavii hamgiroi, inchunin mavjud budani sozishnomahoi dujoniba dar borai mintaqai savdoi ozod, soli 2012 vazi qiyosii molhoi voridoti be pardokhti boji gumruki 80 foiz hajmi umumii voridot (BOR, kishvarhoi Hamkorii mintaqavii iqtisodii Osiyoi Markazi, 2012) va tibqi malumoti omorii maqomoti gumruki Jumhurii Tojikiston in nishondihanda dar soli 2015 ziyoda az 70 foizro tashkil dod.
  2. Az 2 marti soli 2013 Jumhurii Tojikiston uzvi komilhuquqi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo gardid. Dar robita bo in kishvar yak qator uhdadorihoi muhimro, ki dar ozodkunii minbadai rejai savdo va surat bakhshidani hamgiroi ba iqtisodiyoti jahoni ifoda meyobad, ba zimma girift.
  3. Dar ogozi soli 2015 Barnomai mutobiqsozii iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Tojikiston binobar uzviyat dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo qabul gardid, ki dar on masalahoi dastgirii moliyavi va gayrimoliyavii istehsolkunandagoni vatani va baland bardoshtani raqobatpazirii onho, faroham ovardani sharoit baroi baland bardoshtani sifati mahsuloti istehsolshavanda va peshburdi sodirot, tamini sarmoyaguzori dar bozori dokhili, andeshidani tadbirho jihati hifzi istehsolkunandagoni vatani, faroham ovardani sharoit baroi savdoi ozod, jalbi sarmoyaguzorii khoriji, voridshavi ba nizomi tanzimi bahshoi marbut ba savdo dar sathi baynalmilali va gayra matrah shudaand.
  4. Tojikiston yake az kishvarhoi avvalinest (bad az JHH, Singapur, Mavritaniya va IMA), ki sozishnomai soddagardonii rasmiyoti savdoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdoro ba tasvib rasond. In imkoniyat medihad, ki kharojoti umumii savdo az hisobi kam kardani miqdori hujjathoi ijozatdihi baroi sodirot va voridot, inchunin khele ikhtisor shudani vaqti uburi sarhad kohish doda shavad.
  5. Tarifhoi miyona pas az hamrohshavii kishvar ba Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo tagyir nayofta, 8 foiz (dar davrai solhoi 2005-2012 7,8 foiz), az on jumla baroi mahsuloti kishovarzi 10,4 foiz (dar davrai solhoi 2005-2012 11,4 foiz) va baroi molhoi sanoati 7,6 foizro (dar davrai solhoi 2005-2012 7,4 foiz) tashkil dodand.
  6. Tibqi bahodihii Bonki umumijahoni, 2014 dar natijai hamrohshavii Tojikiston ba Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo afzoishi sarmoyaguzorii mustaqimi khoriji, khususan dar sohahoi energetika, infrasokhtor, sanoati kuhi va telekommunikatsiya dar soli 2018 2,4 foiz majmui mahsuloti dokhilii jumhuriro (dar muqoisa bo 1,2 foiz majmui mahsuloti dokhili dar soli 2013) tashkil khohad dod. In metavonad tekhnologiyahoi navro jalb namoyad, ki dar navbati khud onho mahsulnokii mehnatro baland bardoshta, boisi afzoishi hajmi sodirot megardand.
  7. Tanosubi hajmi umumii savdo (sodirot va voridot) nisbati majmui mahsuloti dokhili, ki beshtar onro “indeksi kushod budani iqtisodiyot” menomand, dar davrai solhoi 1991-2012 ba hisobi miyona 100 foizro tashkil dod, ki az sathi balandi kushoda budani on shahodat medihad.
  8. Indikatori digare, ki az jalb gardidani kishvar ba savdoi baynalmilali shahodat medihad, indikatori “sharoiti savdo” meboshad. In tanosubi sodirot va voridot dar ifodai mutlaq meboshad. Ziyod budani sodirot nisbat ba voridot az behtar gardidani sharoiti savdo guvohi medihad va baraks. Dar tamomi davrai mushohidashavanda tanho soli 1992 sodirot nisbat ba voridot ziyodtar bud. Dar solhoi 1999 va 2000 sodirot va voridot dar ifodai arzish barobar budand. Az soli 2005 sar karda, talaboti aholi va korkhonahovu loihahoi infrasokhtori ba majmui molu khizmatho ba tavri nazarras afzoish yoft, ki dar navbati khud boisi afzoishi yaku yakborai voridot gardid. Az tarafi digar, mahdud budani sabadi sodirot ba afzoishi sodirot musoidat nakard. Dar natija soli 2015 tanosubi voridot nisbat ba sodirot 3,9 marotibaro tashkil dod.
  9. Hamin tariq, tamoyuli asosii savdoi khoriji dar du dahsolai okhir afzoishi muntazami hajmi kharidi molhoi voridoti meboshad. Dar natija na tanho tavozuni manfii savdo, balki nomutanosibii baraloi bayni sodirot va voridot ba miyon omad, dar barobari in dinamikai in jarayon khele taqviyat yoft. Binobar holathoi dar bolo zikrgardida andeshidani tadbirhoi amali jihati tagyir dodani holati bamiyonomada muvofiqi maqsad donista meshavad. Tahiya va tatbiqi Barnoma dar Jumhurii Tojikiston yake az tadbirhoi muhimu sarivaqti dar in samt meboshad.

§2. Mushkilot va moneahoi bozdorandai sodirot, sababhoi raqobatpazir nabudani istehsolkunandagoni dokhili

  1. YAk qator mushkilote mavjudand, ki rushdi iqtidori sodirotii Tojikistonro bozmedorand. Baroi ba nizom darovardani onho omilhoi asosi va sababhoi obektivi muayyan karda shudaand.
  2. Ba qatori mushkiloti asosii bozdorandai imkoniyathoi sodirotii iqtisodiyoti kishvar mushkiloti zerinro shomil kardan mumkin ast:

– sathi pasti raqobatnokii mahsulot binobar sathi pasti sifati tekhnologiya, tajribai istehsolkunandagon va pahluhoi institutsionalii sohahoi dakhldor;

– mavjudiyati moneahoi mamuri baroi sodiroti mahsulot ham dar kishvar va ham dar davlathoi hamsoya;

– darajai nokifoyai ozodii sohibkori, muhiti gayri qobili peshguii sohibkori va manfiatdorii mahdud baroi jori namudani innovatsiya;

– mavjud nabudani nizomi maqsadnoki marketing va nachandon samaranok budani menejment, az jumla menejmenti sifat.

  1. Ba sifati sababhoi asosii obektivii bozdorandai afzoishi sodirot inhoro nombar kardan mumkin ast:

– duri az jarayoni magistrali naqliyoti va bozorhoi asosii khoriji;

– hissai balandi kharojoti naqliyotiyu ekspeditori dar arzishi mahsuloti sodiroti, az jumla khirojhoi gayrirasmi;

– nabudani sokhtorhoi musoidat va peshburdi mahsulot dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji;

– sathi pasti dastgirii davlatii musoidat ba rushdi sodirot;

– nabudani vositahoi voqeii havasmandgardonii sodirot baroi istehsolkunandagon.

  1. Dar Barnoma dar Jumhurii Tojikiston dar barobari oshkor namudani moneahoi rushdi sodirot va raqobatnoki rohu mekhanizmhoi bartaraf va kam kardani onho peshnihod karda meshavand. CHorahoi zerini asosi peshnihod karda meshavand: institutsionali, dastgirii davlati va baland bardoshtani raqobatpaziri, ki mutanosiban dar bobhoi 5, 6 va 7 peshnihod gardida, mufassal dar Naqshai chorabiniho oid ba tatbiqi Barnoma inikos yoftaand.

3. HADAFU VAZIFAHOI BARNOMA

  1. Hadafhoi Barnoma:

– hadafi darozmuddati Barnoma musoidat ba tatbiqi siyosati davlatii iqtisodii khoriji va baland bardoshtani raqobatnokii mahsuloti vatani dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji, ziyod namudani hajmi sodiroti molu mahsuloti tayyor (korkardshuda yo nihoi) va kam kardani molhoi istemoli va khizmatho dar hajmi umumii voridot meboshad;

– hadafi miyonamuhlati Barnoma tasis dodani nizomi samaranoki millii musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkunie meboshad, ki baroi baland bardoshtani jolibiyati sarmoyaguzori va tijorati, inchunin zaminai obektivi baroi rushdi ustuvori sodiroti molu mahsuloti tayyor (korkardshuda yo nihoi) va voridotivazkunii raqobatpazir meboshad.

  1. Vazifahoi Barnoma:

1) Vazifahoi strategii Barnoma inhoyand:

– ba tavri nazarras kam kardani vobastagi az voridoti mahsuloti asosii niyozi mardum;

– tamin namudani guzarish ba sathi navi tekhnologi bo maqsadi baland bardoshtani qobiliyati raqobatnokii mahsulot;

– behtar namudani muhiti sarmoyaguzori va bunyodi fazoi shariki va hamkorii davlat va bakhshi khususi;

– tasis dodani markazhoi muosiri logistiki va vase kardani dolonhoi baynalmilalii kommunikatsioni, naqliyoti va iqtisodi;

– ba talaboti standarthoi baynalmilali mutobiq kardani khizmatrasonii khatsayrhoi rohi ohan, avtomobili, havoi va namudhoi digari naqliyot;

– taqviyat bakhshidani iqtidori tranzitii telekommunikatsionii kishvar va imkoniyati guzaronishi trafiki internet.

2) Vazifahoi maqsadnoki Barnoma inhoyand:

– muayyan namudani samthoi strategii afzaliyatnoki rushdi sodirot bo darnazardoshti imkoniyathoi kishvar va vaziyat dar bozorhoi jahoni;

– intikhobi samthoi mushakhkhasi oyandador va bozorhoi maqsadnok bo darnazardoshti iqtidori mavjudai sodiroti va bartariyatho dar raqobat;

– faroham ovardani sharoiti khubi tashkili, institutsionali va huquqi baroi rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni;

– dastgirii boloravii qobiliyati raqobatnoki mahsuloti vatani dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji;

– tashkil namudani infrasokhtori munosibtarini sodiroti, bartaraf namudani moneahoi suni, baland bardoshtani samaranokii vositahoi gayrimoliyavii dastgirii sodirot;

– dastgirii moliyavii tashkilothoi sodirkunanda, bo dar nazardoshti talaboti uzviyati Tojikiston dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo, inchunin sokhtorhoi dastgirii sodirot, az jumla dar davlathoi khoriji;

– havasmandgardonii hamajonibai sodirot va voridotivazkunii qobili raqobat;

– tashkil namudani khizmatrasonihoi muosiri dastrasi umum va jori namudani prinsipi ravzanai yagona dar asosi tekhnologiyahoi zamonavii ittilootiyu kommunikatsioni zimni khizmatrasonii davlati dar faoliyati savdoi khoriji;

– noil gardidan ba nishondihandahoi durnamoi rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni az rui indikatorhoi maqsadnoki Barnoma, az jumla parametrhoi mahsulot;

– tashkili mekhanizmi muassiri tatbiqi Barnoma va nizomi samaranoki monitoring va nazorat;

– baland bardoshtani maqomi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar reytinghoi baynalmilalii savdo;

– baland bardoshtani sathi bovarii sodirkunandagon, sarmoyaguzoron va voridkunandagon ba siyosati iqtisodii khorijii amalishavanda.

  1. Dar Barnomai mazkur indikatoru nishondihandahoi maqsadnoki zerin istifoda khohand shud:

1) Nishondihandahoi makroiqtisodi:

– Gardishi savdoi khoriji, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Sodirot, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Voridot, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Voridotivazkuni, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Savdoi tavozuni savdo, mln.dollari IMA.

2) Indekshoi:

– Qobiliyati raqobati globali;

– Tamarkuz va diversifikatsiyai sodirot;

– Takhassusi savdo;

– SHaroiti savdo;

– Sohibkori dar bakhshi savdoi khoriji.

3) Nishondihandahoi mahsulot:

– Sodirot, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Voridot, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz;

– Voridotivazkuni, mln.dollari IMA, surati afzoish, foiz.

4) Indikatorhoi baynisohavi:

– afzoishi shumorai joyhoi kori dar sohai sodirot va voridotivazkuni;

– boloravii muzdi mehnati miyona dar tashkilothoi sodirkunanda va voridotivazkunanda;

– indikatorhoi maqsadnoki Barnomai mazkur hamchunin ba noil gardidani Jumhurii Tojikiston ba Hadafhoi asosii Rushdi ustuvori Sozmoni Milali Muttahid ravona karda meshavand. Indikatoru nishondihandahoi maqsadnoki inkishofi faoliyati savdoi khorijii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar solhoi 2016-2020, dar naqshai chorabinihoi Barnomai davlatii musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkunii Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016 – 2020 ovarda shudaand.

4. SAMTHOI STRATEGII RUSHDI SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNi

§3. Tahlili strategi

  1. SWOT – analizi iqtidori sodirotii Jumhurii Tojikiston:

– yake az vositahoi behtarin va dar amal khudro khub nishondodai tahlili strategi dar sathi milli SWOT – analiz meboshad. Dar Jadvali 3.2 natijahoi SWOT – analizi Jumhurii Tojikiston ovarda shudaast. Dar on jonibhoi qavi va zaifi iqtidori sodiroti ba sifati omilhoi dokhili va imkoniyatu khavfho hamchun omilhoi beruna nishon doda shudaand;

– tahlili guzaronidashuda nishon medihad, ki jonibhoi qavii Tojikiston afzaliyathoi raqobtpazirii on dar savdoi baynalmilali buda, baroi rushdi sodirot kam istifoda megardad. Jonibhoi sershumori zaif hanuz nisbat ba jonibhoi qavi ziyodtar buda, sababi on sokhti diversifikatsiyanashudai ashyoi khom doshtani sodirot va mahdud budani miqdori mahsuloti qobili raqobati khudi meboshad. Vale baroi rushdi sodirot imkoniyatho niz mavjudand, ki dar surati qabul gardidani modeli navi inkishof va pay dar ham amali namudani siyosati davlatii iqtisodi natijahoi voqei doda metavonand;

– tibqi Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 va Barnomai miyonamuhlati rushdi Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2020 ba samaranoki, gunogunshakli va raqobatpazirii bakhshi voqeii iqtisodiyot afzaliyati makhsus doda shuda, oid ba on tadbirhoi zaruri andeshida meshavand.

  1. Tahlili sokhtori sodiroti Jumhurii Tojikiston va durnamoi on:

– sodiroti mol az jumhuri khususiyati ustuvori ashyoi khomro dorad. Binobar in, dar davomi panj soli tatbiqi Barnoma tagyir dodani sokhtori bamiyonomadai sodirotro, ki dar on sodiroti ashyoi khom bartariyat dorad, mushkil khohad bud. Vale tamoyuli asosi – tadrijan ziyod namudani sodiroti molu mahsuloti nihoi, hissai mavodi homili energiya va molho bo arzishi ilovashudai nisbatan balandtar, inchunin afzun namudani sodiroti khizmatrasoniho, az jumla sayyohi baynalmilali dar solhoi tatbiqi Barnoma ba mushohida khohad rasid. Dinamikai tagyiryobii sokhtori sodiroti mol az Tojikiston dar davrai az soli 2000 to soli 2020 dar Jadvali 1 nishon doda shudaast;

– nomgui dar davomi solhoi okhir tashakkulyoftai dah moli asosii az Tojikiston sodirotshavanda (“Tojikiston Top-10: Sodirot”) shoyad tagyir meyobad. Zero dar barobari molhoi sodirotii ananavie, ki mamulan az Tojikiston ba bozorhoi khoriji peshkash megardand, molhoi navi oyandador, az jumla molu mahsuloti sokhtmoni, khurokvori, nassoji, madanho va khizmathoi alohida, masalan, sayyohii baynalmilali peshnihod karda meshavand. Tagyiroti imkonpazir dar nomgui molhoi sodirotii “Tojikiston Top-20: Sodirot” tibqi peshgui chunin buda metavonad (Jadvali 3);

Ezoh: Nomgui molhoi ovardashudai soli 2014 68 foiz tamomi sodiroti Jumhurii Tojikistonro faro megirad.

– garchand ba nazari avval ruykhati nomgui mahsuloti “Tojikiston Top-20: Sodirot” dar davomi 5 sol amalan mavqei khudro nigoh doshta, joyivazkuni dar reyting bisyor tagyir nayofta boshad ham, vale tagyiryobii hissai in molho dar sokhtori umumii sodirot khele ayon ast;

– bozorhoi maqsadnok bo guruhhoi mahsuloti sodiroti, makhsusan bo darnazardoshti bartariyathoi dar raqobat doshtai Tojikiston, ki tavsifi onho dar jadvalhoi 3, 4 ovarda shudaast, khele oyandador buda metavonand.

  1. Tahlili sokhtori voridoti Jumhurii Tojikiston va durnamoi on:

– sokhtori voridoti Jumhurii Tojikiston dar tahlili mazkur az rui guruhi sarmoyaguzori (mavodi homili energiya, ashyoi khom va mavod, moshinho va tajhizot) va guruhi istemolii molho barrasi meshavad. Dar sokhtori voridot az rui natijahoi soli 2014 mavqei bartariyatnokro beshubha, guruhi “ashyoi khom va mavod” ishgol namuda, molhoi voridshavandai in guruh ziyoda az seyaki hajmi umumi (35,0 foiz), inchunin moshinho va tajhizot (21,3 foiz) va mavodi homili energiya (17,9 foiz) ishgol menamoyand;

– dar guruhi istemoli dar joi avval molhoi ozuqavori qaror doshta, hissai on dar hajmi umumii voridot dar soli 2014 ustuvor boqi monda, 19,1 foizro tashkil medihad. Mavqei se kishvari peshsafi voridot dar soli 2014 – Rossiya (27,6 foiz), Hitoy (16,9 foiz) va Qazoqiston (15,8 foiz) hamchunin ustuvor boqi memonad;

– tamoyuli tagyiryobii sokhtori mavjudai voridot nishon medihad, ki vazni qiyosii voridoti zakhirahoi energetiki kohish yofta, voridoti moshinu tajhizot va molhoi ozuqavori ziyod megardad, ashyoi khomu mavod va molhoi gayriozuqavori amalan tagyir nameyobad. Zimnan tahlili amiqtari sokhtori molii voridot nishon medihad, ki kohishyobii vazni qiyosii mavodi homili energiya asosan az hisobi kamshavii voridoti nerui barq surat giriftaast. Dinamikai tagyiryobii sokhtori voridot dar solhoi 2000-2020 dar Jadvali 4 ovarda shudaast;

– tamoyuli tagyiryobii minbadai sokhtori voridot nishonai maqsadnoki rushdi voridotro inikos menamoyad, ki bo tagyiroti musbati sokhtori dar faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji muayyan karda meshavad. In dar kohishyobii hajm va khususan vazni qiyosii voridoti ozuqavori ifoda yofta, jubroni kasri onho az hisobi voridotivazkuni tamin karda khohad shud. Zimnan ham hajm va ham vazni qiyosii voridoti molhoi sarmoyaguzori dar shakli tekhnologiya va tajhizot khele afzoish khohad yoft. Voridoti mavodi homili energiya va molhoi gayriozuqavori dar majmu be tagyiroti nazarras boqi monda, hissai onho dar hajmi umumii voridot andak ziyodtar khohad shud;

– dar sokhtori molii voridot ba Tojikiston mahsuloti nafti va gazi moe, gilkhok, gandum, ord, shakar, doruvori, vositahoi naqliyot va gayraho bartariyat dorad. Tagyiroti minbada dar nomgui molhoi “Tojikiston Top-20: Voridot” muvofiqi peshgui ba tariqi zayl khohad bud (Jadvali 5);

Ezoh: Nomgui molhoi ovardashudai soli 2014 36,1 foiz tamomi voridoti Jumhurii Tojikistonro faro megirad.

– dinamikai tagyiryobii bist nomgui avvali molhoi ba Jumhurii Tojikiston voridshavanda (“Tojikiston Top-20: Voridot”), ki dar asosi malumot baroi solhoi okhir va nishondihandahoi durnamoi voridoti molhoi alohida baroi soli 2020 tahiya gardidaast, dar jadvali boloii 5 ovarda shudaast. Tavre az jadval barmeoyad, tagyiryobii ham tarkibi “ishtirokchiyoni” reyting va ham digargunshavii nazarrasi molhoi voridoti ba sui afzun gardidani molhoi sarmoyaguzorii ba tekhnologiyahoi nav asosyofta va kohishyobii mahsuloti ozuqavori va mavodi ashyoi khom az hisobi siyosati mutavozinu surogavii voridotivazkuni peshgui karda meshavad.

  1. Durnamoi rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni:

– yake az omilhoi dar Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 zikrgardida vobastagii Tojikiston az voridoti baze namudhoi ozuqavori meboshad, ki khavfu khatari muayyanero baroi amniyati ozuqavorii kishvar ba miyon meorad. In zarurati voridotivazkuniro mahz dar sohai kishovarzi ba mavqei avval mebarorad. Dar bobati voridotivazkuni dar doirai qoidahoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo afzaliyat dar rushdi istehsoli dokhilii Tojikiston boyad mahz ba istehsoli ozuqavori doda shavad: gusht (gushti gov, gusfand, murg), tukhm, mahsuloti shiri (tvorogi beravgan, kefir, bio-yogurtho), mahsuloti ordi (anvoi non), mahsuloti qannodii shakardor, konfethoi shokoladi, makaron. Az rui guruhi “charbu, ravgani rastani va hayvonot” boyad imkoniyati tashkil va afzun namudani istehsoli ravgani pakhta, oftobparast, zagir, masar va namudhoi digari ravgani rastani barrasi karda shavad;

– Tojikiston ba tavri ananavi voridkunandai galla va mahsuloti korkardi gallagi meboshad. Ba dast ovardani khudtaminkuni dar istehsoli gandum muvofiqi maqsad nest, zero sharoiti agrariyu iqlimii kishvar baroi istehsoli on mutobiq nest. Ilova bar in, baroi in maqsadho zaminhoi obyorishavanda istifoda karda khohand shud, ki in arzishi aslii mahsuloti istehsolshudaro nisbat ba chunin mahsuloti az Qazoqiston voridgardidai doroi sifati baland, arzishi past, miqdori balandi shirekshaki gallai mansub ba navhoi sakht balandtar khohad kard;

– ba istehsoli juvorimakka, yunuchqa, kartoshka, sholi, soya, mohi va mahsuloti mohigi va magzu donagiho az jumla, chormagz, bodom va pista tavajjuh zohir namudan lozim ast;

– az molhoi gayriozuqavori imkoniyati istehsoli silsilai purrai mahsuloti bofandagi to dukhtani mahsulot az matohoi 100 foiz pakhtagin baroi bozori dokhili va sodirot ba Ittihodi Avrupo va Federatsiyai Rossiya, dar misoli korkhonahoi mushtaraki mavjuda bo Italiya va IMA. Istehsoli mahsuloti charmin (poyafzol, sumkayu qabchuq, libos) ham baroi bozori dokhili va ham baroi sodirot (ba bozorhoi Ittihodi Avrupo va Federatsiyai Rossiya) oyandador ast;

– istehsoli mahsuloti fuluzi az alyuminiy (tainoti sokhtmoni va elektrotekhniki, inchunin ba ehtiyojoti maishi), konstruksiyahoi fuluzi az metali siyoh (baroi sokhtmon), mahsuloti sokhtmoni, az jumla sement va mahsulot az on (omekhtaho, penobeton, andova), mahsulot az chub (takhta, daru tireza, masolehi oroishi, mebel), zardevor, ranghoi sokhtmoni, shisha, garmkunak, molho baroi khona va binohoi jamiyati (zarfi shishagi va safoli, mebel – az chub, alyuminiy, plastmassa), masolehi bompushi (bompushi fuluzi, safoli bompushi), mahsulot baroi khojagii manziliyu kommunali (quburhoi plastiki baroi quburhoi obguzaroni, garmidihi, obtaminkuni va korez), suzishvoriyu ravganhoi molidani va okhiron az rui ruykhat, vale na az rui ahamiyat justujui konhoi boksit va az on istehsol namudani oksidi alyuminiy (gilkhok) – ashyoi khom baroi alyuminiyi avvaliya – moli strategii sodirotii Tojikiston oyandai khub dorad. Bozori munosibtarin baroi sodiroti masolehi sokhtmoni, molho baroi khona, masnuoti elektrotekhniki, mebel va suzishvoriyu ravganhoi molidani Afgoniston meboshad;

– samti az jihati strategi baroi iqtisodiyoti milli foidanoktarin rushdi istehsoli mahsulot az ashyoi khomi mahallizakhirai asosii voridotivazkuni va ziyod namudani hajmi korkardi ashyoi khomi mahalli meboshad. Vale dar in samt natanho imkoniyati istehsoli mahsuloti voridotivazkunanda, inchunin kharojoti iqtisodi baroi tashkili istehsoli onho va durnamoi inkishofi tekhnologiyahoi navi istehsoli ba nazar girifta shavad. Varianti badtarin – in agar istehsoloti voridotivazkunandai nisbat ba standarthoi jahoni pasttar tashkil karda shavand;

– dar davrai tatbiqi Barnoma voridotivazkunii samaranokro tamin namuda, tavassuti vorid namudani mahdudiyathoi tarifiyu gayritarifii gumruki ba baze molhoi voridoti bo nazardoshti rioyai uhdadorihoi baynalmilali ba sodiroti namudhoi alohidai on ogoz namudan mumkin ast. Masalan, istehsoli sement dar korkhonahoi vatani imkoniyat medihad, ki tavassuti ba istifoda dodani korkhonahoi nav dar nohiyahoi YOvon, Bobojon Gafurov va shahri Vahdat bo iqtidori umumii 3 mln. tonna Tojikiston az kishvari voridkunanda ba kishvari sodirkunandai sement mubaddal gardonida shavad. Binobar in, dar doirai imkoniyathoi mavjudai Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo mahdud sokhtani voridoti mahsulot az sang, gaj va sement, ki 119,9 mln.dollari IMA-ro tashkil medihad, ba maqsad muvofiq khohad bud;

– dar mavridi istikhroji angisht niz holat monand ast: bo dar nazardoshti afzun namudani istehsoli khudi, az voridoti on, ba gayr az nohiyahoi durdasti Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, ki vorid namudani angisht az Qirgiziston az jihati iqtisodi foidanoktar meboshad, dast kashidan mumkin ast;

– dar mavridi guruhi “metallhoi gayriqimatnok” imkoniyati voridotivazkunii marbut ba rushdi metallurgiyai siyohi vataniro dar zaminai sokhtmoni kombinathoi navi metallurgi barrasi namudan lozim ast. Istehsoli kabeli alyumini baroi mujtamai sokhtmoni vatani hamchunin samti oyandadorest, ki qarib nisfi ehtiyojoti dokhiliro tamin namoyad;

– zakhirahoi kalon bo voridotivazkunii mahsuloti sanoati kimiyoi baroi istehsoli alyuminiy aloqamandand. Az jumla kislotai sulfat, shpati plavik, kriolit va dar oyanda gilkhok niz obekthoi voridotivazkuni shuda metavonand. Bo ba istifoda supurdani korkhonai istehsoli “Kriolit” dar nohiyai YOvon voridoti kriolit soli 2016 tadrijan ikhtisor va sipas tamoman qat karda meshavad. Dar nohiyai Rasht koni sieniti nefelin kashf shudaast, ki metavonad dar istehsoli alyuminiy istifoda shavad. Hamchunin koni gilkhoki Turpi malum ast. In imkoniyat medihad, ki dar oyandai nazdik az voridoti gilkhok dast kashem (tanho kharojoti naqliyot baroi intiqoli on ziyoda az 200 mln.dollari IMA-ro tashkil medihad);

– mavjudiyati zakhirahoi kalontarini namak, ohaksang va dolomit dar tavam bo nerui barqi az lihozi arzishi asli arzon, barziyodii quvvai kori va zakhirahoi kaloni ob samaranokii balandi voridotivazkuni va rushdi istehsoloti kimiyoi khudiro peshbini menamoyad;

– bunyodi tanho yak korkhonai oid ba istehsoli nakhi kimiyoi, masalan dar mintaqai ozodi iqtisodii “Dangara” dar hayati Jamiyati sahomii pushidai “CHuntay-Dangara-Tekstil” istehsoli matohoi raqobatnok va mahsuloti tayyori duzandagi (libosi maktabi, kostyumho, kurtahoi zanonayu mardona, galstuk, libosi tag, mahsuloti jurobbofi va g.) voridotivazkunii anvoi vasei mahsuloti bofandagiro tamin namuda, baroi sodiroti minbadai onho sharoit muhayyo mesozad. Ba roh mondani istehsoli poyafzoli kudakona dar korkhonahoi vatani imkoniyat medihad, ki voridot taqriban ba andozai 30 mln.dollari IMA kohish doda shavad;

– samthoi zikrgardida az on shahodat medihand, ki baroi tashkili istehsoli mahsuloti raqobatpaziri ivazkunandai voridot va rushdi sodirot tamomi imkoniyatu zakhirahoi lozimiro dorad.

  1. Muayyan namudani bakhshhoi afzaliyatnoki iqtisodiyot

– baroi muayyan namudani bakhshhoi afzaliyatnoki iqtisodiyot va intikhobi istehsoloti oyandadori doroi afzaliyathoi raqobat baroi sodirot va iqtidor baroi voridotivazkuni tahlili rushdi bakhshi voqeii iqtisodiyot bo istifodai indeksi takhassusi savdo dar davrai solhoi 1995-2012 guzaronida shud. Istifodai indeksi takhassusi savdo imkon dod, ki tagyirot dar sathi rushdi istehsolot va savdoi mahsuloti asosii sodirotiyu voridotii Tojikiston ba tavri majmui arzyobi karda shavad;

– mahsuloti asosii sodirotii sohai kishovarzi nakhi pakhta, mevai khushk, piyozi barvaqti, angur, sharbati mevayu sabzavot, konserva va khamirai tomat meboshand. Tanho 10 foiz nakhi pakhtai istehsolshuda dar dokhili kishvar korkard meshavad. Binobar in afzoish yo kamshavii hajmi sodiroti nakhi pakhta dar davrai solhoi 2000-2014 istehsoli pakhta vobasta ba tagyiryobii narkhi jahoni surat megirift. Malumot dar borai voridoti mahsuloti ozuqavori, mahsuloti bofandagi va duzandagi az on shahodat medihad, ki binobar mavjud budani moneaho, nabudani dastgiri va omilhoi digar, istehsolkunandagoni vatani ham dar bozori dokhili va ham dar bozori khoriji dar vaziyati pasttari raqobat qaror doshta, imkoniyathoi mavjuda va bartariyathoi qiyosi tatbiqnashuda boqi memonand;

– dar majmu, tahlili malumot oid ba istehsoli mahsuloti sanoati nishon medihad, ki peshraft dar hamai bakhshhoi on joy doshta, makhsusan dar sohai korkard bo surat budaast. Soli 2013 dar sanoati korkard dar muqoisa bo soli 2001 istikhroji mavodi energetiki 145 barobar va mavodi gayrienergetiki boshad, 19 barobar afzudaast, mutanosiban ba 26,0 foiz va 27,5 foiz surati voqeii har solai afzoish barobar ast. Surati afzoishi miyonai solonai voqeii istikhroji angisht va naft dar sokhtori istikhroji mavodi energetiki mutanosiban 35 va 28 foizro tashkil dod. Surati afzoishi miyonai solonai voqeii istikhroji madanhoi fuluzi va kandanihoi digari foidanok dar sokhtori istikhroji mavodi gayrienergetiki mutanosiban 21 va 34 foizro tashkil dodand. Zimnan vazni qiyosii mavodi gayrienergetiki 72 foiz, mavodi energetiki boshad, tanho 28 foizro tashkil dod;

– dar sokhtori istehsol va taqsimoti nerui barq, gaz va ob hissai nerui barq, ki asosan dar nerugohhoi barqi obi istehsol meshavad, ziyod ast. Istehsoli nerui barq dar nerugohhoi barqi obi va nerugohhoi garmidihi dar soli 2013 nisbat ba soli 2001-um 1,2 barobar afzud. Surati voqeii afzoishi bakhsh dar davrai solhoi 20012013 ba hisobi miyona 5,7 foizro tashkil dod;

– istemolkunandagoni asosii nerui barq dar dokhili kishvar sanoat (42 foiz), kishovarzi (23,4 foiz) va aholi (16,4 foiz) meboshand, ki dar majmu 82 foiz nerui barqro istemol menamoyand; talafoti nerui barq 15 foizro tashkil medihad. Qismi boqimondai nerui barqi istehsolkunanda ba sohahoi naqliyot, sokhtmon va bakhshhoi digari iqtisodiyot rost meoyad;

– bakhshi korkardi sanoat sokhtori tarkibii kalontarini on buda, dar soli 2014 hissai on 69,5 foizro tashkil dod. Tamoyuli afzoishi hajmi istehsol va arzishi ilovashuda dar sanoati korkard tavassuti barqarorsozi va navsozii iqtidorhoi mavjuda va jori namudani iqtidorhoi nav ba dast ovarda shudaast.

§4. Samthoi strategii rushdi sodiroti Tojikiston

  1. Samthoi sohavii rushdi sodirot:

1) Energetika. Nerui barq sarchashmai muhimi daromadi Tojikiston meboshad va dar oyanda metavonad yake az manbai asosii daromad az sodirot gardad. Tibqi malumoti soli 2014 istemolkunandagoni asosi Afgoniston (43,7 mln.dollari IMA) va Qirgiziston (4,4 mln.dollari IMA) meboshand. Savdoi nerui barq dar jahon dar doirai bozorhoi alohidai mintaqavi va mahallie, ki 2-3 kishvarro muttahid mesozand, inkishof meyobad. Tojikiston doroi zakhirahoi ziyodi gidroenergetiki buda, imkoniyati roh yoftan ham ba bozorhoi Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil va ham ba samti janub, yane Afgoniston dorad. Tibqi malumoti Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston, dar surati amali namudani loihai mintaqavii khati intiqoli barqi CASA-1000, sodiroti nerui barq az Tojikiston ba Afgoniston va Pokiston dar solhoi 2019-2020 metavonad to 133-136 mln.dollari IMA afzoish yobad. Tibqi arzyobii korshinoson talabot ba nerui barq az jonibi kishvarhoi Ittihodi iqtisodii Avrupo ba andozai 0,1 mlrd.dollari IMA va az jonibi Hitoy ba andozai 0,25-0,4 mlrd.dollari IMA-ro tashkil khohad dod. Tojikiston metavonad Qirgiziston va viloyathoi garbii Hitoyro dar maddi nazar qaror dihad;

2) Kompleksi metallurgi. Savdoi jahonii alyuminiy dar solhoi 2006-2013 bo surati baland ba hisobi miyona 5,5 foiz dar yak sol afzoish yoft, vale tayi chand soli okhir talabot ba on kamshuda, narkhi alyuminiyi avvaliya poyon meravad. Soli 2015 narkhi yak tonna alyuminiyi avvaliya dar Birjai metallhoi London 1500 dollari IMA-ro tashkil doda, ba nishondihandai haddi aqali khud rasid. SHirkathoi peshbari baynalmilali boloravii narkhi alyuminiyro dar solhoi 2016-2020 bo tariqi zayl peshgui menamoyand: soli 2016 – 1425, soli 2017 – 1500, soli 2018 – 1550 va solhoi 2019-2020 – 1650 dollari IMA baroi yak tonna. Afzoishi imkonpaziri sodiroti alyuminiy dar jahon dar soli 2020 ba andozai 2,3 mlrd.dollari IMA arzyobi gardida, az onho ba Hitoy, sarfi nazar az sustshavii surati taraqqiyoti iqtisodi, 0,5 mlrd.dollari IMA rost meoyad. Raqobatpazirii istehsoli alyuminiyi avvaliyai Korkhonai vohidi davlatii “SHirkati alyuminiyi Tojik”, bo darnazardoshti subsidiya ba narkhi nerui barq, nisbatan baland ast, vale duri az bandarho va arzishi intiqol onro kame kohish medihand. Durnamoi Tojikiston beshtar bo narkhi jahonii ashyoi khom (gilkhok), mahsuloti asosi (alyuminiyi avvaliya), inchunin bo on aloqamand ast, ki ba roh mondani istehsol va tahvili mahsuloti doroi arzishi balandtar (ilovashuda) – prokat, inchunin masnuot az on, masalan, masnuoti tainoti sokhtmoni va elektrotekhniki, inchunin baroi ehtiyojoti maishi muyassar megardad yo ne;

3) Metallho va sanghoi qimatbaho. Savdoi jahonii metalho va sanghoi qimatbaho tamoyuli ustuvori boloravi dorad, garchand narkhi onho tahti tasiri vaziyat solhoi alohida past meshavad. Omili asosii boloravi maqomi metalhoi qimatbaho hamchun obekt baroi sarmoyaguzorii moliyavi meboshad. Mavqei Tojikiston dar bozor az manbai ashyoi khom va imkoniyathoi istifodabarii on vobasta meboshad. Imkoniyati afzoishi sodirot ba gayr az ziyod namudani hajmi jismonii tahvil dar baland bardoshtani darajai korkard guzoshta shudaast;

4) Kompleksi agrosanoati. Muvofiqi arzyobii korshinoson dar jahon iqtidori kalontarinro mohi va mahsulotu ravganu charbu (ravgani rastani), inchunin mahsuloti tayyori ozuqavori (mahsuloti qannodi, nushokihoi spirti, mahsuloti tamoku, mahsuloti mevayu sabzavot, shakar, ord va g.) dorand. Dar aksariyati holatho bozori furush tanho kishvarhoi hamsoya va nazdiktarin meboshand (baroi Tojikiston in bozorhoi Qirgiziston, Turkmaniston, Afgoniston, Hitoy va Eron);

5) Anguri taru toza va khushk. Bozorhoi asosii jahonii furushi anguri khushk Hinduston (60 foiz), Rossiya (16 foiz), kishvarhoi Ittihodi Avrupo (6 foiz) meboshand. Tojikiston anguri khushkro asosan ba Qazoqiston (90 foiz) va Hitoy (5,68 foiz) sodir menamoyad. Anguri taru toza az Tojikiston ba Qazoqiston (82 foiz) va Rossiya (18 foiz) firistoda meshavad. Bozori SHarqi Nazdik oyandador ast (dar Amoroti Muttahidai Arab narkhi angur to 5 dollari IMA baroi 1 kg merasad). Baze sohibkoron anguri taru tozaro bo furaho az Tojikiston tavassuti Afgoniston ba Pokiston (bandar dar Pokiston va az on jo tavassuti bahr ba YAponiya, ki narkhi meva dar on khele baland ast, mebarand. Bozorhoi kalontarini jahon IMA (946 mln.dollari IMA, 12 foiz), Germaniya (737 mln.dollari IMA, 9,5 foiz), Niderland (695 mln.dollari IMA, 9 foiz), Rossiya (337 mln.dollari IMA, 4,37 foiz) meboshand;

6) Zardolu. Istehsoli zardolu dar Tojikiston soli 2013-um 31 400 tonnaro tashkil dod (dar Qirgiziston ba andozai seyak kamtar 23 000 tonna, dar Afgoniston se barobar ziyodtar – 99 000 tonna). Bozori asosii sodirot baroi Tojikiston Qazoqiston meboshad (99 foiz), az on jo qismi ziyodi zardolu ba Rossiya, ki duyumin bozori kalontarin dar jahon (38 mln.dollari IMA, 8,9 foiz) sodiroti takrori meshavad. Voridkunandai kalontarini zardolu dar jahon Germaniya (121 mln.dollari IMA, 28 foiz) meboshad, joyhoi minbadaro kishvarhoi digari Ittihodi Avrupo ishgol menamoyand: Italiya, Fransiya, Britaniyai Kabir va gayra. Peshsafoni sodiroti jahoni va raqiboni Tojikiston Ispaniya (145 mln.dollari IMA, 29 foiz), Turkiya, Uzbekiston va Afgoniston meboshand. Holo hissai Tojikiston dar savdoi jahonii zardolu nazarras nest (0,87 mln.dollari IMA, 0,18 foiz), in joi 14-um dar reyting meboshad.

7) Gelos. Ba aqidai korshinosoni donandai Hitoy, dar Hitoy gelos parvarish nameyobad. Sodirkunandai kalontarini gelos ba Hitoy CHili buda, az on jo gelos tavassuti bahr rasonida shuda, dar viloyathoi sharqi va markazii Hitoy pahn karda meshavad. Bo darnazardoshti “umri kutoh” doshtani gelos (1 moh) va sarhadi umumi, molrasoni az Tojikiston ba viloyathoi garbii Hitoy imkonpazir ast, vale ba sharti muttahidsoziii on dar hajmhoi kalon, bandu bast va tamini intiqol tavassuti yakchand naqliyot dar asosi yak qarordod. Logistika murakkab ast, moneaho az imkon durand. Muzdi mehnat dar Hitoy meafzoyad, talabot meafzoyad, yane mevajot (dar omor gelos bo zardolu, olucha va shaftolu dar yak sath qaror dorad) imkoniyathoi khubi furush dorad;

8) Limu. Soli 2013 dar Tojikiston 1 900 tonna limu jamovari gardid. Az soli 1998 nishondihandahoi istehsol va sodiroti limu khele poyon raftand. Tibqi arzyobii istehsolkunandagon limui Tojikiston bo pusti tunuk va narmii kalon farq karda, dar raqobat afzaliyat dorad. Bozori asosi va qarib yagona baroi Tojikiston holo Qazoqiston (99 foiz) meboshad. Federatsiyai Rossiya bozori nazdiktarin va oyandador meboshad. Bozorhoi ehtimoli IMA (363 mln.dollari IMA,13 foiz), Germaniya (305 mln.dollari IMA, 11 foiz), Fransiya (198 mln.dollari IMA, 7 foiz), Niderland (176 mln.dollari IMA, 6,3 foiz) va Federatsiyai Rossiya (167 mln.dollari IMA,6 foiz) meboshand;

9) Mahsuloti organiki. YAke az manbahoi maqsadnok baroi sodiroti mevayu sabzavot metavonad mahsuloti organikii (be istifodai pestitsidho) alosifat boshad. Sinfi miyona, ki shumoraash dar kishvar va mintaqa meafzoyad, ba chunin molho tavajjuh zohir menamoyad. CHunin istemolkunandagonro ham dar bozorhoi sodirotii ananavii Tojikiston (Ural va Sibir), ham dar kishvarhoi hamsoyai Osiyoi Markazi, inchunin dar Avrupo paydo namudan mumkin ast. Barrasi namudani bunyodi nomi tijorati (brend) baroi mahsuloti organiki, masalan, “Tojiki – yane organiki” (“Tadjikskoe – znachit, organicheskoe”, “Tajik – it’s organic” ba maqsad muvofiq ast;

10) Mahsuloti shiri. Sodiroti mahsuloti shiri (tvorogi be ravgan, kefir, bioyogurt) ba Hitoy, ki binobar dast kashidan az siyosati “1 oila – 1 kudak” va nobovari ba istehsolkunandagoni mahalli (janjolhoi marbut ba istehsoloti khatarnok) afzoishi talabot ba mahsuloti voridoti peshbini megardad;

11) Sayyohi. Afzaliyathoi raqobatii Tojikiston dar in soha ba khususiyathoi tabii va iqlimii on asos meyoband. Iqtidori sodirotii sayyohii baynalmilali dar Tojikiston asosan ham bo sayyohii infirodi va ham guruhi (sayyohi kuhi, ekologi, solimgardoni), inchunin safarhoi kori marbut ba joygirshavii idorahoi sershumori sozmonhoi baynalmilalii moliyavi, agentihoi rushd va loihahoi musoidati tekhniki (hamagi qarib 80) dar Tojikiston, inchunin maylu ragbati ruzafzuni davlathoi hamsoya – sharikoni tijorati va sarmoyaguzori aloqamand meboshad. Bozorhoi asosi: Osiyoi SHarqi (Hitoy), Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil va Gurjiston, SHarqi Nazdik, Avrupoi Garbi va SHarqi, IMA, Kanada, YAponiya. Afzoishi talabot ba khizmatrasonii sayyohon az sarmoyaguzori ba infrasokhtor, rivoj dodani simoi musbati kishvar va targibi faolonai mahsuloti sayyohii dar khorija vobasta ast. Mutobiqi arzyobii Tashkiloti Umumijahonii sayyohii hajmi imkonpaziri sodiroti khizmathoi sayyohii Tojikiston az 3,2 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2016 to 4,0-4,3 mln.dollari IMA dar solhoi 2019-2020 tashkil khohad dod;

12) Hizmatrasonii naqliyotii tranziti. Tojikiston ba monandi Qazoqiston boyad mavqei munosibi jugrofii khudro dar “qalbi Osiyo” istifoda namuda, khizmatrasonii naqliyotii tranzitiro vusat bakhshad, yane ba shabakai naqliyoti “az shimol ba janub” baroi sodiroti takrorii mol az kishvarhoi Ittihodi Avrupo va Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil ba Afgonistonu Eron va sipas ba kishvarhoi khaliji Fors mubaddal gardad;

13) Hizmatrasonii telekommunikatsioni. SHirkathoi khususii vatani “ExpressPay i Payvand” tayi chand soli okhir dar Afgoniston, Hitoy va Qirgiziston khizmatrasonii khudro az rui nizomi pardokhthoi favri peshkash menamoyand. Az soli 2008 injonib khatti aloqai nuriyu nakhi arzi vujud dorad, ki Dushanbero bo SHerkhon bandar mepayvandad. Onro, inchunin infrasokhtori ba on monandi SHirkati sahomii kholdingii kushodai “Barqi Tojik”-ro, ki hanuz dastrasi opreatoroni aloqa nestand, mavridi istifoda qaror dodan lozim ast. Loihai bunyodi shabakai nuriyu nakhi az Tojikiston ba Pokiston tavassuti Afgoniston hamchunin oyandador meboshad.

  1. Durnamoi jugrofii rushdi sodirot:

1) Avrupoi Garbi. SHarikoni asosii Tojikiston dar soli 2014 SHveytsariya, Niderland va Italiya budand. Talaboti kishvarhoi mintaqa ba alyuminiy, pakhta, obekthoi farhang, inchunin baze namudhoi kamyofti mahsuloti kishovarzi va ozuqavori ziyod ast. Bo darnazardoshti on, ki dar Avrupoi Garbi (Germaniya, SHveytsariya, Britaniyai Kabir) mevayu khushkmevai organiki (be pestetsid parvarishyofta) kharidori ziyod dorand, in bozori khele kaloni ehtimoli meboshad. Boyad mahsulot ba talaboti standarthoi sifat mutobiq gardonida shuda, sertifikatsiyai on dar ozmoishgohhoi khoriji tamin karda shavad va dar doirai uzviyati Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo va sistemai GSP+ mekhanizmhoi dastrasi ba bozorhoi Ittihodi Avrupo, ki baroi molho az Tojikiston meyorhoi sifri tatbiq megardand, istifoda karda shavand. Dastrasi ba bozori Avrupo baroi molho az kishvarhoi ru ba taraqqi bo mahdudiyathoi sershumori tarifi va gayritarifi, az jumla talaboti jiddi ba sifati mahsuloti kishovarzi va mavjudiyati sertifikathoi avrupoii fitosanitari aloqamand ast. Metallho va sanghoi qimatbaho, khizmathoi turisti, alyuminiy, mis, khushkmevai ba tariqi organiki parvarishyofta doroi iqtidori nazarrasi sodiroti meboshand. Tasisi korkhonahoi mushtarak bo istehsolkunandagoni avrupoi dar hududi kishvar ba sodiroti in mahsulot musoidat khohad kard.

2) Kishvarhoi Osiyo. SHariki asosii tijoratii Tojikiston dar Osiyoi SHarqi – Hitoy, sarfi nazar az poyonravii surati rushdi iqtisodi, yake az kalontarin dar jahon kharidoroni mahsuloti sanoati kuhi va kimiyoi, pakhta, metallhoi siyoh va ranga, ashyoi khomi pust meboshad. Hitoiho mevai taru toza va khushki Tojikistonro mekharand, ki az rui narkhu sifat dar Hitoy qobili raqobat meboshand. Durnamoi rushdi sodirot bo imkoniyathoi qone gardonidani on, inchunin nazdikii jugrofi va mavjudiyati infrasokhtor aloqamand ast. Havfhoi joydoshtai marbut ba nooromii vaziyat dar Afgoniston ba bekhatarii savdoi nazdisarhadi tasiri kalon merasonad. Sarfi nazar az in, sohibkoroni vatani namunahoi molrasonii bomuvaffaqiyatro ham ba Afgoniston va ham tariqi tranzit ba Pokiston (bandari Karochi) va sipas tavassuti bahr ba kishvarhoi digar namoish medihand.

3) SHarqi Nazdik va Afriqoi SHimoli. SHarikoni asosii qarordodi dar mintaqa Turkiya va Eron meboshand. Amoroti Muttahidai Arab (37 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2014), Izroil, Misr, Aljazoirro bozorhoi oyandador hisobidan mumkin ast. Kishvarhoi mintaqa ba alyuminiy, nakhi pakhta, ozuqavori va chubu takhta maroq zohir menamoyand. Tibqi peshguii mutakhassisoni soha solhoi nazdik narkhi pakhta mutadil megardad va hatto kame bolo meravad: soli 2016 – 65 sent baroi 1 funt, soli 2017 – 75 sent baroi 1 funt, soli 2018 – 80 sent baroi 1 funt, soli 2019-2020 – 100110 sent baroi 1 funt. Afzoishi sodirot bo iqtidori nazarrasi rushdi iqtisodii kishvarhoi mintaqa (vale bo khavfhoi jiddii geopolitiki dar kishvarhoi arab) va nigoh doshta shudani norasoii guruhhoi alohidai mahsulot (ozuqavori, mahsulot az chubu kogaz, metallho) bo sababhoi tabiivu iqlimi va ijtimoiyu iqtisodi, muayyan karda meshavad. Farqiyati narkhi angur dar Tojikiston (takhminan 0,30-0,50 dollari IMA baroi 1 kg) va dar Amoroti Muttahiddai Arab (5,0 dollari IMA baroi 1 kg) baroi savdoi on imkoniyathoi jolib faroham meorad. Vusati hamkorii mutaqobilan sudmand bo Eron, ki az bori garoni mujozoti baynalmilali khalos shuda, doroi zakhirahoi ziyodi moliyavi az hisobi furushi naftu gaz meboshad, oyandai khub dorad. Eron ba mahsuloti ozuqavori: mevayu taru toza va khushkmeva, chormagz, konservaho, inchunin rishtayu kalobai pakhtagin, simi alyuminiy talaboti ustuvor doshta, dar oyanda ba obi nushoki niz talabot meafzoyad. Hamchunin dar mintaqa metallho va sanghoi qimatbaho, galla, chubu takhta, plitavu fanera az chub, khizmatrasonii sayohii durnamoi khub dorand.

4) Ittihodi iqtisodii Evraziya. Rossiya va Qazoqiston ham az rui sodirot va ham az rui voridot sharikoni kalontarini Tojikiston meboshand. Buhrone, ki dar Rossiya soli 2014 ogoz gardida, boisi past shudani surati rushdi iqtisodi gardid, ba muzdi mehnat va intiqoli puli muhojironi mehnati tasiri manfi merasonad. Vale ba har hol, Rossiya yake az kishvarhoi kalontarini voridkunandai mevayu sabzavot, khushkmeva, zakhirahoi minerali va namudhoi sershumori molhoi digar az Tojikiston (ba andozai 703,5 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2014) va yake az peshsafoni voridot ba Tojikiston (34 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2014) boqi memonad. Embargoe, ki Rossiya nisbati molhoi ozuqavori az IMA, Ittihodi Avrupo va baze kishvarhoi digar dar soli 2014 jori namuda, sipas onro tamdid kard, ba Tojikiston imkoniyat faroham meorad, ki az rui baze mavqeho, dar navbati avval mahsuloti mevayu sabzavot, mahsuloti ozuqavorii korkardshuda (sharbatu konservaho) joi onhoro ishgol namoyad. Vale dar in joda moneahoi muayyani gayritarifi joy dorand, masalan, dar Rossiya sertifikathoi fitosanitarii dar Tojikiston dodashuda etirof karda nameshavand va ba sodirkunandagon lozim ast, ki onhoro dar hududi Federatsiyai Rossiya az nav girand. SHabakai savdoi chakanai Rossiya tahti tavajjuhi doimii maqomoti federalii masuli amniyati ozuqavori va sifati on qaror dorad va onho talab menamoyand, ki sodirkunandagoni mol standarthoi ozuqavoriro qatiyan rioya namoyand. Qazoqiston ba yake az se kishvari kalontarini shariki tijoratii Tojikiston dokhil meshavad (dar soli 2014 sodirot518 mln.dollari IMA, voridot – 181,5 mln.dollari IMA) va hissai on afzuda istodaast. Qazoqiston mahsuloti ozuqavori, inchunin madanu konsentratho (mis, surb va ruh) va nakhi pakhtaro faolona mekharad. Vale tibqi malumoti joydoshta Qazoqiston bo istifoda az imtiyozhoi gumrukii baroi azoi Ittihodi gumruki muqarrarshuda ba sodiroti takrorii qismi molhoi az Osiyoi Markazi voridshuda ba Federatsiyai Rossiya mashgul ast. Dar Jadvali 7 dar poyon ovardashuda bozorhoi asosii maqsadnoki mavjuda (harfi M) va oyandador (harfi O) baroi molu khizmathoi Tojikiston, ki imkoniyati beshtar baroi sodirot dorand, peshnihod gardidaast. Baroi giriftani malumot dar borai narkhu sifat guzaronidani tahqiqoti amiqtari marketingie, ki pursishi sodirkunandagon va voridkunandagoni vatanii mahsulot va khizmatrasonii mavridi tavajjuhro az kishvarho-sharikoni asosii tijoratii Tojikiston dar bar megirad, zarur ast.

5. ASOSHOI INSTITUTSIONALII RUSHDI SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNi

§1. Takmili zaminai meyoriyu huquqii rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni tibqi Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 va Barnomai miyonamuhlati rushdi Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2020 va taqviyati institutsionali

  1. Tayi 5 soli okhir dar Jumhurii Tojikiston yak qator sanadhoi qonunguzori va meyorii huquqii digar dar sohai tanzimi faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji qabul shudaast. Dar navbati avval, Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston az 28 dekabri soli 2012, №906 “Dar borai vorid namudani tagyiru ilovaho ba Kodeksi gumruki Jumhurii Tojikiston”-ro qayd namudan joiz ast. Hamin tariq, ba moddai 345 Kodeksi gumruki Jumhurii Tojikiston dar mavridi ruykhati molhoe, ki voridoti onho ba hududi gumrukii Jumhurii Tojikiston az 1 yanvari soli 2013 az pardokhti boji gumruki ozod karda meshavad, tagyirot vorid karda shud.
  2. Dar robita bo shomilshavii Tojikiston ba Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 31 oktyabri soli 2014, №691 “Barnomai mutobiqgardonii iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Tojikiston binobar uzviyat dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo” tasdiq karda shud.
  3. Jihati rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni Komissiyai davlati oid ba voridotivazkuni dar Jumhurii Tojikiston tashkil karda shudaast, ki onro Sarvaziri Jumhurii Tojikiston sarvari mekunad.
  4. Dar barobari in dar rushdi institutsionalii sodirot va voridotivazkuni norasoihoi marbut ba nomukammal budani zaminai meyoriyu huquqi joy dorand.
  5. CHorabinihoi asosii zerinro oid ba takmili zaminai meyoriyu huquqii rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkunii Tojikiston muayyan namudan mumkin ast:

– vorid namudani tagyirot ba qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 2 marti soli 2013, №93 “Dar borai az andozi arzishi ilovashuda va boji gumruki ozod namudani tekhnika, tajhizot va qismhoi ehtiyotii baroi ehtiyojoti istehsoli voridshavanda”;

– guzaronidani tahqiqoti zaminai meyorii huquqii joydoshta jihati faroham ovardani iqlimi munosibi andozbandi baroi sodirot va voridotivazkunandagon va dar asosi on vorid namudani tagyiru ilovahoi dakhldor ba kodekshoi andoz va gumruk va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi;

– tahiya va qabuli Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai dastgirii sodirot va baland bardoshtani qobiliyati raqobat”;

– tahiyai barnomai tashakkuli guruhhoi (klasterhoi) asosii molhoi sodiroti, az jumla markazhoi rushdi klasteri va mekhanizmi tatbiq;

– taqviyati nizomi monitoring va arzyobii Barnoma, inchunin tashakkuli mekhanizmi tashehi indikatorhoi maqsadnok dar asosi modelhoi peshguishuda;

– tahiya nizomi meyorhoi afzaliyatnokii loihahoi sodiroti baroi giriftani dastgirii davlatii moliyavi;

– tashakkuli asoshoi huquqii subsidiyakunonii meyorhoi foizii qarzho baroi sodirot va voridotivazkuni;

– tahiyai asoshoi huquqi va mekhanizmi istifodai nizomi farmoishi davlati baroi rushdi istehsoloti vatanii qobili raqobat;

– jori namudani mekhanizmi samaranoki dastgiri va havasmandgardonii istehsolkunandagon va sodirkunandagoni molhoi vatani.

  1. Amali namudani tadbirhoi mazkur dar surati behtarsozii nazarrasi muhiti sohibkori va sarmoyaguzori, baland bardoshtani naqsh va masuliyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati dar musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni, tasisi SHuroi milli oid ba soddagardonii rasmiyoti savdo, inchunin monitoringi harsolai peshraft va nazorati natijahoi ijroi Barnoma khele samaranok khohad bud.

§2. Islohoti siyosati savdo va soddagardonii rasmiyoti sodirotu voridot

  1. Islohoti siyosati savdo, dar navbati avval, sodda gardonidani rasmiyoti marbut ba andeshidani tadbirhoi zerinro dar nazar dorad:

– tahiya va jori namudani konsepsiyai “ishtirokchii boetimodi bozor” baroi sodda gardonidani rasmiyot dar doirai faoliyati sodiroti va voridotivazkuni;

– istisnoi takrorshavii vazifahoi maqomoti davlati va baland bardoshtani shaffofiyati faoliyati sokhtorhoi nazoratkunanda va taminkunandai faoliyati sodiroti;

– islohoti nizomi sertifikatsiyakunoni baroi soddagardonii rasmiyoti sodirotu voridot;

– sodda gardonidani barasmiyatdarorii gumruki va to haddi aqal kam kardani miqdori hujjatho, vaqt va kharojoti ishtirokchiyoni faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji marbut ba ijroi rasmiyot;

– takmili nizomi jorigardidai hujjatguzorii elektroni hangomi sodirot va voridot (“Ravzanai yagona”).

  1. Zimnan baroi peshkash namudni molhoi vatani dar bozorhoi baynalmilali, tamini muntazam guzaronidani monitoringi moneahoi mamuri va tijorati hangomi sodirot, baland bardoshtani obruyu etibori baynalmilalii tijorati va mavqei Tojikiston dar reytingho az uzviyati Tojikiston dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo va imkoniyathoe, ki Sozishnomahoi generalii imtiyozho peshnihod menamoyad, faolona istifoda burda shavad.
  2. Istifodai tashabbusi bakhshho dar doirai uhdadorihoi ba zimma giriftashudai Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo baroi istehsoli maqsadnoki mahsuloti vatani. Istifodai vasei nizomi imtiyoznoki “GSP+” baroi dastgirii mahsuloti vatani dar kishvarhoi Ittihodi Avrupo va nizomi musoidati beshtar (MFN) bo IMA omilhoi ilovagii raqobatnoki buda metavonand.
  3. Baroi hifzi mahsuloti vatani dar bozorhoi khoriji zakhirahoi mavjudaro faolona istifoda namudan lozim ast. Baroi in jalb namudani namoyandagihoi tijorati dar khorija va uzviyat dar sozmonhoi baynalmilali, masalan, Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo zarur meboshad.

§3. Tashkili sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot

  1. Samthoi asosii tashakkuli nizomi millii sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot boyad inho boshand:

– tasisi Bonki sodiroti bo vakolati dodani imtiyozho va qarzhoi darozmuhlat ba sodirkunandagon;

– tashkili nihodhoi (institutho)-i rushdi sodirot, az jumla Agentii musoidat ba sodirot, Agentii sugurtai amaliyothoi sodiroti, az jumal qarz, sarmoyaguzori va furush;

– tashkili Fehristi jambastii sodirkunandagon va voridkunandagoni Tojikiston bo judo kardani guruhi “ishtirokchiyoni boetimodi bozor”;

– tasisi instituti vakolatdor oid ba huquqi sarmoyaguzoron va sodirkunandagon (sohibkoron) dar nazdi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston;

– guzaronidani ozmunhoi “Sodirkunandai behtarini Tojikiston”;

– inkishofi shaklu usulhoi savdoi nazdisarhadi;

– hamohangsozii faoliyati sokhtorhoi millii musoidat ba sodirot, monitoringi peshraft dar asosi nishondihandahoi miqdori nizomi havasmandgardoni va nazorati samaranoki boyad vazifai asosi dar baland bardoshtani samaranokii faoliyati sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot gardad.

§4. Musoidat ba tashkili shabakai peshburdi mol dar khorija

  1. Samthoi asosii faoliyat oid ba inkishofi shabakai peshburdi mol dar khorija va azkhudkunii bozorhoi navi khoriji inhoyand:

– rushdi infrasokhtori khorijii dastgirii sodirot, khususan dar bozorhoi kishvarhoi Ittihodi Avrupo, Afgoniston, Eron, Hitoy, Turkiya, Pokiston, Hinduston;

– takmili Nizomnoma dar borai namoyandagihoi tijoratii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar khorija baroi baland bardoshtani naqshi onho dar peshburdi molhoi Tojikiston;

– istifodai oqilonai iqtidori diasporahoi tojik dar khorija baroi musoidat ba sodirot va peshburdi mahsuloti vatani dar bozorhoi khoriji.

§5. Rushdi nerui insoni va tarbiyai kadrho baroi sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni tibqi Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 va Barnomai miyonamuhlati rushdi Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2020

  1. Tarbiyai bomuvaffaqiyati kadrho baroi sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni andeshidani tadbirhoi zerinro taqozo menamoyad:

– ba standarthoi tayyor namudani bakalavr va magistrho az rui ikhtisosi “Faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji” jori namudani darshoi amali oid ba rushdi sodirot dar Jumhurii Tojikiston;

– jori namudani kursi omuzishi standarthoi amniyati ozuqavorii HACCP va ISO dar muassisahoi tahsiloti olii dakhldori tekhniki;

– tashakkuli nizomi millii pahn namudani donishhoi iqtisodii khoriji;

– guzaronidani treningho baroi sohibkorii khurdu miyona dar sohai rushdi iqtidori sodiroti va innovatsiya, logistika, mablagguzori va sugurta, marketing va menejmenti faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji, tijoratikunonii kishovarzi;

– musoidat ba shirkathoi sodirkunanda dar tahiya va tatbiqi strategiyai sodirot va marketing;

– omuzonidani korshinoson baroi mavqegiri dar bozor, daryofti joyhoi nav dar bozor, usulhoi muosiri guzaronidani guftushunidho bo sharikoni khoriji;

– takmili nizomi tarbiya, bozomuzi va takmili ikhtisosi kadrhoe, ki dar sohai tanzim va rushdi sodirot faoliyat mekunand;

– talimi kormandoni dakhldori maqomoti Tojikstandart, Hadamoti baytori, karantin, sanitari va fitosanitari oid ba istifodai tekhnika va tajhizoti zamonavii az jonibi shirkathoi istehsolkunanda va voridshavanda. Hamin tariq, takmili minbadai asoshoi institutsionalii rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni dar asosi tatbiqi tadbirhoi dar Barnoma peshbinigardida imkoniyat medihad, ki kharojoti marbut ba sodirot kam karda, iqtidori sokhtorhoi musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni taqviyat doda shavad, inchunin sathi bovarii ishtirokchiyoni bozor ba siyosati amalishavandai savdoi khorijii davlat baland bardoshta shavad.

6. DASTGIRII DAVLATII SODIROT VA VORIDOTIVAZKUNi

  1. Dar sharoiti jahonishavi va uzviyati kishvar dar sozmonhoi tijoratiyu iqtisodi va siyosii baynalmilali (Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo) va mintaqavi (IDM, SHSH), inchunin dar sozishnomahoi dujoniba oid ba intiqoli ozodi molu khizmatho dastgirii davlatii sodirot va voridotivazkuni, ki az doirai uhdadorihoi hangomi shomilshavi ba onho bazimmagiriftai Tojikiston berun nameoyad, muhim meboshad. Nabudani chunin dastgirii davlati baroi istehsolkunandagon va dar majmu baroi iqtisodiyoti kishvar oqibathoi manfi meorad.
  2. Tadbirhoi dastgirii davlatii istehsolkunandagon va sodirkunandagon dar surati tamini majmui budani qarorhoi qabulshavanda tahiyai naqshai mushakhkhasi amal muassir khohad bud. Omilhoi moliyavi be omilhoi gayrimoliyavi, islohoti institutsionali, behtar namudani muhiti kor na hamesha natijahoi dilkhoh medihad va baraks. Tavre tajriba nishon medihad, agar tadbirhoi andeshidashavanda majmui naboshand, noil gardidan ba hadafhoi guzoshtashuda ehtimoli kam dorad.
  3. Jihati afzoishi molu mahsuloti raqobatpaziri sodiroti, mekhanizmi samaranoki dastgiri va havasmangardonii istehsolkunandagon va sodirkunandagoni molu mahsuloti vatani va guzaronidani islohoti zaruri dar bakhshhoi voqei tahiya va peshnihod karda shavad.
  4. Hamin tariq, sarfi nazar az imtiyozhoi joydoshtai andozi, ki aksariyati onho bo ogozi amal kardani Kodeksi navi andozi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar mohi yanvari soli 2013 etibor paydo namudand, bo sipari gashtani qarib sesola afzoishi nazarrasi shumorai korkhonahoi navtasis mushohida karda nameshavad. Binobar in, tadbirhoi andeshidashavanda boyad majmui va mutaqobilan takmildihanda buda, islohoti andozi, behtar namudani muhiti sohibkori, behtar namudani dastrasii sohibkoron ba zakhirahoi moliyavii dokhili va berunai arzon (baroi kharidi tekhnika va tajhizoti muosir), behtar namudani mamurikunonii andozi va gumruki, kam kardani moneahoi tijorati va gayritijorati, ikhtisori vaqt va soddagardonidani rasmiyoti sodirotu voridot, ba talaboti jahoni mutobiq gardonidani agentii standartizatsiya va metrologiya, Hadamoti baytori, sanitariyu epidemiologi va fitosanitari, ba talaboti standarthoi jahoni mutobiqgardonidani sifati mahsuloti istehsolshavanda, bunyodi brendi yagonai kishvar va gayraro dar bar girand.
  5. Jihati faroham ovardani sharoiti musoid baroi amali namudani faoliyati sohibkorii khurdu miyona, kam kardani sathi iqtisodiyoti pinhoni, bunyodi zamina baroi rushdi sohibkorii istehsoli, inchunin ziyod namudani voridoti andoz baland bardoshtani haddi jorii peshburdi faoliyat az rui nizomi soddakardashudai andozbandi baroi hamai namudhoi faoliyat, ba gayr az sohibkoroni tibqi patent faoliyatkunanda, baroi istehsolkunandagoni mahsuloti kishovarzi va past kardani sathi andozi ijtimoi mavridi omuzish qaror doda shavad. Bo maqsadi behtar namudani kor va tamini etirofi baynalmilalii sertifikathoi az tarafi markazhoi testii Tojikiston, Hadamoti baytori, karantin, sanitari va fitosanitari dodashavanda, az boji voridoti va andozho ozod namudani tekhnikayu tajhizoti muosiri baroi markazhoi testi voridshavanda, inchunin takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni in tashkilotho lozim ast.
  6. Tavsiyai tadbirhoi mushakhkhas oid ba havasmandgardonii andozi dar fasli duyumi Naqshai chorabiniho ovarda shudaand.
  7. Behtar namudani kori Hadamoti gumruk, tamini intiqoli zudi molho tavassuti sarhadi gumruki, behtar namudani nizomi bahisobgiri, istifodai tarifhoi muvofiqashuda nisbati mahsuloti voridshavanda dar doirai uhdadorihoi bazimmagiriftashuda ba tamini raqobatnokii molhoi vatani dar bozori dokhili va khoriji sahmi nazarras (mustaqim va gayrimustaqim) meguzorad, inchunin jihati peshburdi sodirot musoidat khohad kard.
  8. YAke az mushkiloti asosi farqiyat dar narkhi elonshudai mahsuloti vorid va sodirshavanda meboshad. Farqiyat dar narkhi molho dar surati sodiroti mahsulot, agar on dar jarayoni istehsol va sodirot andozbandi shavad, boisi kam vorid gardidani mablag ba bujeti kishvar megardad. Dar holati voridot kam nishon dodani arzishi mahsuloti voridshavanda hamchunin boisi kam vorid gardidani mablag ba bujet megardad, ziyoda az in kamshavii kharojoti voridkunandagon az hisobi nishon nadodani arzishi voqeii mahsuloti voridshavanda imkoniyat medihad, ki on bo narkhi arzon furukhta shavad, ki boisi pastshavii qobiliyati raqobati istehsolkunandagoni mahsuloti vatani megardad. Baroi rushdi sohahoe, ki az ashyoi khomi voridshavanda vobastagi dorand, muvofiqi maqsad ast, ki meyori sifrii boji gumruki amali gardida, andozbandi bekor karda shavad, sarfi nazar az on, ki Tojikiston dar doirai sozishnomahoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo baroi chunin voridot huquq dorad, boji gumruki sitonad. Intiqoli ashyoi khomi voridoti be sitonidani boji voridoti baroi tashkil namudani istehsoli mahsuloti az ashyoi khomi voridoti vobastabuda va bo hamin ikhtisor namudani voridoti mahsuloti tayyor, nigoh doshtani joyhoi kori mavjuda va tasisi joyhoi navi kori, baland bardoshtani daromadi aholi, ikhtisor namudani shumorai muhojironi mehnatii dokhili va khoriji, past namudani sathi kambizoati, tamini ehtiyojoti dokhili va musoidat ba sodiroti mahsuloti tayyor kumak merasonad.
  9. Agar nazorati badii gumruki, tavre dar aksariyati kishvarhoi jahon amali meshavad, ba roh monda nashuda boshad, tajribai nazorati intikhobii gumruki dar sarhad (to sathi 5 foiz) kamsamar ast. Hamchunin jori namudani mafhumi “ishtirokchii boetimodi faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji”, ki ba onho nisbat ba ishtirokchiyoni digari faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji imtiyozhoi muayyan doda, surati intiqoli molhoro tavassuti sarhad metezonad, ba maqsad muvofiq ast.
  10. Gayr az in, shumora va zudii tamosi shakhsii ahli sohibkori va gumrukro kam kardan lozim ast. Hamai rasmiyotro tavassuti Internet va pochtai elektroni ba roh mondan lozim ast. Loihai dar sarhad amalkunandai “ravzanai yagona” boyad takmil va inkishof doda shuda, muttasilii kori on tamin karda shavad.
  11. Dar doirai mekhanizmi bandi 60, mekhanizmi jubron kardani pardokhthoi andozivu gumrukii sodirkunandagoni molhoi vatani dar asosi hujjathoi tasdiqkunandai furushi onho dar khoriji kishvar tahiya va peshnihod karda shavad.
  12. Dar Barnomai mazkur omilhoi moliyavi va tadbirhoi dastgirii davlatii zerin peshbini gardidaand:

– kafolati davlatii dastgirii sodirot oid ba peshnihodi qarzhoi darozmuddat va sugurtai khavfho;

– dodani qarzhoi miyonamuhlat va darozmuddat baroi sodirot bo jalbi mablaghoi bujet, dodani kafolathoi sodiroti va mablagguzorii tosodiroti;

– rasonidani kumaki moliyavi baroi dastgirii subekthoi ba sodirot nigaronidashudai sohibkorii khurdu miyona;

– jubroni qismi meyorhoi foizii qarzhoi sodiroti baroi tahvilgaroni mahsuloti gayri ashyoi khom;

– tashkili nizomi sugurtakunii qarzhoi sodiroti va amaliyoti sodiroti az khavfhoi tijorati va siyosi.

  1. Tadbirhoi dastgirii moliyavi baroi halli mushkiloti narasidani mablag, afzoishi hajmi sodirot, jubroni norasoii zakhirahoi moliyavi, afzoishi hajmi istehsol va sodirot, tamini raqobatnokii mahsuloti vatani az rui narkh, inchunin kohish dodani khavfhoi tijorati va sodiroti musoidat khohand kard. Zimnan omilhoi moliyavii dar Barnoma peshnihodgardida ba bandhoi dakhldori sozishnomahoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo mukholifat namekunand.
  2. Tamini dastrasi ba zakhirahoi arzonu darozmuddati moliyavi baroi istehsoloti ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni nigaronidashuda yake az omilhoi muhim baroi baland bardoshtani qobiliyati raqobat dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji meboshad. In bo on aloqamand ast, ki muvofiqi tahqiqothoi sershumor, yake az moneahoi asosi baroi rushdi sodiroti vatani va ikhtisori voridoti molho meyorhoi balandi foizi va nabudani mablaghoi kofii qarzhoi darozmuddat meboshad.
  3. Qurbi voqeii samaranoki asor (tabdil) indikatori raqobatpazirii iqtisodiyoti vatani az rui narkh nisbat ba sharikoni tijoratii on buda, baroi tamini nigohdorii qobiliyati raqobati iqtisodiyoti kishvar vase istifoda megardad. Taqviyati asori Tojikiston nisbat ba asori sharikoni tijoratii Tojikiston raqobati istehsolkunandagoni vataniro ba mahsuloti in kishvarho mushkil megardonad.
  4. Vositahoi siyosati moliyavi dar barobari vositahoi siyosati iqtisodi va tijorati boyad vazifai dastgiri namudani qobiliyati raqobati istehsolkunandagoni vataniro hal namuda, boloravii az had ziyodi qurbi voqeii samaranoki tabdili somoniro nisbat ba asori sharikoni asosii tijorati dar asosi hissai in kishvarho dar sodiroti Tojikiston peshgiri namoyand.
  5. Tadbirhoi gayrimoliyavi. Tadbirhoi zerinro sarfi nazar az on, ki onho dar peshburdi mol dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji tasirbakhsh khohand bud, ba tadbirhoi gayrimoliyavi mansub donistan mumkin ast:

– tasisi portalhoi ittilooti, zamimaho baroi platformahoi iOS, Android, Windows baroi peshburd va shinokhta shudani molho dar bozorhoi ehtimoli musoidat khohad kard;

– dastgirii ittilootiyu mashvaratdihi va musoidati marketingiyu tahlili jihati rivoj dodani sodiroti molhoi Tojikiston, tamini peshnihodi sarivaqtii malumot, musoidat ba faoliyati marbut ba tashkili namoishu yarmakaho baroi peshburdi molhoi istehsoli vatani dar bozorhoi dokhili va khoriji imkoniyat faroham meorad;

– dodani patent ba mahsuloti hunarhoi badeii mardumi, matohoi milli dar Markazi millii patentu ittiloot va sokhtorhoi baynalmilalii patenti baroi ehyoi hunarhoi badeii mardumi, baland bardoshtani sathi shugl va ziyod namudani daromadi aholi musoidat khohad kard. (tadbirhoi mushakhkhasi doroi khususiyati gayrimoliyavi dar Naqshai chorabiniho ovarda shudaand).

  1. Nizomhoi muhofizati, bojhoi jubroni va chorahoi ziddidempingi:

– nizomhoi muhofizati, bojhoi jubroni va chorahoi ziddidempingi, ki dar doirai sozishnomahoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo peshbini gardidaand, dar barobari samtu tadbirhoi dar bolo zikrgardida hamchunin baroi hifzi manfiathoi istehsolkunandagoni vatani ravona gardidaand. Vale boyad qayd kard, ki nizomhoi muhofizati, bojhoi jubroni va chorahoi ziddidempingiro sharikoni tijorati niz nisbati istehsolkunandagoni vatani, dar surati vayron kardani muqarraroti sozishnomahoi imzonamudai Tojikiston, tatbiq namuda metavonand. Binobar in, dar nazar doshtan lozim ast, ki uzviyat dar har sozmoni mintaqavi yo globali na tanho huquq, balki inchunin uhdadoriho niz dorad;

– jihati ijroi qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston №691 “Dar borai Barnomai mutobiqgardonii iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Tojikiston binobar uzviyat dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo” sanadhoi meyorii huquqii dakhldorro bo maqsadi hifzi istehsolkunandagoni vatani az raqobati nosolim betakhir tahiya namudan lozim ast. Tadbirhoi mushakhkhas dar mavridi nizomhoi muhofizati, bojhoi jubroni va chorahoi ziddidempingi dar Naqshai chorabiniho ovarda shudaand.

  1. Omilhoi digar va chorahoi makhsusi sohavi:

– yake az bartariyathoi muhim dar raqobati Tojikiston dar qiyos bo aksariyati kishvarho, khususan kishvarhoi hamsoya mavjudiyati zakhirahoi arzoni energetiki meboshad, ki ba sifati quvvai peshbarandai rushdi tamomi iqtisodiyoti kishvar, bakhusus sohai sanoat khizmat mekunand;

– hamai korkhonahoi sanoatii kishvar baroi 1 kilovatt nerui istifodashuda dar davomi sol 34 diram (5,3 sent bo qurbi jorii Bonki millii Tojikiston) mesuporand. Zimnan, soli 2015 ba Qirgiziston va Afgoniston nerui barq mutanosiban bo narkhi 2,5 va 3,5 sent sodirot shud, ki istehsolkunandagoni vataniro dar muqoisa bo istehsolkunandagon dar kishvarhoi hamsoya – voridkunandagoni nerui barq baralo dar holati gayri raqobat qaror medihad;

– peshnihodi tarifhoi tagyiryobandai mavsimii nerui barq (dar davrai barziyod budani zakhirahoi gidroenergetiki va partofti be istehsoli nerui ob, yane dar davrai az 1 may to 30 sentyabr) baroi hamai korkhonahoi kishvar az rui tarifhoe, ki ba Korkhonai vohidi davlatii “SHirkati alyuminiyi Tojik” peshnihod megardad (11 diram) ba baland bardoshtani sathi istehsol va past kardani arzishi aslii vohidi mahsuloti istehsolshuda musoidat khohad kard;

– tadbiri dakhldor dar Naqshai chorabiniho ovarda shudaast, az jumla chorahoi makhsusi sohavii dakhldor.

7. BALAND BARDOSHTANI QOBILIYATI RAQOBATNOKII MAHSULOT DAR BOZORHOI DOHILi VA HORIJi

§1. Baland bardoshtani sifati mahsulot mutobiqi meyorho va standarthoi SUS, HIOM va bozorhoi digari ehtimoli

  1. Istifodai standartho, dasturho yo tavsiyahoi baynalmilali ba sifati asos baroi reglamenthoi tekhniki va rasmiyoti arzyobii mutobiqat ba bartaraf namudani moneaho dar savdo musoidat khohad kard. Ilova bar in ba kishvarho bo isror peshnihod megardad, ki bo maqsadi bahisobgirii talaboti onho va dastrasi ba mahsulote, ki baroi on reglamenthoi tekhniki giriftan mekhohand, dar kori sozmonhoi baynalmilali oid ba standartizatsiya ishtirok karda, standartho yo nizomhoi arzyobii mutobiqat va rasmiyotro bo intikhobi khud tahiya namoyand.
  2. Standarthoi baynalmilali, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki agar onho masalan, binobar omilhoi nazarrasi iqlimi yo jugrofi yo mushkiloti jiddii tekhnologi baroi qone gardonidani manfiathoi qonuni muvofiq naboshand, boyad ba sifati asos baroi tahiyai reglamenthoi tekhniki istifoda shavand.
  3. Dar Barnomai musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni chorabinihoi zerin dar sohai baland bardoshtani sifati mahsulot mutobiqi meyoru standarthoi baynalmilali peshbini gardidaand:

– faol gardonii sokhtorhoi dakhldor dar kori sozmonhoi baynalmilalii tahiyakunandai standartho, az jumla kor bo Komissiyai Kodeksi Alimentarius (Codex Alimentarius Commission);

– behtar namudani dastrasi ba standartho va barnomahoi tekhniki milli, mintaqavi va baynalmilali (ba dast ovardani standartho, tarjuma, makhzani elektronii malumot dar borai standartho);

– jalbi mashvaratchiyon baroi rasonidani khizmathoi mashvaratdihi oid ba jori namudan va omuzishi standarthoi baynalmilali va mintaqavi;

– baland bardoshtani sathi ogohii sokhtorhoi sohibkori dar borai standarthoi baynalmilali (somonai internet, fehrist, nashriyaho dar vositahoi akhbori omma, vokhuriyu seminarho va treninghoi muntazam baroi khizmatchiyoni davlati va korshinoson).

§2. Borbandi, tamga va nomi tijorati (brending)

  1. Tamgazanii mahsuloti khud baroi tashkhisi on, guzaronidani baruykhatgirii zakhiraho, paygirii molhoi uburkunandai sarhadoti milli amali mamulest. Tamgazani va borbandii mahsuloti tayyor boyad ba talaboti standarthoi jahoni javobgu boshad.
  2. Dar Tojikiston dar sohai bastabandi va tamgazani mushkiloti muayyane joy dorad, ki onro tavassuti musoidat namudan ba sodirkunandagon baroi kharidi (yo lizingi) tajhizotu tekhnologiyai muosiri bastabandi va omuzonidani kormandon baroi istifodabarii on bartaraf namudan lozim ast. Baland bardoshtani sathi ogohii istehsolkunandagon dar borai standarthoi tamgazani va bastabandi bo maqsadi mutobiqat ba talaboti Komissiyai Kodeksi Alimentarius, NASSR va ISO, reglamenti tekhnikii Jumhurii Tojikiston zarur ast.
  3. Jihati tahiya va qabuli siyosati millii nomi tijoratie, ki ba rushdi bozor va peshburdi mahsuloti Tojikiston tahti nomi tijoratii “dar Tojikiston istehsol shudaast” tadbirho andeshidan lozim ast. Ba sifati loihai piloti nomi yagonai tijoratii mahsuloti kishovarzi baroi roh yoftan ba bozorhoi khorijiro tahiya namudan mumkin ast, masalan, “Tojiki – yane organiki” yo tahiya va dar vositahoi akhbori omma namoish dodani simoi jolibi dehqone, ki mevai alosifatro parvarish, khushk mekunad va ba khoriji kishvar mefiristad.

§3. Jori namudani innovatsiyaho ba istehsoloti ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni nigaronidashuda

  1. Mushkiloti marbut ba vobastagii nisbii Tojikiston az voridoti mahsuloti ozuqavori tahdidi nihoni baroi amniyati ozuqavorii kishvar meboshad. In zarurati voridotivazkuni mahz dar sohai kishovarzi va voridoti tekhnologiyaho ba joi mahsuloti nihoi ba maddi avval mebarorad. Monea dar in roh narasidani zakhirahoi qarzi va sarmoyaguzorii dokhiliyu khoriji, malumoti kofi nadoshtan va takhassusi nachandon balandi hayati kormandon meboshad.
  2. Baroi jori namudani innovatsiyaho ba sohahoi ba sodirotnigaronidashuda, soddagardonidani rasmiyoti barasmiyatdarorii hujjathoi sodiroti bo istifoda az tekhnologiyahoi ittilootiyu kommunikatsioni, tahiya va jori namudani hujjatguzorii elektroni, nizomi pardokhthoi elektroni va imzoi raqami baroi sodirkunandagon lozim ast, ki in baroi ba tavri nazarras sarfa namudani mablagu vaqt musoidat namuda, qobiliyati raqobati mahsuloti sodirotiro baland mebardorad.
  3. Tashkili shabakai biznes-inkubator va tekhnoparkho baroi tavlidi mahsuloti innovatsioni dar asosi tekhnologiyahoi oli baroi bo joyhoi kor tamin namudani javonon, ki ba innovatsiyaho mayli beshtar dorand, jalbi sarmoyai venchurii khoriji va dar oyanda baromadan ba bozorhoi khoriji bo mahsuloti navi bo tekhnologiyahoi oli istehsol- gardida musoidat khohad kard.
  4. Justujui sharikoni navi tijorati va baromadan ba bozorhoi navi furush dar khorija, jori namudani modelhoi innovatsionii peshburdi sarmoyaguzori, masalan, istifodai mavqei munosibi jugrofi dar “qalbi Osiyo” va ba shabakai tranziti baroi sodiroti takrorii mol va khizmatrasoni ba Afgonistonu Eron tabdil dodani Tojikiston.
  5. Guzaronidani tender baroi loihai behtarini innovatsioni dar sohai sodiroti obi nushoki va giyohhoi shifobakhsh imkoniyat medihad, ki peshnihodoti mufid dar khususi in mahsuloti oyandadori sodiroti intikhob va amali karda shavand.

§4. Takmili logistika va rushdi infrasokhtori makhsusgardonidashudai sodiroti va voridotivazkuni

  1. Infrasokhtori makhsusgardonidashudai sodiroti va voridotivazkunii nomukammal ba rushdi sodiroti vatani tasiri manfii bozdoranda merasonad. Tavre dar Strategiyai millii rushd baroi davrai to soli 2030 qayd gardidaast, sokhtmoni “infrasokhtore lozim ast, ki mintaqahoi kishvarro tavassuti sokhtmoni rohhoi avtomobilgard va ohan, furudgohho, sistemahoi aloqa, ki intiqol, khizmatho, sarmoya va odamonro dar sathi mahalli, milli va baynalmilali oson megardonand,” zarur ast.
  2. Takmil dodani qonunguzorii naqliyot va nizomi ijozatdihi dar naqliyot. Ozodkunii bozori naqliyoti borkashonii avtomobili, rohi ohan va havoi. Tahkimi zaminai moddiyu tekhnikii naqliyoti rohi ohan tavassuti taminoti on bo mekhseksiyaho va naqliyoti avtomobili bo refrijeratorho.
  3. Bunyodi markazi muosiri baynalmilalii logistiki dar shahri Tursunzoda, mintaqahoi ozodi iqtisodii “Panj” va “Dangara” logistika va nigohdorii mahsulotro behtar namuda, ba tashkili arzishi ilovashuda musoidat khohad kard.
  4. Dar nazdi Palatai savdo va sanoati Jumhurii Tojikiston tasis dodani markazi doimoamalkunandai namoishdihi baroi guzaronidani namoishgohho, konferensiyaho va justujui samaranoki sharikoni navi tijorati.
  5. Sokhtmoni anborho bo yakhdonho baroi mahsuloti kishovarzi bo maqsadi kam kardani talafot va afzun namudani hajmi sodirot.

§5. Rushdi menejmenti sifat va infrasokhtori sifati mahsulot

  1. Dar kishvarhoe, ki faoliyati arzyobii mutobiqat bazan az jonibi maqomoti besalohiyat yo bevijdon anjom doda meshavad, sharikoni tijorati beshtar ba sistemaho arzyobii mutobiqate bovar dorand, ki dar on maqomi sertifikatsiyai mutobiqat yo maqomi sertifikatsiyai sistema az jonibi maqomi mustaqili tekhniki akkreditatsiya shudaast. CHun qoida, in tashkiloti kasbie meboshad, ki hukumat onro ba sifati maqomi millii akkreditatsiyai kishvar etirof namudaast.
  2. Akkreditatsiya mansub ba rasmiyotest, ki tavassuti on tashkilothoi mustaqili tekhniki arzyobi gardida, salohiyati maqomoti arzyobii mutobiqatro rasman etirof menamoyand.
  3. Dar surati ba imzo rasonidani sozishnomai dakhldori baynalmilali oid ba akkreditatsiya va Sozishnomai bisyorjoniba dar borai etirof, maqomi millii akkreditatsiya dar sathi baynalmilali etirof karda meshavad.
  4. Mushkiloti dokhilie, ki halli onho iqtidori Hadamoti fitosanitariro dar Jumhurii Tojikiston tahkim mebakhshad:

– guzarish az nazorati naqshavi ba nazorati ba darajai khavf asosyofta;

– narasidani kadrho, nabudani kurshoi takmili ikhtisos, nabudani Internet baroi ogohoni va giriftani malumot, ozmoishgohhoi makhsusgardonidashuda;

– nabudani hammonandkunii (identifikatsiyai) chorvoi kalon va khurdi shokhdor;

– nabudani barnoma usulhoi (rasmiyoti standartii amaliyotii) bahodihii khavfho;

– nabudani nizomi nazorati hasharoti siroyatkunandai bemorihoi chorvo.

  1. Tashkhisgohho juzi muhimi nizomi nazorati sifat meboshand. Dar har kishvar baroi tashkili nizomi samaranoku muassiri nazorati sifat shabakai tashkhisgohhoi khubi mujahhazgardida doshtan lozim ast. Doshtani tashkhisgohi markazii baytori bo tajhizoti zaruri, ki baroi guzaronidani tahqiqoti murakkab va tahlilho dar sohai baytori qodir ast, ba maqsad muvofiq meboshad. Uzviyati maqomi millii akkreditatsiya dar ILAC, inchunin hujjathoi ijozatdihii az tarafi ILAC ba tashkhisgohho dodashavanda maqomi protokolhoi ozmoishro baland bardoshta, dastrasii sohibkoronro ba bozorhoi nav oson megardonad. Mushkiloti soha az inho iborat meboshand:

– tashkhisgohho ba tavri boyadu shoyad mujahhaz nagardidaand;

– tashkhisgohho kuhna shuda, infrasokhtori dakhldor nadorand;

– norasoii shadidi reagentho va mavodi masrafi;

– taminoti nomuntazami ob va nerui barq;

– nabudani quvvai zarurii kori.

  1. Dar Barnomai musoidat ba sodirot va voridotivazkuni dar sohai rushdi menejmenti sifat va infrasokhtori sifati mahsulot chorabinihoi zerin peshbini gardidaand:

– guzarish az nazorati naqshavi ba nazorati ba darajai khavf asosyofta;

– tashakkuli nizomi menejmente, ki ba standarthoi millii bo standarthoi baynalmilalii silsilai ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 22000, HACCP muvofiqatkunanda asos yoftaast;

– dar tajribai korkhonahoi ba sodirot nigaronidashuda jori namudani standarthoi baynalmilalii sifati ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 22000, HACCP.

8. PARAMETRHOI ASOSII DURNAMOI RUSHDI FAOLIYATI SAVDOI HORIJII JUMHURII TOJIKISTON DAR SOLHOI 2016-2020

  1. Durnamoi rushdi iqtidori sodiroti va voridotivazkuni dar Jumhurii Tojikiston dar davrai to soli 2020 dar asosi malumoti durnamoi rushdi iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar solhoi 20162018 tahiyanamudai Vazorati rushdi iqtisod va savdo tartib doda shudaast. Durnamoi rushdi faoliyati savdoi khorijii Jumhurii Tojikiston tagyirotro dar hajm va sokhtori sodirotu voridot, ki dar natijai tatbiqi Barnoma ba miyon meoyand, ba nazar megirad. Surati afzoishi faoliyati savdoi khoriji ohista-ohista, vale bemaylon bolo meravad, zimnan az soli 2017 sar karda, surati afzoishi sodirot nisbat ba surati afzoishi voridot khele ziyodtar khohad bud va in ba tavozuni savdo tasiri musbat merasonad. In dar navbati avval, ba sharofati afzoishi hajmi mahsuloti sodiroti dar natijai behtar gardidani vaz dar bozorhoi asosii furush (Hitoy, Federatsiyai Rossiya, Turkiya, Qazoqiston, Afgoniston) va duyum, dar natijai bomuvaffaqiyat amali namudani chorabiniho oid ba voridotivazkuni ba amal omada, ehtiyojoti iqtisodiyoti milli ba yak qator molhoi odatan ananavii voridoti kohish meyobad.
  2. Rasmiyoti peshguii nishondihandahoi faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji bo istifoda az modelhoi muvozinati purra va modeli tavozuni baynisohavi amali karda shudaast.
  3. Durnamoi rushdi sodirot va voridivazkunii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar davrai solhoi 2016-2020 bo darnazardoshti se senariy: “mayusona” (pessimisti), “voqebinona” va “nekbinona” (optimisti) tahiya gardidaast. Dar doirai har yake az in senariyaho Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston va tarafhoi digari manfiatdor majmui chorabinihoi ba rushdi ham iqtidori sodiroti va ham voridotivazkuni ravonagardidaro amali menamoyand. Omilhoi asosii muayyankunandai varianthoi senariyaho darajai taminot bo sarmoyaguzori va sathi dastgirii Barnoma meboshand. Zimnan senariyai pessimisti (mayusona) ba darajai taminot bo sarmoyaguzori va dastgirii moliyavi (dar asosi prinsipi “tanosubi tilo”) ba andozai to 38 foiz, voqebinona dar hududi 38-62 foiz va optimisti (nekbinona)ziyoda az 62 foiz mutobiqat khohad kard.
  4. Senariyai “mayusona” hamchun varianti inkishofi suste barrasi meshavad, ki hama chiz “dar hamon majro beikhtiyor jori meshavad”, vazi moliyavii sodirkunandagon va qobiliyati kharidorii aholi behtar nameshavad, vobastagi az voridot ziyod buda, dastrasi ba bozorhoi maqsadnok mahdud va rasmiyot murakkab meboshad. Darajai istifodai tajhizoti korkard az 15-20 foiz iqtidorashon ziyod nabuda, dastrasi ba zakhirahoi moliyavi va qarzi mahdud ast, rasmiyoti qarzgiri sertashvish ast. Harojoti naqliyot ziyod buda, moneahoi sodirot nazarras boqi memonand va sodirkunandagonro baroi vusati istehsolot havasmand namegardonand. Bori andoz garon buda, havasmandkunii sohibkori az jonibi davlat nokifoya meboshad. Muhiti sohibkori baroi rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuni sozgor nest. Muhiti sarmoyaguzori baroi voridoti sarmoyai mustaqimi khoriji va dokhili nomusoid ast. Afzaliyatho dar raqobat asosan bo nishondihandahoi zakhiravi mahdud megardand. Sathi bovarii bakhshi khususi ba tatbiqi Barnoma ziyod nest.
  5. Dar majmu, qobiliyati raqobati istehsoloti vatani past meboshad, voridoti sarmoyai khoriji nochiz buda, dastrasi ba qarzhoi darozmuddat va zakhirahoi moliyavi khele mahdud meboshad. Dar surati nabudani dastgiri va havasmandgardonii davlati, inchunin ijroi nopurra, nomuttasili Barnoma, vaziyat tanho shiddat khohad yoft.
  6. Senariyai voqebinona – zaminavi. Mutobiqi in variant Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston jihati guzaronidani islohot tadbirho meandeshad. Omilhoi alohidai subektivie, ki jarayoni rushdi sodirot va voridotivazkuniro bozmedorand, bartaraf gardida, zaminai qonunguzorii rushdi savdo va faoliyati iqtisodii khoriji tashakkul doda meshavad. Dar barobari in dar tashkil va faoliyati nizom tagyiroti kulli ba miyon nameoyad, sababhoi obektivii bozdoshtani rushdi sodirot purra bartaraf nashudaand. Jarayoni jori namudani innovatsiyaho sust buda, mekhanizmi joydoshtai khojagidori onhoro nachandon mepazirad. Afzoishi muayyani sarmoyaguzori peshbini meshavad.
  7. Senariyai optimisti (nekbinona). In senariya ba aznavjihozonii tekhnologi va tekhnikii istehsolot va dar barobari in islohoti nizomi zakhirakuni, korkard va sodirot asos yoftaast. Dar peshguii optimisti tahavvulot bo boloravii qobiliyati kharidori az hisobi vazi musoidi mahsuloti kishovarzi, jori namudani tekhnologiyahoi peshraftai zakhirakunanda va ekologi, bunyodi muhiti musoidi sarmoyaguzori va jalbi sarmoyaguzorii jiddii vataniyu khoriji ba aznavjihozonii tekhniki, jori namudani tekhnologiyahoi innovatsioni nizomi samaranoki marketing va menejmenti muosir aloqamand ast.
  8. Ba sifati varianti zaminavi senariyai voqebinona intikhob shudaast, ki az rui on hamai indikatoru nishondihandahoi maqsadnok dar Barnoma hisob karda shudaand. Baroi du senariyai digar tanho nishondihandahoi makroiqtisodii peshnihodgardida hisob karda shudaand. Agar dar jarayoni tatbiq va monitoringi Barnoma muayyan karda shavad, ki vaziyat ba jonibi nomusoid – varianti pessimisti (mayusona) yo baraks ba jonibi musoid – optimisti (nekbinona) tagyir yoftaast, pas in senariyai zaminavi megardad. Durnamoi hamai indikatoru nishondihandaho az rui senariyai navi zaminavi bo darnazardoshti durshavi az senariyai voqebinona tajdidi nazar karda shuda, ba Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi vorid namudani tagyiroti dakhldor ba Barnoma peshnihod karda meshavad.
  9. Indikatorhoi maqsadnoki Barnoma az rui nishondihandahoi makroiqtisodi baroi senariyai zaminavi dar Jadvali 8 peshnihod gardidaand.
  10. Dar natijai tatbiqi Barnoma gardishi savdoi khorijii Jumhurii Tojikiston az rui senariyai optimisti az 4325,4 mln.dollari IMA soli 2015 to 4711,0 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2020 yo 8,9 foiz meafzoyad. Zimnan hajmi sodiroti molu khizmatho az Jumhurii Tojikiston dar soli 2020 dar sathi 1633,1 mln.dollari IMA yo nisbat ba soli 2015-um bo afzoishi 83,4 foiz peshbini karda meshavad.
  11. Mutanosiban, hajmi voridoti molu khizmatho az Jumhurii Tojikiston dar soli 2020 dar sathi 3077,9 mln.dollari IMA yo -10,4 foiz kamtar nisbat ba soli 2015-um peshbini megardad.
  12. Ba dast ovardani barobarii hajmi sodirotu voridot dar Barnomai mazkur hanuz amalinashavanda ast. Peshgui meshavad, ki hajmi voridoti molu khizmatho bo ifodai puli misli peshtara nisbat ba hajmi sodirot khele ziyodtar boqi monda, tavozuni manfii tavozuni savdoi Jumhurii Tojikiston az 2544 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2015 to 1444,7 mln.dollari IMA dar soli 2020, yane 56,8 foiz kohish meyobad. Zimnan amali namudani chorabinihoi Barnoma imkoniyat medihad, ki sokhtori sodirot va khususan voridot ba jonibi ikhtisori voridoti mahsuloti ozuqavori, mavod va ashyoi khom az hisobi afzoishi voridotivazkuni, ziyod gardidani voridoti tajhizoti tekhnologi va moshinho tagyir doda shavad.
  13. Durnamoi inkishofi faoliyati savdoi khorijii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar solhoi 2016-2020 az rui indekshoi makhsusgardonidashuda ovarda shudaast. Durnamoi dinamikai sodirotu voridoti Tojikiston peshbini menamoyad, ki miqdori mahsuloti sodiroti bo surati baland afzoish yofta, to soli 2020 ba 150-170 namud rasida metavonad. Voridot niz hamchunin vusat meyobad, vale nachandon boshiddat va to soli 2020 ba andozai 240-250 namud merasad.
  14. Indeksi tamarkuzi sodirot, dar surati dastgirii marbutai davlat, to 0,45-0,4 kohish meyobad, indeksi tamarkuzi voridot boshad, dar hamon sathe, ki dar davomi 10 soli okhir bud, yane dar sathi 0,10-0,15 boqi memonad.
  15. Indeksi diversifikatsiyai sodirot az rui se namudi avvali mahsulot dar Tojikiston ba andozai 0,83 baland buda, az hisobi vase kardani sabadi sodiroti to sathi 0,70 kohish meyobad. Indeksi diversifikatsiyai voridot dar sathi 0,50-0,55 nisbatan ustuvor boqi memonad.

9. MARHILAHO VA MEHANIZMI TATBIQI BARNOMA

§1. Marhilahoi tatbiq

  1. Maqomi rohbarikunanda oid ba tatbiqi Barnoma Komissiyai Hukumat oid ba voridotivazkuni meboshad, ki onro Sarvaziri Jumhurii Tojikiston rohbari mekunad, vazifai kotiboti ijroiya boshad, ba zimmai Vazorati rushdi iqtisod va savdoi Jumhurii Tojikiston voguzor gardidaast. Komissiya maqomi hamohangsozi vazoratu idoraho, maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati va sohibkoron oid ba musoidat ba voridotivazkuni va baland bardoshtani qobiliyati raqobati mahsuloti vatani dar bozorhoi dokhiliyu khoriji meboshad.
  2. Naqshai kori Komissiya bo chorabinihoi Barnoma, ki dar Naqshai chorabiniho peshnihod gardidaand, hamohang karda meshavad.
  3. Vazifai asosii Komissiya oid ba voridotivazkuni dar tatbiqi Barnoma tamini amalhoi muvofiqashudai maqomoti idorakunii davlati va bakhshi khususi oid ba faroham ovardani sharoiti musoid baroi istehsoli mahsuloti sodirotii voridotivazkunandai raqobatnok va nazorati tatbiqi Naqshai chorabinihoi Barnoma meboshad.
  4. Naqshi asosii Komissiya va kotiboti ijroiyai on guzaronidani monitoring va arzyobii tatbiqi Barnoma meboshad. Kori samaranok bo hisobotho va malumot bahodihii peshraftro oid ba mutobiqat ba natijahoi intizori va zakhirahoi judogardida tamin menamoyad. In kori muhim baroi tatbiqi samaranoki hamai chorabiniho va ijroi vazifahoi strategii Barnoma musoidat namuda, bo hamin jihati tatbiqi bo muvaffaqiyati on sahm khohad guzosht.
  5. Baroi tamini idorakunii samaranoki tatbiqi Loiha Komissiya va kotiboti ijroiyai on boyad doroi iqtidor va donishu malakai kofi dar sohai monitoring, safarbarkunii zakhiraho va menejmenti loihavi boshad. Dar aksi hol tadbirhoi dar bolo zikrgardida va omilhoi muvaffaqiyat tanho tasiri mahdud ba tatbiqi Barnoma khohand dosht.

§2. Mekhanizmi tatbiq

  1. YAke az unsurhoi muhimtarini tatbiqi Barnoma muayyan namudani manbaho va hajmi mablagguzorii chorabinihoi Barnoma meboshad. Manbahoi mablagguzorii chorabiniho oid ba tatbiqi Barnoma inhoyand:

– mablaghoi Fondi dastgirii sohibkorii Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki dar ogozi tatbiqi Barnoma dar soli 2016 takhminan 200 mln.somoniro tashkil doda, sipas har sol boz ba andozai 200 mln.somoni afzoish meyobad. Sanduqi qarzii Fond to okhiri soli 2020 taqriban ba 1 mlrd.somoni rasonida meshavad. Hangomi istifodai mablaghoi Fond ba loihahoi tijoratii qarzgirandagon dar navbati avval ba dovtalabone, ki loihai tijoratiashon samti sodiroti va voridotivazkuni dorand, bartari doda meshavad;

– sanduqi muttahidgardidai qarzii bakhshi bonki, tashkilothoi qarzdihii khurd va tashkilothoi digari qarzi. Qarzhoi minbadai maqsadnok va darozmuhlat, az jumla az bonki tasisshavandai “Tojikeksimbonk”

– mablaghoi bujeti davlat ki baroi kharidi davlatii mol, kor va khizmatrasoniho peshbini shudaand va ba sifati farmoishi davlati baroi dastgirii istehsolkunandagoni vatani oid ba voridotivazkuni ravona karda meshavand. Na kamtar az nisfi mablaghoi nombarshuda baroi tatbiqi Barnoma ravona karda meshavand;

– kumaki tekhniki va dastgirii donorho va sharikoni rushd dar asosi strategiyahoi hamkori bo Tojikiston;

– mablaghoi bujetii vazoratu idorahoi sohavi, inchunin mintaqaho dar doirai barnomahoi sohavi va loihai rushd dar sathi mintaqavi;

– sarmoyaguzorii mustaqimi khoriji;

– mablaghoi bakhshi khususi.

§3. Havfho

  1. Dar davomi muhlati amali Barnoma ba miyon omadani khavfhoi zerini marbut ba tatbiqi Barnoma imkonpazir ast:

– khavfi mablagguzorii nokifoyai chorabinihoi Barnoma ba ijroi bomuvaffaqiyati Barnoma tasiri manfi rasonida metavonad. YAke az strategiyahoi muhimi to haddi aqal kam kardani in khavf istifodai imkoniyathoi bonkhoi baynalmilalii rushd va kumaki sharikoni dar hududi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar sohai rushdi iqtisodi korkunanda khohad bud;

– ijroi nomuttasili Barnoma halli nopurrai mushkilot dar bobati islohoti nizomi tanzimi tekhniki va batartibandozii faoliyati sodiroti. Strategiyai asosii to haddi aqal kam kardani in khavf istifodai majmuii iqtidor va zakhirai mamurii Komissiya Hukumat oid ba voridotivazkuni, inchunin tatbiqi samaranoki nizomi monitoring va nazorati tatbiqi Barnoma khohad bud;

– nabudani monitoring va arzyobii muntazami ijroi Barnoma khavfi ba dast naovardani arzyobii obektivii peshraft mutobiqi natijahoi mavridi intizor va zakhirahoi judogardida dorad. Strategiyai asosii to haddi aqal kam kardani in khavf monitoring va arzyobii harsolai samaranokii Barnoma dar okhiri muhlati amali on meboshad ( bobi 9);

– khavfi istifoda nagardidani imkoniyathoe, ki uzviyati komilhuquq dar Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo ba Jumhurii Tojikiston medihad. Strategiyai asosii to haddi aqal kam kardani in khavf omuzishi daqiqi chunin imkoniyatho, baland bardoshtani takhassusi namoyandagoni maqomoti hokimiyati davlati va bakhshi khususi tavassuti ishtirok dar seminarho, mizhoi mudavvar va konferensiyahoe, ki az rui mavzui dakhldor tashkil karda meshavand, inchunin istifodai faolonai imkoniyathoi Sozmoni Umumijahonii Savdo meboshad;

– khavfi istifoda gardidani (yo nagardidani) imkoniyathoe, ki uzviyat yo nadoshtani maqomi uzviyat dar ittihodiyaho yo ittifoqhoi mintaqavii siyosi va yo iqtisodi peshkash menamoyad. Strategiyai to haddi aqal kam kardani in khavf tahlili daqiqi jonibhoi musbat va manfii istifodai uzviyat, ki baroi tamini jarayonhoi hamgiroi, taqviyat yo zaifgardonidani robitahoi bayni Tojikiston va kishvarhoi muayyan, ittihodiyaho va ittifoqhoi onho zarur ast.

10. MONITORING VA NAZORATI JARAYONI TATBIQI BARNOMA

  1. Istifodai samaranoki monitoring, arzyobii samaranoki va nazorat (minbad – monitoring) arzyobii obektivii peshraftro mutobiqi natijahoi mavridi intizor va zakhirahoi judogardida tamin khohad kard. Funksiyai monitoringi Barnomaro kotiboti Komissiyai doimoamalkunanda oid ba tahkimi istehsoloti voridotivazkunanda va rushdi sodirot amali menamoyad.
  2. Monitoring imkoniyat medihad, ki taqsimoti samaranok va aznavtaqsimkunii vositaho bo darnazardoshti natijahoi mavridi intizor va badastovardashuda ba amal barovarda shavad. Monitoring muntazam guzaronida meshavad. Natijai on hisobot bo natoiju tavsiyaho baroi Komissiya khohad bud.
  3. Tajribai tashkili monitoring va nazorati tatbiqi Barnomai peshinai rushdi sodirot dar davrai to soli 2015 kambudihoi muayyanero dar monitoring va arzyobi oshkor namud, ki muhimtarini onho dar nabudani mekhanizmi hamkorii bonizomi bayni hamai tarafhoi manfiatdor va sharikoni rushd dar sathi kori, qobiliyat nadoshtan baroi tashehi indikatorhoi maqsadnoki Barnoma dar sharoiti zudtagyiryobandai muhiti atrof, inchunin nabudani sathhoi monitoring ifoda yoftand.
  4. Binobar in, bo dar nazardoshti sabaqhoe, ki az Barnomai peshinai rushdi sodirot dar mavridi monitoring girifta shudand, nizomi monitoring dar yakchand sath zarur ast: dar sathi molhoi niyozi mardum – baroi molu khizmathoi alohida; dar sathi bakhshho – baroi mushohidai indikatorhoi makhsusi bakhshho; va dar sathi milli – baroi jambasti natijahoi monitoring va arzyobii nishondihandahoi makroiqtisodi.
  5. Indikatorhoi muayyani maqsadnoki Barnoma, indikatorhoi asosi khohand bud. In guzaronidani monitoringro dar asosi nazorati muntazami indikatorhoi tasdiqshuda, qonekunandai meyorhoi chenshavanda budan, muvofiqati komil, arzishi baland nadoshtani jamovarii malumot, inikosi bevositai natijahoi fosilavi tamin mekunad. Dar nihoyati hol in ba savolhoi zerin posukh khohad dod: tadbirhoi banaqsha giriftashuda ijro shudaand yo ne, parametrhoi maqsadnoki peshguishuda ba dast ovarda shudaand yo ne, natijahoi fosilavii tadbirhoi siyosati dar Naqshai chorabiniho peshbinigardida chi gunaand.
  6. Kotiboti Komissiya (Vazorati rushdi iqtisod va savdoi Jumhurii Tojikiston) yakjoya bo maqomoti idorakunii dakhldori sohavi va mintaqavi bo jalbi bakhshi khususi va sharikoni rushd monitoring guzaronida, ba Komissiyai doimoamalkunanda oid ba tahkimi istehsoloti voridotivazkunanda va rushdi sodirot dar borai jarayoni tatbiqi Barnoma hisobot peshnihod menamoyad.
  7. Az rui natijahoi monitoringi harsolai jarayoni tatbiqi Barnoma dar borai natijahoi on hisobot bo tavsiyaho tahiya gardida, ba barrasii Komissiya peshnihod karda meshavad. Hisobot metavonad ham dar shakli matn va ham dar shakli muarrifii PowerPoint baroi behtar qabul kardani someoni maqsadnok peshnihod karda shavad. Iqtiboshoi asosii hisobot dar matbuoti kogazi va shabakai Internet intishor karda meshavad.
  8. Pas az ba okhir rasidani muhlati amali Barnoma (dar soli 2020) arzyobii nihoii samaranokii ijroi Barnoma guzaronida shuda, ba barnomai dastgirii sodirot baroi davrai minbada tavsiyaho tahiya karda meshavand. Natijahoi badastovardashuda boyad ba inobat girifta shuda, mekhanizmu usulhoi muassir oshkor karda shavand va “tarikhi muvaffaqiyat” omukhta shavand, inchunin baroi oyanda sabaqho girifta shavand.
  9. Tatbiqi Barnoma ba noil gardidan ba chunin hadafhoi rushdi ustuvori Sozmoni Milali Muttahid, ba monandi hadafi 8-um “Musoidat ba rushdi bemaylon, farogir va ustuvori iqtisodi, shugli purra va mahsulnok va kori arzanda baroi hama”, 9-um “Tasis infrasokhtori ustuvor, musoidat ba tamini sanoatikunonii farogiru ustuvor va jori namudani innovatsiyaho” va 17-um “Taqviyati vositahoi noilshavi ba rushdi ustuvor va faol gardonidani kori mekhanizmhoi sharikii globali ba manfiati rushdi ustuvor” musoidat khohad kard.
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

5597d45a1f9bbba6cb3a0a20c8c19e24

SHerhoi oshiqi ba zaboni rusi

Veronika Tushnova — YA ne pomnyu tebya, izvini YA ne pomnyu tebya, izvini! YA zabil …