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BARNOMAI ISLOHOTI SOHAI OBI JUMHURII TOJIKISTON  BAROI SOLHOI 2016-2025

Bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 30 dekabri soli 2015, № 791 tasdiq shudaast  

MUQADDIMA

Islohoti sohai obi Tojikiston bo qabuli Farmoni Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston az 15 marti soli 2006, № 1713 “Strategiyai islohoti sistemai idorakunii davlati” ogoz gardida, yakchand marhilaro dar bar megirad. 1 avgusti soli 2012 Barnomai islohoti sohai kishovarzii Jumhurii Tojikistonro baroi solhoi 2012-2020, ki az tarafi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston qabul gardidaast, nuktahoi asosii islohoti sohai obro, az on jumla guzarish ba Idorakunii hamgiroiyonai zakhirahoi ob (minbad – IHZO)-ro dar havzahoi daryoho dar bar megirad. Islohoti sohai ob hamchun qismi judonashavandai islohoti kishovarzi ba nazar girifta shudaast.

Farmoni Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston az 19 noyabri soli 2013, № 12 “Dar borai takmili sokhtori maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston” baroi ogozi islohoti sohai ob zaminai huquqi faroham ovard. Tibqi Farmoni mazkur Vazorati melioratsiya va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston barham doda shuda, vazifahoi siyosi dar sohai ob ba zimmai Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston va vazifahoi marbut ba obyori va behdoshti zamin ba zimmai Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston voguzor karda shudand.

Maqsad az islohoti sohai ob guzoshtani zamina baroi gayrimutamarkazonidani sistemai idorakuni va bazimmaguzorii yak qismi korhoi khizmatrasoni dar jarayoni taqsimoti masuliyat bayni vazoratu idorahoi davlati va qisman tashkilothoi gayridavlati meboshad. Islohoti peshnihodshavanda ba prinsiphoi umumii tanzimkunandai IHZO asos yofta, dar on ba masalahoi ba etibor giriftani manfiathoi ijtimoi, iqtisodi va muhiti zist tavassuti idorakunii bosubot va rushdi zakhirahoi ob etibori khosa doda meshavad.

Barnomai islohoti sohai obi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi solhoi 2016-2025 (minbad- Barnoma) masalahoi islohoti sohai obro dar tamomi zersokhtorhoi baistifodai ob aloqamand inikos mekunad. Dar faslhoi oyanda sohai ob hamchun “soha” va namudhoi gunoguni makhsusi istifodai ob, ba monandi obyori yo gidroenergetika hamchun “bakhsh” zikr megardand. Dar Barnoma avval mushkiloti asosii sohai obi Jumhurii Tojikiston ovardashuda, sipas rohhoi halli onho tavassuti islohot peshnihod karda meshavad.

I. ZAHIRAHOI OB

  1. Tojikiston kishvari kuhsor buda, 93 foizi hududi onro kuhiston tashkil medihad. Borishoti solona dar mamlakat taqriban 760 mm buda, az 100 mm dar baze mintaqahoi judogonai qismi janubi kishvar to 2400 mm dar qullai Fedchenko tagyir meyobad.
  2. Piryakhho. Masohati umumii piryakhho 11,146 hazor km2 yo 8% hududi kishvarro tashkil medihad. Taqriban 845 km3 zakhirahoi ob dar piryakhho mahfuz meboshand.
  3. Daryoho. Dar Tojikiston 947 daryo va soyhoidoimi va mavsimi vujud dorand, ki jarayoni obi boztavlidshavandai onho ba 64 km3/sol barobar ast, az on jumla 1,1 km3/soli on dar havzai daryoi Sir va 62,9 km3/soli on dar havzai daryoi Amu, taqriban 55% zakhirahoiobi solonai havzai bahri Aral dar Tojikiston tashakkul meyobad.
  4. Az nuqtai nazari gidrografi dar Tojikiston havzahoi daryohoi Amu, Sir, Panj, Vakhsh, Zarafshon, Kofarnihon va zerhavzahoi Qarotog-SHirkent, Qizilsu-YAkhsu, Isfara, Hojabaqirgon, Oqsu va soyhoi Ashtu-Somgor mavjudand.
  5. Kulho va obanborho. Dar mamlakat 1300 kulho bo masohati 705 km2 mavjudand. Hajmi umumii zakhirahoi obi onho 46,3 km3-ro tashkil medihad, ki az in miqdor 20 km3 obhoi shirin meboshand. SHumorai obanborho dar Tojikiston 11 adad buda, hajmi umumii mufidi onho taqriban 7,5 km3-ro tashkil menamoyad.
  6. Obhoi zerizamini. Zakhirahoi obhoi zerizaminii barqarorshavanda dar Tojikiston 18,7 km3/sol-ro tashkil medihand, ki az on, 2,8km3/sol zakhirahoi istifodashavanda mahsub meyoband.
  7. Obhoi partovi bozgardanda. Tabiati Tojikiston asosan az kuhho va domanakuhhoyu teppahoi sarnisheb tashakkul yoftaast, ki in ba jamu pas gashtani hajmi kaloni obho ba daryoho musoidat menamoyad. Hajmi obhoi bozgardanda taqribanba 3.5 – 4.0 km3/sol merasad, ki 3,0 km3 on obhoi zahbur va bozgardanda az zaminhoi obyorishavanda buda, 0,50 km3-i on obhoi partovi maishi va bakhshi sanoat meboshad.

II. VAZIYATI SOHAI OB 1. ISTIFODAI ZAHIRAHOI OB DAR BAHSHHOI GUNOGUN

  1. Istifodabarandagoni asosii zakhirahoi ob dar Tojikiston bakhshhoi taminoti obi nushoki va sanitariya, gidroenergetika, obyorii kishovarzi, sanoat, mohiparvari, solimgardoni va muhiti zist meboshand. Jumhurii Tojikiston dar asl tanho 17-20 foizi zakhirahoi obi dar hududash tashakkulyobandaro istifoda mebarad. Ba hisobi miyona dar davrai mushohidahoi guzaronidashuda (1985-2014) hajmi solonai obe, ki az jonibi sohahoi mukhtalifi iqtisod dar kishvar istifoda burda meshavad, az 8,0 to 14,5 km3/sol- ro tashkil medihad.
  2. Taminoti obi nushoki va sanitariya. Taminoti obi nushoki va sanitariya yake az bakhshhoi muhimtarini sohai ob shumor rafta, rushdi on baroi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston afzaliyati avvalindaraja dorad. Hajmi obi dar in bakhsh istifodashavanda dar yak sol hududi 400 mln.m3-ro tashkil medihad. Az in miqdor 103-105 mln.m3 bevosita az jonibi aholi istifoda burda meshavad. Ehtiyojoti taminoti obi nushoki va sanitariya kamtar az 5,0% hajmi umumii obi baroi tamomi niyozhoi kishvar istifodashavandaro tashkil medihad.
  3. Gidroenergetika. Gidroenergetika yake az bakhshhoi muhimi sohai obi Tojikiston ba shumor rafta, asosi iqtidorhoi energetikii kishvarro tashkil menamoyad. Az 5414MVt iqtidori energetikii mavjudai kishvar 4996 MVt yo 93% ba gidroenergetika rost meoyad. Dar istehsoli solonai nerui barq, sahmi gidroenergetika 98-99%-ro tashkil menamoyad. Hususiyati muhimi gidroenergetika dar on ast, ki on energiyai potensialii obro istifoda namuda, khudi onro hamchun zakhirai masrafshavanda istemol namekunad. In amal ba hajm va sifati tabiii ob tasir namerasonad. Hamasola, hududi 30-35 km3 ob tavassuti nerugohhoi barqii obii kishvar guzashta, dar majmu 16-17 mlrd. kVt. soat nerui barq istehsol karda meshavad.
  4. Obyorii kishovarzi. Bakhshi obyorii kishovarzi baroi tamini amniyati ozuqavori dar kishvar ahamiyati muhim dorad. Hududi 80% mahsuloti sohai kishovarzi az zaminhoi obyorishavanda ba dast ovarda meshavad. Hajmi umumii obi az tamomi sarchashmaho baroi obyori giriftashavanda ba hisobi miyona 8,0-10,0 km3/sol-ro tashkil menamoyad. Ziyoda az 90% hajmi umumii obhoi az makhzanhoi tabii giriftameshuda baroi ehtiyojoti obyorii kishovarzi istifoda burda meshavad.
  5. Sanoat. Istehsoloti sanoati dar solhoi avvali istiqloliyati kishvar ba tavri nazarras past rafta, tai solhoi okhir ba tadrij barqarorshuda istodaast. Soli 1990 dar sohai sanoat 607 mln.m3 ob istifoda shuda, ayni hol, hajmi umumii istifoda nazdik ba 240-300 mln. m3-ro tashkil menamoyad, ki in ba 2-3% hajmi umumii obi dar kishvar istifodashavanda rost meoyad. Qismi nazarrasi ob baroi sanoat az hisobi obhoi zerizamini girifta meshavad.
  6. Mohiparvari niz yake az bakhshhoi muhimi istifodai ob ba hisob meravad. Havzhoi mohiparvari dar sohilhoi farokhi daryoho yo dar joyhoi ba majroi daryo bisyor nazdik sokhta shudaand, ki in talafoti bebozgashti obro khele kam mekunad. Hajmi miyonai obi baroi havzhoi mohiparvari istifodashavanda dar yak sol 90-100 mln.m3 yo 0,8-1,5% hajmi umumii obi istifodashudai kishvarro tashkil medihad.
  7. Solimgardoni dar manobei ob. Hududi Tojikiston doroi iqtidori buzurgi rekreatsioni meboshad. Dar jumhuri 162 yodgorii manzaravii tabiii obi, beshtar az 200 chashmai madani, 18 kuli loyqai shifobakhsh va namakin ba qayd girifta shudaand. Hajmi istifodai ob dar mintaqahoi rekreatsionii jumhuri ba hisob girifta nashudaast, vale muayyan ast, ki obi istifodashavanda dar in holatho badi toza namudan qisman ba makhzanhoi obi bargardonida meshavand.
  8. Muhiti zist. Istifodai ob baroi behdoshti muhiti zist naqshi bisyor kalon dorad. Garchand ayni hol dar jumhuri hisobi mushakhkhas oid ba hajmi obi baroi muhiti zist istifodashavanda vujud nadorad, muayyan ast, ki baroi subot va rushd muhit hajmi muayyani obro istifoda mebarand. Istifodabarandagoni ob bo maqsadi hifzi muhit dar Tojikiston jangalzor, kul va botloqzorho meboshand.

2. ASOSHOI HUQUQi VA INSTITUTSIONALII IDORAI ZAHIRAHOI OB

  1. Asosi qonunguzorii sohai obi Tojikistonro Konstitutsiyai (Sarqonuni) Jumhurii Tojikiston, Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston, qonunho va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston, sozishnomaho, konvensiyaho va digar sanadhoi huquqii baynalmilali, mintaqavi va baynidavlati oid ba ob, ki Jumhurii Tojikiston etirof namudaast, tashkil medihand.
  2. Dar ravandi idorakunii zakhirahoi obi Tojikiston Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, SHuroi hamohangsozi nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba masalahoi obu energetika, vazoratu idoraho, maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati va ittihodiyahoi jamiyati shomil meboshand.
  3. Vazoratho, kumitahoi davlati, agentiho va muassisahoi ba idora, istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob aloqamand, jihati amali namudani siyosati sohai ob ba manfiati iqtisodiyoti milli va istifodabarandagoni ob salohiyati ijroiya dorand.
  4. Bo vujudi tagyiroti ziyod dar sokhtori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston va tasis gashtani maqomi nav, taqsimi vazifaho va salohiyatho dar sohai idorakunii ob bayni sokhtorhoi gunogun to hanuz tibqi Nizomnoma dar borai muayyan namudani vakolathoi maqomoti vakolatdori makhsusi davlati doir ba tanzimi istifoda va hifzi ob, ki bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 4 fevrali soli 2002, № 39 tasdiq shudaast, amali karda meshavad.
  5. Maqomoti davlati oid ba idorakunii zakhirahoi ob dar Jumhurii Tojikiston inho meboshand:

– Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi ob;

– Vazorati kishovarzi;

– Vazorati tandurusti va hifzi ijtimoii aholi;

– Kumitai hifzi muhiti zist;

– Kumitai holathoi favqulodda va mudofiai grajdani;

– Saridorai geologiya;

– Hadamoti nazorati davlatii bekhatarii korho dar sanoat va sohai kuhkori;

– Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyori;

– Korkhonai vohidi davlatii “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali”;

– SHirkati sahomii kholdingii kushodai “Barqi Tojik”.

  1. Dar hamkori bo tashkilothoi davlati ittihodiyahoi jamiyati niz dar sohai idorakunii zakhirahoi ob faoliyat dorand. Assotsiatsiyahoi istifodabarandagoni ob (minbad – AIO) va Federatsiyahoi AIO-ho dar Tojikiston ittihodiyahoi jamiyatii makhsusgardonidashuda meboshand, ki ba nigohdori va idorakunii shabakahoi obyori va zahkashu zahburhoi dokhilikhojagi huquq dorand.

III. MUSHKILOTI SOHAI OB

1. MALUMOTI UMUMi

  1. Solhoi okhir binobar tasiri omilhoi gunogun, az jumla guzarish ba munosibathoi bozori, afzudani talabot ba zakhirahoi ob bo sababi afzoishi aholi, kohishi zakhirahoi ob bo tasiri tagyiroti iqlim, afzoishi holathoi favqullodai gidrometeorologi, buhroni moliyavi, urbanizatsiya, biyobonshavi va gayra mushkilot dar sohai ob ru ba afzoish dorad.
1.1. DAVRAI GUZARISH DAR IQTISODIYOT
  1. Tojikiston marhalai guzarish ba bozori iqtisodiro az sar guzaronida istodaast va tamomi tagyiroti siyosivu iqtisodi dar majmu ba faoliyati sohai ob va istifodabarii on, az jumla mutobiqsozii idorakunii ob ba sharoiti navi iqtisodi niz tasir rasonida istodaast.
  2. Mutobiqsozii mazkur masoili zerinro dar bar megirad: (1) behtar namudani vaziyati marbut ba pushonidani kharojoti istifodavu nigohdori; (2) baland bardoshtani samaranokii sokhtorhoi davlatii masuli idorakunii ob; (3) tamini taqsimoti meyorii ob bayni istifodabarandagon muvofiqi shatrnomahoi bastashuda.
  3. Bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 25 iyuni soli 1996, №281 khizmatrasonii pulakii ob dar bakhshi obyorii zaminhoi kishovarzi jori karda shud. To in davra khizmatrasoniho baroi obyorii zaminho purra az bujeti davlati mablagguzori karda meshud. Pardokhti haqqi khizmati obrasoni, garchande to andozae ba holati imruza mutobiq gardida boshad ham, to hanuz na hama khojagihoi dehqoni muqarraroti mazkurro purra amali menamoyand.
1.2. AFZOISHI AHOLi
  1. Afzoishi aholi yake az omilhoi jiddii ba obtaminkuni tasirkunanda meboshad. Afzoishi solonai aholi dar Tojikiston taqriban 2,5 foizro tashkil medihad, ki in ba afzoishi talabot ba ob, nerui barq, mahsuloti ozuqavori va manzil ovarda merasonad.
  2. Agar soli 1991 ba har yak nafari aholii Tojikiston 11963 m3 zakhirahoi tabiii ob va 0,13 ga zaminhoi obi rost meomad, pas soli 2015 in nishondihandaho muvofiqan to 7711 m3 va 0,09 ga rasidaand.
  3. Ziyodshavii aholi va talabot ba zakhirahoi ob andeshidani tadbirhoi favriro jihati tanzimi durust va taqsimoti odilonai zakhirahoi ob, idorai talabot ba ob, idorai hamgiroyonai zakhirahoi ob, hamohangsozii faoliyati istifodabarandagoni gunogun, istifodai samaranoki ob, ba istehsolot vorid kardani tekhnologiyai kammasrafi ob va digar chorajuihoro talab menamoyad.
1.3. TAGYIROT VA TAGYIRPAZIRII IQLIM
  1. Tagyirot va tagyirpazirii iqlim ba zakhirahoi obi JumhuriiTojikiston tasiri ziyod dorad. Tibqi malumoti mavjuda dar dahsolahoi okhir harorati miyonai havo dar Tojikiston 0,7-1,9oS bolo rafta, taqriban hazor adad piryakhhoi khurd allakay ob shudaand. Bo sababi on, ki sarchashmai asosii daryohoi Tojikiston piryakhho meboshand, in dar davrahoi miyona va darozmuddat ba kam shudani obi onho ovarda merasonad.
  2. Ilova ba in, dar zeri tasiri tagyiroti iqlim tagyirpazirii gidrologi mushohida gardida istodaast, ki in niz ba idora va istifodai zakhirahoi ob, khususan dar bakhshi obyorii kishovarzi tasiri manfi khohad rasonid.
  3. Tagyirot va tagyirpazirii iqlim andeshidani tadbirhoi favriro jihati tamini ustuvori va musoidshavi ba in tagyirot, az jumla behtar namudani peshgui, etino ba past kardani zarari obkheziho, yarch, sel va takmili idorakunii boloobi havzahoro taqozo menamoyad.
1.4. OFATHOI TABIi VA TEHNOGENII MARBUT BA OB
  1. Hududi kuhsori Jumhurii Tojikiston va sathi borishoti nisbatan farovon dar kishvar, inchunin istifodai nodurusti ob sababi ofathoi tabiivu tekhnogenii gunoguni marbut ba ob meshavand. Namudhoi asosii ofathoi tabiii dar natijai tasiri ob rukhdihanda in obkhezi, eroziyai sohil va zaminhoi nazdi daryoho, balandshavii sathi obi daryo, yarch va sel buda, ba ofathoi tekhnogeni, shurshavii zaminho, eroziyai zaminhoi obyori, botloqshavi va biyobonshavi dokhil meshavand.
  2. Tibqi malumoti mavjuda dar Tojikiston vobasta ba shiddati borishot solona az 40 to 230 selu obkhezihoi khurdu kalon ba qayd girifta meshavand, ki ba hisobi miyona ba iqtisodiyoti mamlakat az sadhohazor to dahho million dollari SHMA zarar merasonand. Muttaassifona, dar baze holatho in boisi favti odamon niz megardad.
  3. Kohish dodani khatari ofathoi marbut ba ob amalisozii mekhanizmhoi samaranoki peshgiri va omodagi ba holathoi favqulodda, az jumla muayyansozii vazifaho dar sohai muhofizat az obkhezi va sohilmustahkamkuni, tasisi sistemai boetimodi peshgui va omodagi dar sathi jumhuriyavi, havzavi va mahalli, rushdi potensiali tekhnikivu tashkiliro jihati idorakunii holathoi favqulodda dar yakjoyagi bo mekhanizmhoi boetimodi moliyavi bo maqsadi etinoi samaranok ba holathoi favqulodda dar bar megirad.
1.5. MUHITI ZIST
  1. Afzoishi shumorai aholi va faoliyati iqtisodi dar sathi balandi istehsolot ba zaminu zakhirahoi ob tasir merasonad. In dar navbati khud ba kamshavii hududhoi tabii, oludashavi, eroziyai khok va shustashavii hajmhoi kaloni on, ziyod shudani istemoli ob, past raftani sathi obi zerizaminii nushoki, shurshavi va botloqzorshavi dar natijai baland shudani sathi obi zerizamini dar zaminhoi obyori ovarda merasonad.
  2. Halli in mushkilot tavassuti peshgirii samaranoki oludashavii zakhirahoi ob, barqarorsozi va modernizatsiyai shabakahoi kanalizatsiya va zahkashu zahburho, nazorati samaranoki sifati ob va ba tavri samaranok va sarivaqti jam namudan, tahlil va mubodilai malumot oid ba ob imkonpazir meboshad. Inchunin muayyan namudani limiti giriftani obhoi ruizamini va zerizamini be rasonidani zarar ba muhiti zist az vazifahoi peshguii gidrologi va gidrogeologi ba hisob rafta, natijahoi on boyad ba naqshai havzavii daryoho vorid karda shavand.

2. MUSHKILOT DAR BAHSHHOI ISTIFODABARII OB

  1. Dar sohai obi jumhuri yak qator mushkilotho hastand, ki khosi hamai bakhshhoi istifodabarii ob meboshand, az jumla:

– imkoniyathoi mahdudi mablagguzori chi az bujeti jumhuriyavi va chi az hisobi kumakhoi sharikoni rushd;

– kuhnavu farsuda shudani infrasokhtori mavjuda;

– nabudani zaminai meyorivu huquqii mukammal;

– baland budani sathi talafoti ob;

– muvofiqat nakardani tarifhoi khizmatrasoni ba arzishi asli va past budani sathi jamovarii mablaghoi pardokhti khizmatrasoni.

2.1. TAMINI OBI NUSHOKi VA SANITARIYA
  1. Bakhshi tamini obi nushoki va sanitariya dar natijai barhamkhurii iqtisodi naqshavi va guzarish ba iqtisodi bozori bo mushkiloti ziyod ru ba ru shud, ki asositarini onho inhoand:

– tanho 51,4% aholii Tojikiston, az jumla 86,9% aholii shahrho, 61,5% aholii shahrakho va 43,4% aholii dehot, bo obi oshomidani va muvofiqan 79,8%, 18,2% va 0,2% aholi bo shabakai fozil ob va sharoiti khubi sanitari tamin meboshand;

– dar shahrho va shahrakho tanho 68% infrasokhti mavjuda dar holati kori qaror doshta, 7% on qisman kor mekunad va 25% umuman dar holati kori nestand. Dar dehot boshad, tanho 40% infrasokhtori mavjuda dar holati kori qaror doshta, 44% qisman kor mekunad va 16% umuman dar holati kori nestand;

– talafoti ob dar sistemahoi taminoti shahrhoi kalon ziyoda az 60%, shahrhoi miyona va shahrakho ziyoda az 20%-ro tashkil menamoyad;

– tashkilotu muassisahoi az bujet mablagguzorishavanda haqqi khizmatrasonihoro muvofiqi talaboti asli yo meyori muqarrarshuda mablagguzori namenamoyand;

– tarifhoi amalkunandai khizmatrasonihoi korkhonahoi tobei KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” kharojoti onhoro pushonida nametavonand;

– jamovarii mablagi haqqi khizmati obrasoni dar sathi nokifoya qaror dorad.

  1. Vobasta ba in tajdid va modernizatsiya iinshoothoi mavjudai sistemahoi tamini obi nushoki va sanitariya, mukammal namudani siyosati narkhguzorii khizmatrasoni bo maqsadi baland bardoshtani potensiali tashkilothoi obrason va inchunin tamin namudanisifati meyorii obi ba aholi dodashavanda, behtar namudani pardokhti haqqi khizmati taminoti ob az jonibi istifodabarandagon yak qismi mekhanizmi samaranoki iqtisodi va dar majmu vazifahoi avvalindaraja mahsub meyoband.
2.2. OBYORi VA ZAHKASHi
  1. Bakhshi obyorii kishovarzi baroi tamini aholi bo mavodi ozuqa va tasisi joyhoi kori dar dehot naqshi muhim mebozad. In bakhsh ayni zamon bo yak qator mushkilot, az jumla farsuda gashtani infrasokhtori mavjudai obyori va behdoshti zamin, ziyod gardidani maydoni zaminhoi holati meliorativiashon gayriqanoatbakhsh, az gardishi kishovarzi berun mondani zaminhoi korami obi, eroziyai zaminhoi obi, az kor mondani poygohhoi obkashi, narasidani moshinu mekhanizmho, mavjudnabudani hisobi durusti ob va gayra duchor omadaast.
  2. Ba holati 1 yanvari soli 2015 dar jumhuri taqriban 33,5 hazor ga zamin, az jumla 16,8 hazor ga zaminhoikorami obi az gardishi kishovarzi berun monda, 31 hazor ga zamini partov mavjud ast va holati meliorativii 49 hazor ga zamini obi gayriqanoatbakhsh hisobida meshavad. Samarnokii sistemahoi obyorii jumhuri dar baze holatho tanho 40-50%-ro tashkil menamoyad.
  3. In mushkilot dastrasii dehqononro ba hajmi zarurii ob mahdud karda, ba hosilnokii mahsuloti kishovarzi tasiri manfi rasonida istodaast.
  4. YAke az rohhoi halli in mushkilot tajdidi infrasokhtor va guzaronidani islohoti iqtisodivu institutsionalii bakhshi obyori va behdoshti zamin meboshad.
2.3. GIDROENERGETIKA VA TAMINOTI BARQ
  1. Gidroenergetika jihati faoliyati pursamari tamomi sohahoi iqtisodiyot, az jumla sohai ob, naqshi hayotan muhim mebozad. Bakhshi mazkur niz bo mushkiloti ziyod, az jumla narasidani nerui barq dar fasli zimiston (binobar kam gashtani sarfi obi daryoho dar in davra va kam budani hajmi obanborhoi mavjuda), ba muvozinat ovardani niyozi istehsoli nerui barq va obyori, mablagguzorii nigohdorii obanborho va ijroi korhoi sohilmustahkamkuni dar onho, past budani pardokhti haqqi nerui barq, baland budani sathi talafot va gayra duchor gardidaast. Hallu fasli in masalaho dar doirai islohoti bakhshi energetikai jumhuri peshbini gardidaast.
2.4. TAMINI OB BAROI EHTIYOJOTI SANOAT
  1. Tamini ehtiyojoti obi bakhshi sanoat solhoi okhir bo nazardoshti rushdi on ravandi toza giriftaast. Vale dar in bakhsh niz mushkilihoi ziyod mavjudand.
  2. Infrasokhtori dastraskunii ob ba korkhonahoi sanoati muddati 30-50 sol injonib istifodashuda, farsuda gardidaast. Tanho inshoothoi navi sanoati (korkhonahoi korkardi pakhta, konservabarori va g.) bo sistemai nisbatan zamonavi tajhizonida shudaand.
  3. Mushkiloti asosii taminoti korkhonahoi sanoati bo ob in zarurati samaranok bezarar gardonidani obhoi partovi sanoati, kam kardani talafoti ob, jori namudani sistemai istifodai gardoni (takrorii) ob, monitoringi samaranoki sifat va hajmi obhoi partov muvofiqi meyoru standartho meboshad.

3. JANBAHOI IQTISODIVU MOLIYAVi

  1. Asosi faoliyati bo suboti hama guna sistema, az jumla sohai obro modeli iqtisodii on tashkil medihad. Mukammalgardonii modeli iqtisodivu moliyavi dar chunin davrai guzarish vazifai oson nest, ammo tajribai kishvarhoi taraqqi karda va ru ba taraqqi nishon medihad, ki in vazifa ijroshavanda meboshad.
  2. Az in lihoz mukammalgardonii janbahoi iqtisodivu moliyavi dar sohai ob andeshidan va amali namudani tadbirhoi zerinro talab menamoyad: , jori namudani prinsiphoi “istifodabaranda pardokht mekunad” va “ifloskunanda pardokht mekunad”; , tamiri muttasili sistemavi, navsozii davri va purra, takmil va tajdidi infrasokhtori sohai ob; , tamini tanzimi samaranoki munosibathoi iqtisodii bayni tashkilothoi khizmatrason va istifodabarandagoni ob inchunin shaffofiyati khizmatrasoni tavassuti sistemai dakhldori narkhguzorie, ki metavonad kharojoti soharo pushonida, rushdi onro tamin namoyad.

4. TAKMILI ZAMINAI HUQUQi

  1. Az soli 2000 to imruz mekhanizmhoi istehsolot, sohibmulki ba zamin va munosibathoi iqtisodii bayni istehsolkunandagon, tahvilgaron va istemolkunandagoni nihoi ba kulli tagyir yoft. Pas az islohoti zamin istehsoli mahsuloti kishovarzi az jonibi shirkathoi khususi ba roh mondashuda, mahsuloti onho dar asosi prinsiphoi bozori ozod ba furush barovarda meshavad. Bo vujudi in, khizmatrasonihoi obyori va zahkashi to hol az prinsiphoi bozori dur buda, baroi tashkili chunin sistema takmili qonunguzorii jori zarur meboshad.
  2. Qonunguzorii jori dar sohai ob, az jumla Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston, vobasta ba guzarish ba iqtisodi bozori va amali namudani islohoti sohai ob, az jumla guzarish ba prinsipi idorakunii hamgiroyonai zakhirahoi ob takmili jiddiro talab menamoyad.
  3. Qonunhoi digari dakhldor, khususan qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai assotsiatsiyahoi istifodabarandagoni ob” va “Dar borai obi nushoki va tamini on” niz dar robita bo mutobiqat ba prinsiphoi IHZO va sharoiti bozori vorid namudani tagyiru ilovahoro ba onho taqozo menamoyand.
  4. Guzarish ba idorakunii havzavi va tasisi instituthoi nav dar sathi havza tahiyai nizomnoma va digar sanadhoi meyoriyu huquqii tanzimi munosibathoi onhoro bo maqomoti mavjuda talab menamoyad.

5. TAKMILI MEHANIZMHOI INSTITUTSIONALi

  1. Binobar islohoti guzaronidashavanda, khususan tasisi maqomoti nav va taqsimoti vazifaho bayni onho tibqi Farmoni Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston az 19 noyabri soli 2013, №12, bo darnazardoshti sokhtori institutsionalii pechidai sohai ob jihati mushakhkhasgardonii munosibati bayni siyosat, tanzim, idorakuni va istifodabarivu nigohdori dar tamomi bakhshhoi sohai ob chorahoi ilovagi tahiya va amali namudan zarur ast.
  2. Garchand baze unsurhoi IHZO allakay dar sistemai idorakunii zakhirahoi ob dar Jumhurii Tojikiston vorid karda shuda boshand ham, sokhtoru mekhanizmhoi mavjudai pushonidani kharojot baroi amalisozii samaranoki IHZO musoid nestand.
  3. Dar sistemai mavjudai idorakuni, istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob takrorshavii funksiyahoi baze maqomot mushohida megardad. Baroi tashkili sistemai mukammal va jihati ba roh mondani idora va istifodai ustuvori zakhirahoi ob in nomuvofiqatiho dar doirai islohoti sohai ob boyad ba tanzim darovarda shavand.
  4. Rushdi institutsionali dar idorakunii zakhirahoi ob andeshidan va amali namudani tadbirhoi zerinro taqozo mekunad:

– guzarish az sokhtori idorakunii mamurivu hududi ba idorakuni dar hududhoi gidrologi yo gidrografi, ba monandi havzai daryoho, zerhavzaho, boloobi havzaho va sistemahoi obyori;

– hamohangsozii samaranok va paydarhami zersokhtorhoi gunogun dar doirai faoliyati sokhtori peshbaranda;

– tasisi sokhtori tashkilii samaranoki tashkilothoe, ki metavonand IHZO-ro jori namoyand, az jumla AIO-ho dar sathi poyon (mahal) dar asosi sarhadhoi gidrologi va gidrografi;

– behtar namudani munosibat bayni tashkilothoi khizmatrason va istifodabarandagon va kam kardani dakholati maqomoti mahalli dar masoili idorakunii zakhirahoi ob va peshnihodi khizmatrasoniho.

IV. ISLOHOTI SOHAI OB

1. MAQSAD VA VAZIFAHO

  1. Tahlili dar bolo ovardashudai sohai ob zarurati guzaronidani islohoti hamajonibaro bo maqsadi baland bardoshtani samaranokii idorakunii zakhirahoi ob, behtar namudani idorakuni bahri baland bardoshtani sifati khizmatrasoniho va pushonidani kharojoti soha ba tavri vozeh nishon medihad. Az sababi on, ki bakhshi kishovarzii obyorishavanda istifodabarandai asosii ob dar kishvar meboshad, islohoti sohai ob hamchun yak qismi islohoti agrarii hamajonibai soli 2009 ogoz gardida meboshad.
  2. Maqsadi islohoti mazkur “banaqshagiri, rushd va idorakunii samaranoki sohai ob dar asosi siyosati oqilona, tahlil va idorakunii mushtaraki hajm va sifati obhoi zerizamini vu ruizamini, muvozinati istifodai ob az jonibi bakhshhoi gunogun tavassuti istifodai havza va sistemahoi gidrografi hamchun mintaqai idorakuni ba manfiati rushdi balandi iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba tavri odilona, barobar va be rasonidani zarar ba suboti ekologi” meboshad.
  3. Noil gardidan ba maqsadi dar bolo zikrgardida ijroi chorahoi zerinro taqozo mekunad:

– guzarish az idorakunii hududivu mamurii zakhirahoi ob ba idorakuni dar hududhoi mintaqahoi gidrologi va gidrografi;

– tasisi sokhtori jumhuriyavie, ki mutobiqi IHZO faoliyat namuda, bo siyosat va sanadhoi meyorii huquqi tamin mekunad va sokhtorhovu guruhhoi manfiatdorro dar sathhoi gunogun az mahalli to baynalmilali ba tavri samaranok hamohang mesozad;

– tasisi sokhtorhoi idoravii shaffof va hisobotdihanda bo taqsimosti vazifahoi vobasta ba siyosatu rohnamoii strategi az yak jonib va ijroiya az jonibi digar, bo rioyai prinsiphoi zamonavii idorakuni va ijroi samaranok amalkunanda.

  1. Muhim ast, ki dar tamomi sathu marhilahoi islohoti institutsionali tamomi jonibhoi manfiatdor dar jarayoni banaqshagiri, qabuli qaror va amalisozii on ishtirok kunand, to masuliyati sohibiyati jarayonro his kunand va ba afzaliyatu nigaronihoi jamiyat etino kunand.

2. PRINSIPHOI ROHNAMO

  1. Islohoti sohai ob dar Tojikiston dar asosi yakchand prisiphoi rohnamo amali karda khohad shud, ki miyoni onho guzashtan ba IHZO, az jumla idorakunii havzavi va taqsimoti vazifahoi siyosivu idorakuni (tanzimkuni) az vazifahoi istehsoliyu khojagidori, az jumla dar istifodabari va nigohdorii infrasokhtori khizmatrasonii ob naqshi muhim mebozand.
2.1. IDORAI HAMGIROYONAI ZAHIRAHOI OB
  1. Jori namudani IHZO dar tajriba yake az sharthoi asosii muvaffaqqona amali namudani islohoti sohai ob meboshad. Tavsifhoi gunoguni IHZO vujud dorad va dar tajriba tamomi onho hamon yak prinsipro istifoda mebarand. Dar hujjati mazkur tavsife istifoda shudaast, ki dar Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston az mohi apreli soli 2012 ovarda shuda, ba sharoiti mahallii kishvar mutobiq karda shudaast. Mutobiqion mafhumi IHZO – sistemai idorakuni meboshad, ki bahisobgiri va tasiri mutaqobilai zakhirahoi ob (obhoi ruizamini, zerizamini va bozpasgashta) va zakhirahoi zamin, inchunin zakhirahoi digari tabiii ba onho vobastaro dar hududi muayyani gidrografi ba asos girifta, manfiati sohaho va sathhoi gunoguni istifodabarii ob va zakhirahoi tabiiro aloqamand mesozad va onhoro ba ravandi qabuli qaror, banaqshagiri, mablagguzori, hifz va rushdi zakhirahoi ob ba manfiati rushdi ustuvori jomea va hifzi muhiti zist jalb menamoyad.

Rasmi 1

  1. IHZO hamkorii ba ham payvasta va faoliyati amalii idorakunii zakhirahoi ob meboshad. Dar Barnomai mazkur etirof karda meshavad, ki sohai ob dar Jumhurii Tojikiston ahamiyati buzurg doshta, asosan dar sathi markazi tavassuti mutobiq namudani vazifahoi mushakhkhasi muayyan ba niyozi mahal dar holathoi zaruri tanzim karda meshavad.
  2. IHZO bar prinsiphoi zerin asos yoftaast:

– barqaror namudani munosibathoi dinamiki, hamohangshuda, paydarham va bisyorsohavi jihati istifodai zakhirahoi ob, az jumla muayyansozivu muhofizati sarchashmahoi ehtimolii tamini obi toza;

– banaqshagirii istifodai bosubot va oqilona, istifodai sarfakoronai zakhirahoi ob, ba nazar giriftani talabot va afzaliyathoi jomea va amalisozii barnomahoi siyosi va iqtisodii rushdi kishvar;

– tahiya, amalisozi va arzyobii loihavu barnomahoe, ki kamkharj va az nuqtai nazari ijtimoi qobili qabul buda, dar asosi strategiyahoi hamajoniba tarhrezi shudaand, ki ishtiroki vasei jomea, az jumla ishtiroki zanho, javonon, mardumi tahjoiro dar tashakkuli siyosat va halli mushkilotu nizo dar bar megirad;

– takmil va yo rushdi mekhanizmhoi zarurii tashkili, huquqi va moliyavi jihati tamini amalisozii begarazonai IHZO bo maqsadi tezonidani peshravii ijtimoii bosubot va rushdi iqtisodi.

  1. Dar sharoiti imruzai Jumhurii Tojikiston amali namudani tanho bakhshhoi asosii IHZO, ki az nuqtai nazari tekhniki, iqtisodi, ijtimoi, muhiti zist va siyosi zarurand, imkonpazir ast.
  2. Hususiyathoi khosi idorakunii hamgiroyonai ob dar JumhuriiTojikiston inhoyand:

– ahamiyati muhimi gidroenergetika;

– ahamiyati pardokhti haqqi khizmatrasonii ob;

– peshgirii kohishi obi zerizamini;

– ahamiyati dastrasi ba obi obyori;

– guzarish ba prinsiphoi idorakunii havzavi;

– zarurat ba ishtiroki jomea;

– zohir namudani diqqati makhsus ba osebpazirii mintaqahoi kuhi va tahkim namudani muhofizat az obkhezi.

  1. Az in lihoz tavsiyahoi zerini IHZO baroi Jumhurii Tojikiston peshnihod meshavad: “IHZO in hamkorii mutaqobilai zersokhtorhoi gunogun bo maqsadi dastrasii purrai aholi ba khizmatrasonii baland sifati ob va sanitariya, tamiini dastrasi ba ob baroi obyori, gidroenergetika, muhiti zist va digar istifoda barandagoni ob dar hududi havzai daryo va rioyai sarhadhoi gidrografii muayyanshuda meboshad. IHZO ba muhofizati zakhirahoi ob az istifodai az meyor ziyodu oludasozi musoidat namuda, hifzi muhiti osebpaziri kuhiston, sohili daryoho va manotiqi nazdi sohilii onro az obkhezi va farsudashavi tamin menamoyad, ishtiroki jomearo dar jarayoni qabuli qaror, banaqshagiri, mablagguzori va rushdi zakhirahoi ob ba manfiati rushdi ustuvori iqtisodi va ijtimoi tamin namuda, ba nigohdorii muhiti zist kumak merasonad.
2.2. IDORAKUNII HAVZAVi
  1. Banaqshagirii taqsimoti hamajonibai ob va rushdi zakhirahoi obro metavon tanho dar doirai havzai tabiii zakhirahoi ob tamin namud, zero tamomi korhoi dar bolo ob amalishavanda ba dastrasivu sifati ob dar poyonob tasiri bevosita merasonand. Az in lihoz chunin vohidi tabii yo havzai daryo chenaki behtarini idorakunii zakhirahoi ob meboshad. Havzaro metavon ba tavri zerin tavsif namud: hudude, ki ba on az yak rezishgoh ob jori shuda, bo digar sarchashmahoi ob dar boloob va mintaqai rezishi poyonob (bahr yo kul) hamsarhad meboshad. Dar holati ideali sarhadhoi gidrologii hududi jamshavii ob bo sarhadhoi havzaho muvofiq meoyad, lekin in na dar hamai holatho chunin shuda metavonad.
  2. Binobar in jori kardani idorakunii havzavii zakhirahoi ob, ki qismi tarkibii IHZO ba hisob meravad, yake az prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob etirof megardad.
2.3. TAQSIMOTI VAZIFAHOI SIYOSAT VA IDORAKUNi AZ VAZIFAHOI ISTEHSOLIYU HOJAGIDORi
  1. Bo maqsadi amalisozii samaranoki tamomi vazifahoi vobasta ba IHZO, taqsimosti judo kardani vazifahoi siyosi va qonunguzori (tashakkuli siyosat, qonunguzori), tashkili (banaqshagiri, idorakuni va tanzim) az vazifahoi vobasta ba istifoda (taminoti ob, khizmatrasoniho oid ba nigohdorivu tamiri sistema) zarur meboshad, ki in niz yake az prinsiphoi rohnamoi islohoti sohai ob ba hisob meravad.
2.4. PRINSIPHOI ILOVAGII ROHNAMOI HAVZAVi
  1. Bo darnazardoshti afzaliyatho, prinsiphoi zerin boyad rioya karda shavand: , muhiti zist boyad hamchun istifodabarandai ob etirof karda shuda, talaboti on ba ob boyad hatman ba inobat girifta shavad, zero dar holati vayronshavi yo zarar didan onro nametavon ba osoni bar qaror kard va yo metavon purra az dast dod; , hangomi muayyan namudani afzaliyathoi istifodai ob ba muvozinat ovardani talaboti tamomi bakhshho zarurast, to in ki istifodai ob dar yak bakhsh ba istifodai on az jonibi bakhshi digar tasir narasonad; , dar holathoi favqulodda tamini obi oshomidani boyad afzaliyatnok boshad, chunki on hayotan muhim ast.
  2. Azbaski ogozi islohoti institutsionali az hama jonib uhdadorii purraro talab mekunad, nihoyat ehtiyotkorona amal kardan zarur ast. Islohoti qisman amalishuda dar aksari holatho ba sistemai qisman amalkunanda ovarda merasonad, ki on metavonad ba sokhtorhoi mushakhkhas ba joi behtar namudan baraks zarar rasonad. Az in lihoz, to qadri imkon rioyai prinsiphoi asosi nihoyat muhim donista meshavad.

V. IHZO VA GUZARISH BA IDORAKUNII HAVZAVi

  1. Dar doirai islohoti sohai obi Tojikiston guzarish ba IHZO va idorakunii havzavi amali karda hohad shud.
  2. Sarhadi havzai daryoho mintaqai jugrofii tanzimi institutsionali, meyori va idorakunii istifodai obro tashkil karda, ilova ba obi majroi daryo obhoi zerizamini, chashma, kul, piryakh va digar namudhoi zakhirahoi obro dar bar megirad. Hangomi muayyan namudani sarhadhoi gidrologii havzaho yo zerhavzaho hamchun vohidi idorakunii ob sharthoi zerini tabiivu iqtisodi ba etibor girifta meshavand:

– sarhadhoijugrofii havzahoi daryoho;

– dastrasi ba tamomi qismhoi havza;

– vobastagii kori yakjoyayu purrai inshoothoi sistemahoi ob az munosibathoi iqtisodi;

– sathi rushdi iqtisodi va tavonoii tashkilothoi mahalli jihati qabuli qarorhoi mustaqilona oid ba maqsadhoi asosii idorakunii bo suboti zakhirahoi ob.

1. HAVZAHOI DARYOHO

  1. Bo darnazardoshti sarhadhoi gidrologi va sharthoi dar bolo zikrgardida sistemai daryohoi Jumhurii Tojikiston ba chor havzai daryo hamchun vohidhoi idorashavanda taqsim karda shudaast (rasmi 2.)
  2. Qismi tojikistonii havzai Sirdaryo az havzai daryoi Sir va shokhobhoi on dar hududi Tojikiston iborat ast. CHun vohidi idorakuni, havzai Sirdaryo, havzai daryoi Zarafshonro hamchun zerhavza dar hududi Tojikiston dar bar megirad. Daryohoi mazkur ahamiyati baynidavlati doshta, idorakunii zakhirahoi obi daryoi Sir inchunin dar robita bo qarorhoi Komissiyai bayni davlatii hamohangsozii khojagii obi kishvarhoi Osiyoi Markazi (minbad – KBHMO) tanzim karda meshavad.
  3. Havzai daryoi Kofarnihon az sistemai daryoi Kofarnihon va shokhobhoi on – Elok, Sarvo va Varzob iborat ast; qismi poyonobi sarhadhoi havzai daryo az hisobi shokhobhoi Kofarnihon tashakkul yoftaast. Ba qismi boloobi havzai daryoi Kofarnihon zerhavzai daryoi Qaratog, ki az sarhadi bayni jumhurihoi Tojikistonu Uzbekiston meguzarad, dokhil karda shuda, qismi boloobi havzai daryoi Surkhandaryoro tashkil medihad.
  4. Havzai daryoi Vakhsh tamomi daryoi Vakhsh va shokhobhoi onro ba istisnoi qismi az hama boloobi on, ki dar Qirgiziston joygir shudaast, dar bar megirad.
  5. Qismi tojikistonii havzai daryoi Panj mintaqai daryoi Panj va shokhobhoi dar Tojikiston joygirshudai onro dar bar megirad. Havza dar shimol va garb bo sarhadhoi havzai daryoi Vakhsh va dar janub bo majroi daryoi Panj (sarhadi bayni Tojikistonu Afgoniston) hamsarhad meboshad.
  6. Dar doirai islohoti sohai ob dar har yak havza va dar holati zaruri dar zerhavzaho tashkilothoi dakhldori havzavi, az qabili Tashkiloti havzavii daryo va SHuroi havzavii daryo tasis doda khohand shud.

Rasmi 2

2. VAZIFAHOI ASOSII TASHKILOTHOI HAVZAVi

  1. Tashkiloti havzavii daryo (minbad – THD). Vazifai asosii tashkilothoi havzavii daryo inhoyand:

– tahiyai naqshai solonai istifodai obi havza va hifzi on;

– naqshahoi miyonamuhlat va darozmuddati rushd va hifzi zakhirahoi ob;

– monitoringi taqsimoti ob va sifati on va peshnihodi didani chorahoi hatmi dar holathoi berun baromadan az naqsha;

– tahiya namudani naqshahoi past kardani oqibathoi khushksoli va obkhezi va monitoringi amalisozii onho;

– sanjishi vaziyati hifzi sohili daryoho va digar korhoi vobasta ba hifz az obkhezi va muayyan namudani korhoi tamirii zaruri dar sathi havza va zerhavzahoi muayyan.

  1. SHuroi havzavii daryo (minbad – SHHD). Vazifai asosii SHuroi havzavii daryo az inho iboratand:

– barrasi va tavsiyai naqshahoi mavsimii taqsimoti ob miyoni istifodabarandagoni gunogun va naqshahoi miyona va darozmuhlati rushdi zakhirahoi obi havza;

– mashvarat bo THD va digar jonibhoi manfiatdor oid ba ijroi voqeii in naqshaho;

– bayoni fikru aqida oid ba masoili gunoguni marbut ba idora, taqsimot, istifoda, hifz va sifati ob;

– rasonidani kumak va halli bahshoi bayni jonibhoi manfiatdor va istifodabarandagoni ob, assotsiatsiya va federatsiyahoi onho.

VI. RUSHDI INSTITUTSIONALII ISLOHOTI SOHAI OB

  1. Islohoti institutsionali, az jumla taqsimoti vazifahoi siyosi, tanzimkunivaidorakuni az vazifahoi istehsoliyu khojagidori qismi tarkibii islohoti sohai ob ba hisob meravad. Be guzaronidani chunin tagyirot dar sokhtori institutsionalii mavjuda samaranokii islohoti sohai ob gayriimkon khohad bud.
1. ISLOHOTI AMALISHUDAI INSTITUTSIONALi DAR SOHAI OB
  1. Islohoti institutsionali dar sohai ob (bo tavajjuhi khos ba obyori)asosan bo qabuli Farmoni Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston az 19 noyabri soli 2013, №12 ogoz yoft, ki tibqi on vazifahoi siyosivu idori az vazifahoi istehsoliyu khojagidori dar sohai ob az ham judo karda shudand.
  2. Mutobiqi in Farmon Vazorati energetika va sanoat ba Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston tabdil doda shuda, ba zimmai on peshburdi vazifahoi siyosivu idori (tanzimi) dar sohai ob voguzor karda shuda, hamzamon Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston bo vakolathoi ijroi vazifaho oid ba behdoshti zamin va obyori tasis doda shud.
  3. Hamzamon dar robita ba ijroi Farmoni mazkur bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 3 marti soli 2014, № 149, SHirkati sahomii kholdingii kushodai (minbad -SHSHK “Barqi Tojik”), ki masuli istifodabari va nigohdorii inshooti gidroenergetika meboshad, az hayati Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi ob barovarda shud.
  4. Hamin tariq, vazifahoi marbut ba istehsoliyu khojagidori, az jumla istifodabari va nigohdorii inshoothoi khizmatrasoni dar sohai ob komilan az vazifahoi Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi ob barovarda shuda, Vazorat tanho masuli vazifahoi siyosivu idori gasht, ki in javobgui yake az prinsiphoi rohnamoi islohoti sohai ob meboshad.
  5. Pesh az qabuli Farmoni dar bolo zikrshudai Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston niz yak qadami jiddi oid ba tagyiroti institutsionali guzoshta shuda bud. Tibqi qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 18 mayi soli 2012, № 247 Muassisai davlatii “Sarrayosati “Tojikobdehot”, ki dar nazdi sobiq Vazorati melioratsiya va zakhirahoi ob faoliyat mekard, ba hayati KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” guzaronida shud. Hamin tariq, dar jumhuri masalai tamini obi nushoki va sanitariya ham baroi shahr va ham baroi dehot zeri nazorati tashkiloti khizmatrasoni yagona ovarda shud, ki in niz ba prinsiphoi islohoti sohai ob muvofiq ast.

2. ISLOHOTI INSTITUTSIONALII SOHAI OB

  1. Islohoti institutsionalii sohai ob vorid kardani tagyiru ilovahoro ba tashkilothoi mavjudai sohai ob va tasisi tashkilothoi navro dar sathi milli, havzavi va zerhavzavi peshbini menamoyad.
2.1. COHTORHOI IHZO DAR SATHI JUMHURIYAVi
2.1.1 SOHTORHOI SIYOSi, TANZIMKUNANDA VA QONUNBARORi
2.1.1.1. SHuroi millii ob
  1. Islohoti sohai ob tasisi SHuroi millii obro peshbinimenamoyad, ki maqomi mashvaratiyu maslihatii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki faoliyati vazoratu idoraho va maqomoti digari davlati, inchunin tashkilothoi gayridavlatiro dar bobati banaqshagiri, idorakuni, istifodabari va hifzi zakhirahoi ob hamohang mesozad. Tasisi SHuroi millii ob tibqi tagyiroti ba Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar mohi apreli soli 2012 vorid kardashuda peshbini shudaast.
  2. Tibqi hadaf va prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob maqsad va vazifahoi SHuroi millii ob boyad inho boshand:

– qabul va rushdi siyosati davlati va qonunguzori dar sohai IHZO va istifodai samaranoku hifzi zakhirahoi ob;

– tahiya yo darkhosti tahiyai siyosat oid ba idorakunii zakhirahoi ob va hifzi muhiti zist;

– tashakkuli siyosat oid ba nazorati istifodai oqilonai zakhirahoi ob;

– dar holathoi zaruri tavsiya namudani mahdudiyathoi istifodai ob baroi istifodabarandagoni on;

– vusati siyosati sarmoyaguzori oid ba rushd, istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob;

– tahiya va idorakunii sozishnomahoi baynalmilali dar samti istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob;

– tashakkuli siyosat jihati didani choraho oid ba istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob dar natijai tasiri tagyiryobii iqlim.

  1. Ayni zamon dar kishvar SHuroi hamohangsozii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba masalahoi obu energetika amal mekunad, ki qisman in vazifahoro ijro mekunad. Ba SHuro Sarvaziri Jumhurii Tojikiston rohbari karda, rohbaroni vazoratu idorahoi dakhldori jumhuri azoi on meboshand. Ba hayati on vorid namudani rohbaroni baze tashkilothoi khizmatrason, az jumla KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali”, SHSHK “Barqi Tojik”, Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyori va Hadamoti sanitariyu epidemiologi ba maqsad muvofiq ast.
  2. Bo darnazardoshti in dar doirai islohoti sohai ob zarur ast, ki yo SHuroi hamohangsozi nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba masalahoi obu energetika ba SHuroi millii ob bo vakolathoi bolozikr tabdil doda shavad va yo in ki ba vakolathoi on vakolathoi muvofiqi SHuroi millii obi peshbinishavanda vorid karda shuda, faoliyati on jonnok karda shavad. Dar in zamina ba hayati on vorid kardani rohbaroni hamai tashkilothoi sathi jumhuriyavii faoliyatashon marbut ba ob niz lozim ast.

Rasmi 3

2.1.1.2. Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston
  1. Vazorati energetika va zakhirahoi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston (minbad – VEZO JT) maqomi peshbaranda va amalikunandai asosii islohoti sohai ob va jori namudani IHZO khohad bud. Dar in robita naqsh va vazifahoi asosii VEZO JT chunin khohand bud: , hamohangsozii siyosati umumi dar sohai obi jumhuri va amalisozii strategiyai IHZO dar asosi idorakuni dar sathi havzai daryo;

– muayyan namudani maqsad va vazifahoi millii rushdi zakhirahoi ob, hifz va nigohdorii in zakhiraho baroi naslhoi oyanda;

– tahiya va jori namudani amalisozii zaminai mukammali qonunguzori va mekhanizmhoi tanzim (qoida, meyor va standartho) oid ba idorakunii bosuboti zakhirahoi ob, az jumla obhoi baynisarhadi;

– muayyan namudani hajmi obgiri baroi istifodabarandagon tibqi meyorhoi muqarargardida;

– tashkili idorakunii havzavii daryoho tavassuti tasis dodani tashkilothoi makhsus dar hududi havza va zerhavzaho.

2.1.1.3. Kumitai hifzi muhiti zisti nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston (minbad – KHMZ HJT)
  1. KHMZ H JT masuli dodani ijozati istifodai makhsusi ob va partovhoi obi buda, hamzamon nazorati davlatiro dar sohai hifzi muhiti zist, az jumla zakhirahoi ob amali menamoyad. Dar in robita naqshu vazifahoi asosii KHMZ HJTchunin khohand bud: , tahiyai siyosatu strategiya oid ba muhiti zist bo ishorai makhsus ba hifzi zakhirahoi ob az nuqtai nazari muhiti zist;

– tahiyai meyoru standarthoi khosi muhiti zist oid ba banaqshagiri, tarhrezi, sokhtmon va amalisozii tamomi infrasokhtori ob;

– omukhtani holati piryakhho va digar zakhirahoi ob, ravandhoi tagyiryobii iqlim, guzaronidani monitoringi iflosshavii obhoi ruizamini, peshguii padidahoi tabiii gidrometeorologi va tahiyai chorahoi milli oid ba mutobiqshavi va istodagari ba tagyiroti iqlim, az jumla dar sohai ob;

– tamini amalisozii qonunhoi mavjuda va ishtirok dar tahiyai qonunguzorii nav oid ba nazorati oludasozii zakhirahoi ob va inchunin nazorati sifati ob az nuqtai nazari muhiti zist;

– tahiyai qoida, meyor va standarthoi oludasozii muhiti zist vobasta ba ob ba monandi tasiri partovob;

– bameyordarori va dodani ijozati istifodai makhsusi ob ba subekthoi khojagidori;

– dodani ijozati meyori partovhoi obi ba obektho.

2.1.1.4. Saridorai geologiyai nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston (minbad – SIG HJT)
  1. Saridorai geologiyai nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar jodai istifodai zakhirahoi obhoi zerizamini va nigohdorii onho dar hamkorii nazdik bo KHMZH JT faoliyat mekunad. Dar in robita naqshu vazifahoi asosii SIG HJT chunin khohand bud:

– tahiyai strategiyavu mekhanizmhoi hifzi sifat va hajmi obhoi zerizamini;

– ishtirok dar tahiyai dasturulamalhoi muayyan namudani kharojot va narkhnomai tavassuti poygohho kashida barovardani obhoi zerizamini va chenakhoi sifat va jori namudani chunin chenakho;

– ishtirok dar tahiya va amalisozii Kodeksi ob va qonunhoi dakhldor bo etibori makhsus ba obhoi zerizamini;

– amalisozii qoidavu standarthoi milli oid ba istifoda va rushdi zakhirahoi obi zerizamini.

2.1.1.5. Hadamoti nazorati davlatii bekhatarii korho dar sanoat va sohai kuhkorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston
  1. Hadamoti nazorati davlatii bekhatarii korho dar sanoat va sohai kuhkorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston (minbad – HNDBKSK HJT) minbad niz faoliyati khudro dar samthoi zerin davom khohad dod:

– muvofiqa namudani loihai ijozat baroi istifodai obhoi madani, tabobati va garmi tabii;

– nazorat oid ba partoftani obhoi partov va tekhniki ba kovokihoi qishri zamin;

– rioyai qoidahoi bekhatari dar sohai korkardi sanoati;

– monitoringi obhoi partovi sanoati va digar vazifaho tibqi vakolathoi muqarrargardida.

2.1.2. SOHTORHOI IJROIYA – TASHKILOTHOI HIZMATRASON DAR SOHAI OB
  1. Vazifahoi vobasta ba istifodai ob az jonibi tashkilothoi gunoguni khizmatrason vobasta az namudi istifodai ob amali karda khohand shud. Tibqi vazifahoi allakay muayyangardida Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston masuli khizmatrasoni dar bakhshi obyori va behdoshti zamin, KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” masuli khizmatrasoni dar bakhshi tamini obi nushoki va sanitariya (kanalizatsiya), SHSHK “Barqi Tojik” masuli khizmatrasoni dar bakhshi gidroenergetika meboshand.

2.1.2.1. Agentii behdoshti zamin va obyorii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston (minbad – ABZO HJT)

  1. ABZO HJT tibqi prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob baroi khizmatrasonihoi obyori va behdoshti zamin masul buda, tatbiqi siyosat va strategiyahoro oid ba istifodai samaranoki obi obyori dar sathi bakhsh, peshgirii istifodai az meyor ziyodi ob va beobshaviro tavassuti jori namudani tekhnologiyahoi sarfakori ob va kam kardani talafoti ob, istifoda va nigohdorii infrasokhtori obyori va zahkashi amali khohad kard.
  2. Hizmatrasonihoi obyori va zahkashi az jonibi ABZO HJT dar sathi mamuriyu hududi va dar holati zaruri dar sathi havza, zerhavza va sistemahoi obyori dar hamkori bo AIO-ho va Federatsiyahoi AIO peshnihodkarda meshavand.
  3. ABZO HJT metavonad dar robita bo islohoti sohai ob va guzarish ba idorakunii hamgiroishudai zakhirahoi ob, az jumla idorakunii havzavi, islohoti bakhshi obyori va behdoshti zaminro guzaronad. Islohoti mazkur metavonad idorakunii sistemahoi obyoriro dar sathi havza, zerhavza va sistemahoi obyori jori namoyad, ki in ba prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob muvofiq khohad bud.
  4. Bo darnazardoshti amali namudani islohoti sohai ob dar bakhshi behdoshti zamin va obyori, ABZOHJT metavonad naqshu vazifahoi zerinro amali namoyad:

– tahiyai maqsadu vazifaho va strategiyai istifodai samaranoki obi obyori, peshgirii istifodai az meyor ziyod va beobshavi;

– tahiyai mekhanizmhoi hifzi sifat va hajmi obi obyori;

– tahiyai barnomahoi mushakhkhas bo darnazardoshti arzishi ijtimoivu iqtisodii ob baroi obyori, az jumla jori namudani sistemai pushonidani kharojoti khizmatrasonihoi obyori va zahbari;

– tamini suboti muhiti zist dar jarayoni meyorbandi, banaqshagiri, tarhrezi, sokhtmon va istifodai loihahoi rushdi infrasokhtori obyori;

– amali namudani talaboti Naqshai idorai hamgiroyonai zakhirahoi obi havzai daryo dar hududi shabakahoi obyori dar hamohangsozi bo sokhtorhoi sharik;

– amali namudani korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti, loihakashi va tajribaviyu navovari dar bakhshi behdoshti zamin va obyori;

– ishtirok va guzoshtani hissa jihati tahiya va amalisozii Kodeksi ob va qonunhoi dakhldor, khususan vobasta ba bakhshi obyori.

2.1.2.2. KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” (minbad-KVD “HMK”)
  1. KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” tibqi prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob tashkiloti khizmatrason dar bakhshi tamini obi nushoki va sanitariya ba hisob rafta, tavassuti shirkathoi farii khud in khizmatrasonihoro dar sathi shahrho va dehot amali menamoyad. Dar shahrhoi nisbatan kalon boshad, khizmatrasonii obtaminkuni va sanitariya az jonibi idorahoi obu korezi nazdi maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati (masalan, KVD “Obu korezi sh. Dushanbe”, KVD “Obu korezi sh. Hujand”) amali karda meshavand.
  2. Dar doirai islohotiin korkhona dar nazar ast, ki dar sokhtori KVD “Hojagii manziliyu kommunali” shirkathoi mintaqavii ob, ki tamomi markazhoi shahrhoi khurd, shahrak va dehoti kishvarro faro megirad, tasis doda meshavand. Oid ba taminoti ob dar shahrhoi kalonu khurd boshad, shirkathoe tasisdoda khohand shud, ki korhoi amaliro ijro namuda, jihati amalisozii korhoi kalonhajm va vazifahoi nisbatan mushkil az jonibi shirkathoi mintaqavii ob dastgiri shuda, ba hamin vasila az sarfa namudani zakhiraho az jihati hajmi kor bahra khohand burd. Vazifahoi mushakhkhasi shirkathoi mintaqavi dar jarayoni islohot muayyan karda khohad shud. Dar amalisozivu rushdi mekhanizmi pushonidani purrai kharojot mustaqiliyat va khudmablagguzorii in shirkathoi mintaqavi dar nazar doshta shudaast.
2.1.2.3. SHSHK “Barqi Tojik”
  1. SHSHK “Barqi Tojik” tibqi prinsiphoi asosii islohoti sohai ob minbad niz faoliyati khudro hamchun tashkiloti khizmatrason dar bakhshi gidroenergetika dar samti idorai operativi, istifoda va nigohdorii inshoothoi gidroenergetiki idoma hohad dod.
  2. Bakhshi gidroenergetikai Tojikiston az jihati foidanoki dar oyanda na tanho dar sathi kishvar, balki dar sathi mintaqavi niz doroi iqtidori buzurg khohad mond. Baroi hamajoniba payvand namudani sohai gidroenergetika ba jarayoni IHZO amalisozii chorahoi zerin tavsiya doda meshavad: , amali namudani chorahoi dar barnomahoi gunogun (milli va mintaqavi), ba monandi Barnomai rushdi ob va energetika dar Osiyoi Markazi peshbinishuda;

– behtar namudani hamohangsozii gidroenergetika va istifodai zakhirahoi ob dar digar bakhshho dar doirai SHuroi millii ob;

– jori namudani peshbinii rejaikori nerugohhoi barqi obi dar naqshai solonai havzaho;

– amalisozii loihahoi sokhtmoni obanborhoi miyona va kalonhajmi az nuqtai nazari tekhniki va iqtisodi imkonpazir dar havzahoi hama daryoho;

– arzyobii choraho oid ba behtar namudani taminoti barq dar mohhoi zimiston dar mintaqahoe, ki NBO-hoi khurd bo quvvai barq tamin mekunad, masalan istifodai tekhnologiyai sarfai nerui barq va taminoti ilovagi az jonibi NBO-hoi buzurg tavassuti shabakai umumii taminoti barq.

2.1.2.4. Digar tashkilothoi khizmatrason
  1. Korkhonahoi sanoati asosan tavassuti istifodai zakhirahoi dokhilii khudi korkhonaho yo tashkilothoi makhsusi khizmatrason bo ob tamin karda meshavand.
  2. Sohai mohiparvari jihati taminoti ob asosan bo ABZO HJT va VEZO JT hamkori namuda, kharojoti taminotro az hisobi mablaghoi khud amali menamoyad.
  3. Tamini chorahoi hifzi muhiti zist bo ob az jonibi KHMZ HJT dar hamkori bo vazoratu tashkilothoi khizmatrasoni davlati va gayridavlati, inchunin, tashkilothoi gayridavlatii bo jomeai shahrvandi aloqamandidoshta amali karda khohad shud.
  4. Istifodai ob dar muassisahoi rekreatsioni (solimgardoni) az jonibi maqomoti dakhldori dar bakhshi rushdi turizm, az jumla shirkathoi sayyohi va/yo namoyandagihoi turisti, faoliyatdoshta dar hamkori bo muassisai davlatii obrason va/yo tanzimkunandai masalahoi istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob, az hisobi mablaghoi khudi onho amali gardonida meshavad.
  5. Tashkilothoi khizmatrason oid ba dastras namudani ob muvofiqi prinsiphoi zamonavii ba talaboti mizoj nigaronidashuda faoliyat namuda, dar holathoi dakhldor, pushonidani purrai kharojot mutobiqi prinsiphoi “istifodabaranda va oludakunanda pardokht mekunad” amali karda khohad shud.
2.2. COHTORHOI IHZO DAR SATHI HAVZAHO VA ZERHAVZAHO
2.2.1. TASHKILOTI HAVZAVII DARYOHO (minbad-THD)
  1. Tashkilothoi havzavii daryoho baroi har yak havzai muayyanshuda va dar holati zaruri dar zerhavzaho dar nazdi VEZO JT tasis doda shuda, oid ba masoili banaqshagiri va monitoringi idorakunii zakhirahoi ob va amalisozii naqshai havzavi masul khohand bud.
  2. Dar in zamina, dar nazdi VEZO JT chor tashkiloti havzavii daryoho, az jumla THD “Sir”, THD “Kofarnihon”, THD “Vakhsh” va THD “Panj” tasis doda meshavand.
  3. Bo darnazardoshti mavqei jugrofi va tamini idorakunii operativii zakhirahoi ob, bad az tasisi THD-hoi bolozikrshuda tashkilothoi zerhavzavii daryo dar hududi zerhavzahoi Boloobi Panj, Boloobi Vakhsh va Poyonobi Kofarnihon va inchunin dar havzai daryoi Zarafshon ba naqsha girifta shudaast.
  4. Dar nazar ast, ki faoliyati THD-ho dar 2-3 soli avval ba tavri tashkili guruhhoi kori dar hayati Mukolamai havzavii daryoho bo dastgirii sharikoni rushd amali karda shuda, badan onho ba THD tabdil doda shuda, faoliyati onho bo mablagguzori az bujeti jumhuriyavi (VEZO JT) ba roh monda khohad shud.
  5. Vazifahoi asosii THD iboratand az:

– tahiyai naqshahoi mavsimi, miyonamuddat va darozmuddati istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob va barnomahoi rushdi havzahoi daryo;

– nazorati taqsimot va sifati ob, peshnihodi chorahoi peshgirii rioya nanamudani sharthoi naqshahoi qabulgashta;

– mushohida va nazorati sifati ijroi khizmatrasoni dar amali namudani taqsimoti ob va zahburu zahkashi, inchunin obhoi kanalizatsiya;

– baqaydgiri va nigohdorii ruykhati ijozatnomaho oid ba istifoda va partofti ob, pahn namudani malumot baroi tashkilothoi dakhldor oid ba taqsimoti ob;

– hamohangsozii tashkilotho va istifodabarandagoni ob dar havza va halli bahshoi bayni onho.

2.2.2. SHUROHOI HAVZAVII DARYOHO (minbad-SHHD)
  1. SHurohoi havzavii daryoho dar hamai chor havza (Sir, Kofarnihon, Vakhsh, Panj) va dar holati zaruri dar sathi zerhavza tasis doda shuda, platformai namoyandagii sharikoni gunogunro tashkil medihad.
  2. SHHD huquqi dastrasi ba malumot doshta, dar jarayoni qabuli qaror oid ba idorakunii zakhirahoi ob ishtirok khohand kard. SHHD manfiati tamomi istifodabarandagoni ob va digar sharikoni manfiatdorro peshburda, dar hayati khud namoyandagoni jomeai shahrvandii dar idorai ob manfiatdorro niz khohand dosht.
  3. Muhimtarin vazifai SHHD peshnihodi qanoatbakhsh dar istifoda, hifz va rushdi manbahoi ob, nazorati samaranoki istifoda va hifzi on ba THD meboshand. Vazifahoi digari SHHD az inho iboratand:

– jamovarii malumot az tashkilotkho oid ba taqsimot, obrasoni va sifati on dar chorchubai naqshahoi solona va peshnihod oid ba behtar namudani onho;

– jamovarii fikru aqidahoi tarafhoi manfiatdor oid ba: (1) idora va tanizimi zakhirahoi ob; (2) taqsimoti ob (3) sifati ob; (4) sifati khizmatrasoni va rasonidani malumot oid ba on ba THD;

– dastgirii halli fasli bahsho bayni istifodabarandagon yo guruhhoi onho va peshnihodi taklifho oid ba fasli bahsho.

  1. Hayatishakhsii SHHD-ro hangomi tasisdihii on metavon muayyan kard va on metavonad az namoyandagoni kategoriyahoi gunoguni istifodabarandagoni ob va jomeai shahrvandi iborat boshad.
  2. Faoliyati SHHD dar asosi Oinnoma, ki az tarafi SHuro tasdiq megardad, ba roh monda meshavad. Azbaski guzarish ba IHZO jarayoni darozmuddat meboshad, SHHD metavonad inchunin hamchun platformai mukolamai siyosii sathi havza oid ba IHZO faoliyat kunad.
2.2.3. ASSOTSIATSIYAHOI ISTIFODABARANDAGONI OB VA FEDERATSIYAHOI AIO
  1. Mutobiqi qonunguzorii amalkunanda, Assotsiatsiyahoi istifodabarandagoni ob (AIO) ba istifoda va nigahdorii shabakahoi obyori va zahbari dar sathi dokhilikhojagi va dar baze holatho dar sathi baynikhojagi huquq dorand. Zarur ast, ki hududi khizmatrasonii AIO-ho va federatsiyahoi AIO-ho bo sarhadhoi gidrografii qismathoi sistemahoi obyori va dar holathoi lozima muvofiqan ba qismati sarhadhoi zerhavzaho muqarrar karda shavand.

VII. TAKMILI QONUNGUZORi DAR DOIRAI ISLOHOTI SOHAI OB

  1. Islohoti sohai ob guzarish ba shaklhoi navi idorakuni, tasisi instituthoi nav va takmili jiddii qonunguzorii joriro talab menamoyad. Be tahiyai zaminai mustahkami huquqi guzaronidani chunin tagyirot va samaranok amali namudani islohoti sohai ob gayriimkon khohad bud. Tagyirot boyad dar hamohangsozi bo vazoratu maqomotidakhldor vorid karda shavad.
  2. Takmili qonunguzorii amalkunanda tavassuti vorid namudani tagyiru ilovaho ba qonunho va sanadhoi meyorii huquqii mavjuda va inchunin tahiyai qonunho va sanadhoi meyoriyu huquqii nav amali karda khohad shud.

1. TAGYIRU ILOVAHO BA QONUNGUZORII AMALKUNANDA

  1. Baroi muvaffaqqona amali namudani islohoti sohai ob vorid namudani tagyiru ilovaho ba qonunhoi zerin zarur meboshad:

– Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston – tagiyru ilovahoi muvofiq jihati jori namudani IHZO dar havzahoi daryo va bo maqsadi tamini paydarhamii dokhili dar jori namudani vositahoi iqtisodii khizmatrasonii ob, mushakhkhasan muayyan namudani namudhoi faoliyati tashkilothoi davlatii ba idora va hifzi zakhirahoi ob jalbgardida, vusat dodani faoliyati hifzi sifat va miqdori zakhirahoi ob, khususan obhoi zerizamini va qabili inho;

– Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai assotsiatsiyahoi istifodarandagoni ob” tagiyru ilovaho baroi ba tanzim darovardani munosibatho oid ba tasisi federatsiyahoi AIO, andozsupori, huquqi molikiyat, tartibi muayyan kardan va jarayoni jamovarii haqqi khizmati obrasoni, mushakhkhas muayyan namudani huquqi khudi AIO-ho, tanzimi masalahoi aloqamandii huquqii khojagidorii AIO bo digar qonunguzorii ba faoliyati AIO aloqamand va digar masalahoi qabili inho;

– Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai obi nushoki va taminion” – tagyiru ilovaho baroi halli masalhoi andozbandi, sohibmulki, ishtiroki bakhshi khususi dar idora kardani sistemahoi obtaminkuni, tanzimi huquqii tarifhoi khizmatrasoni, tanzimihuquqii meyor va standartho, tartibi tanzimi tamin namudani sifati obi nushokii az tarafi khizmatrason ba istifodabarandagon rasonidashavanda, tanzimi mushakhkhas muayyan namudani huquqi istifodabarandagoni ob va digar masalahoi ba tanzimi huquqi niyozdoshta.

– dar mavridi zarurat vorid namudani tagyiru ilovaho baqonunho baroi oson kardani tatbiqi qonunguzori oid ba ob.

  1. Hangomi takmil dodani qonunguzorii ob tajribai peshqadami baynalmilali boyad ba etibor giriftashuda, dar mavridi zaruri ba sharoiti ijtimoivu iqtisodi va infrasokhtori Tojikiston mutobiq karda shavand.
  2. Tagyiru ilovaho inchunin ba baze sanadhoi meyorii huquqii mavjuda niz zarur meboshand, ki qisme az onho dar poyon ovarda shudaand: , Nizomnoma dar borai vakolathoi maqomoti makhsusi vakolatdori davlati oid ba idorakunii istifodabari va hifzi zakhirahoi ob bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 4 fevrali soli 2002, №39 tasdiq shudaast. Bo darnazardoshti tagyiroti baamalomada, makhsusan baroi guzashtan ba IHZO, tahiyai loihai navi Nizomnomai mazkur zarur ast, ki javobgui tatbiqi islohoti sohai ob boshad;

– Barrasi va takmil dodani Nizomnomahoi VEZO JT va ABZO HJT va digar tashkilothoi sohai ob baroi bartaraf namudani takrorshavii funksiyaho, mutobiq namudani vazifahoyu faoliyati in tashkilotho ba prinsiphoi islohoti sohai ob.

2. TAHIYAI QONUNHO VA SANADHOI MEYORIYU HUQUQII NAV

  1. Tahiyai qonunho va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqii nav baroi muvaffaqqona amali namudani islohoti sohai ob zarur meboshad.
  2. Az jonibi ABZO HJT loihai Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai behdoshti zamin va obyori” tahiya karda shudaast, ki munosibathoro dar bakhshi obyori va behdoshti zamin ba tanzim medarorad. Qabuli Qonuni mazkur beshubha baroi peshrafti bakhshi mazkur naqshi muhim khohad bozid.
  3. Tahlili peshakii qonunguzorii jori oid ba masalahoi ob (talaboti islohoti sohai ob, guzarish ba IHZO va jori namudani idorakunii khavzavi) nishon medihad, ki zarurati tahiyai loihai navi Kodeksi obi Jumhurii Tojikiston pesh omadaast.
  4. Tasisi tashkilothoi nav dar sathi havza va zerhavzaho zarurati tahiya va qabuli nizomnomahoi (oinnomahoi) tashkilothoi havzavii daryoho, SHurohoi havzavii daryoho, inchunin digar sanadhoi tanzimkunandai munosibati in tashkilotho bo istifodabarandagoni ob va digar sharikonro ba miyon meorad.
  5. Dar surati muvofiqa shudani barhamdihii SHuroi mavjudai hamohangsozii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba masalahoi obu energetika, zarurati tahiya va qabuli Nizomnomai (Oinnomai) SHuroi millii ob ba miyon meoyad.

VIII. VOSITAHOI KUMAKRASONI TATBIQI ISLOHOTI SOHAI OB

1. MALUMOTI UMUMi

  1. Garchande takmili sistemai idorakuni, guzarish ba IHZO dar hududi havzai daryoho baroi rushdi oyandai iqtisodiyoti mamlakat va baland bardoshtani sathi zindagonii mardum maqsadhoi asosii islohoti sohai ob boshand ham, be tatbiqi tadbirhoi ilovagi tamin namudani muvaffaqiyati islohoti sohai ob mushkil meboshad. Vositahoi dastgirii islohot janbahoi gunoguni idorakunii zakhirahoi obro faro girifta, baroi maqsadi islohoti mazkur boyad chorahoi zerin amali karda shavand:

– tahkimi iqtidori tashkilothoi masul va istifodabarandagoni ob;

– tasisi mahzani malumot va sistemai ittilooti oid ba IHZO;

– hamkorii baynalmilali dar sohai zakhirahoi ob;

– ishtiroki istifodabarandagoni ob va jomeai shahrvandi dar istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob;

– ishtiroki sharikoni rushd va donorho dar tatbiqi barnomai islohot.

  1. Amali namudani vositahoi dastgirii dar bolo zikrgardida darajai balandi takhassusi ishtirokkunandagoni amali namudani chorahoi peshbinigardida va tajhizoti hozirazamoni idori va tashkhisiro talab menamoyad. Az in lihoz, taqriban aksariyati in choraho boyad, ki dar hamkori va bo dastgirii sharikoni rushd, bo ishtiroki mutakhassisoni varzidai baynalmilali amali karda shavand.

2. TAHKIMI IQTIDORI TASHKILOTHOI MASULI IDORAKUNII ZAHIRAHOI OB VA ISTIFODABARANDAGONI OB

  1. Baroi tahkimi iqtidori tashkilothoi masuli idorakunii zakhirahoi ob va istifodabarandagoni ob dar doirai islohoti sohai ob boyad chorahoi gunoguni omuzishi az sathi poyoni dar sahro to kormandonu rohbariyati tashkilothoi masul dar sathi boloi andeshida shuda, barnomahoi sayyori talimi baroi shinosoi bo tajribai peshkadami baynalmilali oid ba istifoda va hifzi zakhirahoi ob tashkil karda shavand, tashkilothoi masul va istifodabarandagoni ob bo tajhizoti hozirazamoni idori va tashkhisi, vositahoi aloqa, amsilahoi kompyuterii tahlili malumot va hisobhoi gidrologi, obtaqsimkuni va hisobi inshoothoi gidrotekhniki tamin karda shavand. Dar jarayoni islohot boyad chorahoi ziyodi ba in monand amali karda shavand.
  2. Tashkil va guzaronidani korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti, ki baroi rushdi sohai ob dar davrai hozira zarurand, yake az vazifahoi afzaliyatnoki soha meboshad. Dar jarayoni amali namudani islohot ahamiyat ba pajuhishgohhoi ilmi-tadqiqotii soha boyad ziyod karda shuda, mablagguzori ba korhoi ilmi-tadqiqotii baroi soha muhim oid ba takmili konstruksiyahoi inshoothoi sohilmustahkamkuni, jori namudani tekhnologiyahoi sarfakori obyori, behtar namudani holati meliorativii zaminho, jori namudani uslulhoi samaranoki banaqshagiri va idora namudani zakhirahoi ob ziyod karda shavad.

3. MAHZANI MALUMOT VA SISTEMAI ITTILOOTI IHZO

  1. Makhzani malumot talaboti asosii idorakunii namudhoi mukhtalifi infrasokhtor va istifodabarandagoni gunoguni ob meboshad. Istifodai zakhirahoi ob va idorakunivu nigohdorii samaranoki infrasokhtor vazifahoi muhimi strategi va majmui meboshand.
  2. Malumot oid ba zakhirahoi ob, holati tekhnikii infrasokhtori ob va sharoiti tekhnikivu arzishi imruzai onho dar bayni vazoratu sokhtorhoi gunogun dar shaklhoi mukhtalif vujud dorad. Baze namudhoi malumot tanho dar loihahoi mushakhkhas vujud dorand va onho pas az khotimai loiha shoyad purra az bayn burda shavand. Formati malumot az shakli chopi to raqami, hamchunin nihoyat gunogun meboshad.
  3. Az in lihoz, tashkili sistemai yagonai ittiloot, ki qobili istifodai bosamar boshad, baroi tatbiqi islohoti sohai ob dastgirii zarur khohad shud.
  4. Makhzani malumot va sistemai ittilooti IHZO tasis doda shuda, boyad doroi portali bayniidoravi bo sathhoi gunoguni dastrasi baroi istifodabarandagoni gunogun boshad. Malumot va ittilooti ba tavri ommavi dastras boyad dar somonai makhsusi internet joygir karda shavad. Tasisi makhzani malumot va sistemai ittilooti IHZO tamomi makhzanhoi malumoti loihahoi gunoguni vobasta ba sohai ob tatbiqshuda va oyandaro muttahid va munosib megardonad.

4. HAMKORII BAYNALMILALi DAR SOHAI OB

  1. Istifodai behtari zakhirai obhoi daryohoi faromarzi ba hamkorii zichi bayni kishvarhoi hamsoya niyoz dorad. Az in lihoz, hamkori va hamgiroii bayni kishvarhoi hamsoyai nazdisohili dar tamini istifodai bosuboti ob baroi naslhoi oyanda naqshi muhim mebozad.
  2. Jumhurii Tojikiston hamchun tashabbuskori asosii Soli baynalmilalii obi toza (2003), Dahsolai baynalmilalii amaliyoti “Ob baroi hayot” (2005-2015), inchunin Soli baynalmillalii hamkori dar sohai ob (2013) meboshad. Mutanosiban, kishvar ba amalisozii sarivaqtii barnomai obi SMM va chorahoi dakhldori amali jihati tadrijan hal namudani mushkiloti ziyodi vobasta ba idorakunii ob nihoyat havasmand ast.
  3. JumhuriiTojikiston yake az asosguzoron va uzvi faoli Fondi baynalmilalii najoti Aral (minbad – FBNA), Komissiyai baynidavlati oid ba rushdi ustuvor va Komissiyai baynidavlatii hamohangsozii hojagii obi Osiyoi Markazi (minbad – KBHO) meboshad. Az in lihoz Jumhurii Tojikiston, bo nazardoshti manofei kishvarhoi nazdi sohili boyad az zakhirahoi obi dar ikhtiyor doshtaash oqilona istifoda namoyad.

5. ISHTIROKI ISTIFODABARANDAGON VA JOMEAI SHAHRVANDi DAR ISTIFODA VA HIFZI ZAHIRAHOI OB

  1. Sistemai oyandai idorai zakhirahoi ob dar Jumhurii Tojikiston bo ishtiroki faoli tashkilotho va istifodabarandagon iob, bakhshi khususi dar tahiyai siyosat va strategiyaho, tahiya va tatbiqi barnomaho inchunin dar ravandi qabuli qarorho asos khohad dosht. Ishtiroki bakhshi khususi dar rushdi sohai ob dar asosi qonunguzorii JumhuriiTojikiston oid ba hamkorii davlatu bakhshi khususi surat girifta, baroi rushdi bosuboti iqtisodiyot dar sohai ob nakshi muhim mebozad.
  2. Ishtiroki faoli jomeai shahrvandi dar tashakkuli siyosati istehsoli va qonunguzorihamchun namoyandagoni jomea, ichunin sahmi istifodabarandagoni ob dar tanzim va istifodai oqilona va ustuvori zakhirahoi ob, nigohdorii infrasokhtorhoi ob, naqshasozi va tamini ob muvofiqi niyozi mardum bo meyorhoi muqarrarshuda ahamiyati muhim dorad. Az in lihoz tasis va rushdi tashkilothoi istifodabarandagoni ob (AIO) ba dastgirii davlati va gayridavlati niyozi mubram dorad.
  3. Baroi tamini ishtiroki faoli tarafhoi manfiatdor tashkilothoi davlati az se zinai hamkori istifoda mebarand. Dar zinai avval SHuroi hamohangsozii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba masalahoiobu energetika naqshi minbari ishtirokro baroi tashkilothoi davlatii sathi milli mebozad. Dar nazar ast, ki dar jarayoni tatbiqi islohoti sohai ob vazifahoi felii SHuroi mazkur ba SHuroi millii ob voguzor karda shavad. Dar sharoiti hozira Mukolamai millii siyosi dar sohai IHZO (minbad -MMS IHZO) naqshi minbari guftugui manfiatdoroni milli va sharikoni khorijiro ijro menamoyad.
  4. Tatbiqi Barnomai islohoti sohai ob hamchunin dar nazar dorad, ki dar sathi havzahoi daryoho shurohoi havzavi tashkil doda shavand, to dar on joy ham sharikoni sohavi va ham manfiatdoroni shahrvandi shirkati barobarona doshta, bo ham dar ravandi banaqshagiri va tatbiqi barnomahoi tanzim, taqsimot va istifodabarii ob, monitoringi peshrafti barnomaho, halli bahshoi bayni istifodabarandagon zich hamkori namoyand.
  5. Dar sathi poyoni tashkilothoi khizmatrason ishtiroki istifodabarandagonro (taminoti obi nushoki, obyori va gayra) dar ravandi banaqshagiri va taqsimoti ob, bo darnazardoshti niyozi mardum va dastrasii zakhirahoi ob, tamin menamoyand.
  6. Dar sharoiti hozirai Tojikiston ahamiyati masalahoi genderi dar sohahoi gunoguni iqtisodiyot, khususan dar kishovarzii obyori baland shudaast. Vobasta ba in dar jarayoni islohoti sohai ob ishtiroki zanho dar idorakunii zakhirahoi ob tavassuti namoyandagii onho dar zinahoi gunoguni istehsolot va rohbarii in tashkilotho boyad muvofiqan vusat doda shavad.

6. ISHTIROKI SHARIKONI RUSHD VA DONORON DAR TATBIQI BARNOMAI ISLOHOT

  1. Tatbiqi Barnomai islohoti sohai ob ba gayr az dastgirii Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, inchunin ba dastgirii sharikoni rushd va donoroni dokhiliyu baynalmilali niyoz dorad. Kumaki tekhniki baroi jalbi mutakhassisoni varzidai milli va baynalmilali baroi tahiyai siyosat, barnomaho va strategiyaho, takmili qonunguzorii ob, behtar namudani sokhtori tashkilothoi idorakunii zakhirahoi ob va baland bardoshtani qobiliyati kormandoni onho va istifodabarandagoni ob baroi samaranok istifoda burdani zakhirahoi ob lozim ast.
  2. Hamchunin jalbi mablag baroi barqarorsozi va rushdi infrasokhtori ob, az jumla niyozhoi avvalindarajai tatbiqi islohoti sohai ob dar nazar ast. Zimni tahiyai Barnomai islohoti sohai ob az iqtidori sharikoni rushd istifoda burda shud va bovari hast, ki dar amali namudani islohoti sohai ob niz onho ishtiroki faolonai khudro davom khohand dod.

IX. MABLAGGUZORII TATBIQI BARNOMAI ISLOHOTI SOHAI OB

  1. Mablagguzorii islohoti sohai ob asosan az du makhzan amali karda meshavad: (1) az hisobi bujeti mutamarkazi vazoratu idorahoi dakhldor va (2) mablagguzori az hisobi sharikoni rushd.
  2. Islohoti sohai ob asosan az jonibi tashkilothoi baynalmilali dastgiri karda shuda, baroi sharikoni rushd ahamiyati siyosi dorad. Onho dar asosnokkunii loihahoi marbuta ba ob, islohotro hamchun yake az omilhoi musbati mablagguzori nishon medihand. SHarikoni asosii rushdi Tojikistonro tashkilothoi zayl namoyandagi menamoyand, az jumla: Bonki umumijahoni (BU), Bonki osiyogii rushd (BOR), Tashkiloti rushd va hamkorii SHveytsariya (SDC), Bonki avrupoii tajdid va rushd (BATR), Ittihodi Avrupo (EU), SHuroi hamohangsozii rushd (DCC), Barnomai rushdi SMM (UNDP). Soli 2015 sharikoni rushd loihahoi mushakhkhasro dar sohai ob amali karda istodaand, ki mablagguzorii barqarorsozii infrasokhtor, rushdi sistemai idora, az on jumla jarayoni islohoti sohai obro dar nazar dorad. Boyad qayd kard, ki taqriban 99% mablagguzorii islohoti sohai ob az jonibi sharikoni rushd dar doirai bujethoi loihahoi mushakhkhas amali karda meshavad.
  3. Dar Naqshai mablagguzorii islohoti sohai ob baroi davrai solhoi 2016-2025, ki dar zamima ovarda shudaast, mablagguzorii islohoti sohai ob az hisobi bujeti mutamarkazi jumhuriyavi niz dar nazar doshta shudaast. CHunin mablagguzori dar doirai bujeti solonai muayyanshudai vazoratu idorahoi dakhldor, az on jumla bujeti solonai VEZO amalikarda khohad shud.
  4. Tashkilothoi navtasisi havzavi va zerhavzavii daryoho dar zinai avvali islohoti sohai ob (2016-2018) ba tavri guruhhoi kori tasis doda, az jonibi sharikoni rushd dastgiri karda khohand shud. Az soli 2019 sar karda, baroi mablagguzorii 4 tashkiloti havzavii daryo va 5 tashkiloti zerhavzavii daryo (jam 9 tashkilot) boyad az hisobi bujeti mutamarkazi jumhuriyavi ba bujeti VEZO solona ba miqdori 1,681 mln. somoni mablag ilova karda shavad.
  5. Dar asosi tahlili mablagguzorii davlatii solhoi guzashta muayyan gardid, ki ba sohahoi idorai zakhirahoi ob, behdoshti zamin va obyori, taminoti obi nushoki dar solhoi 20162025 az hisobi bujeti mutamarkazi jumhuriyavi faqat dar hayati bujethoi solonai vazoratu idorahoi dakhldor ba sohai ob ziyoda az 200 mln. somoni mablaguzori karda khohad shud. Inchunin dar davrai solhoi 2016-2025 ba sohai ob az jonibi sharikoni rushd mablagguzorii ziyoda az 1,60 mlrd. somoni peshbini shudaast.
  6. Dar nazar ast, ki dar davrai solhoi 2020-2025 niz az tarafi sharikoni rushd mablagguzorii ilovagi amali karda khohad shud. Dar davrai solhoi 2019-2025 baroi tashkilothoi havzavii daryohoi navtasis mablagguzorii ilovagi az hisobi bujeti mutamarkazi jumhuriyavi ba miqdori taqriban 11,78 mln. somoni ijro karda khohad shud, ki in qiyosan hamagi taqriban 0,65% mablagguzorii umumiro tashkil medihad. Mablagguzorii boqimonda az jonibi sharikoni rushd amali karda khohad shud.
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