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BARNOMAI DAVLATII RUSHDI SOHAI TARBIYAI TOMAKTABI

Bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 31 oktyabri soli 2005 № 395 tasdiq shudaast

BARNOMAI DAVLATII RUSHDI SOHAI TARBIYAI TOMAKTABI DAR JUMHURII TOJIKISTON BAROI SOLHOI 2006-2010

Muqaddima

Barnomai davlatii rushdi sohai tarbiyai tomaktabi dar Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi solkhoi 2006-2010 (minbad – Barnoma) mutobiqi Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai maorif” (moddai 28) va Naqshai tatbiqi islohoti sohai maorif baroi solhoi 2004 – 2009 (qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 30.06.2004 № 291) tahiya shuda, vazifa va rohhoi asosii rushdi sohai tarbiyai tomaktabiro muayyan mekunad.

Zaruriyati tahiyai Barnoma az on iborat ast, ki boyad sifati talimu tarbiya dar muassisahoi tomaktabi hamchun zinai nakhustini tahsiloti shahrvandon baland bardoshta shavad va ba sharoiti navi iqtisodiyu ijtimoi muvofiq gardonida shavad.

Barnoma bo dastgirii ofisi mintaqavii dar Almaato budai Tashkiloti tahsilot, farhang va ilmi SMM (YUNESKO), ki mohhoi iyun – sentyabri soli 2004 dar asosi jambasti natijahoi tahqiqi vazi tarbiyavu talim dar muassisahoi tomaktabi, ehtiyoji kudakonu volidoni navohii SHugnonu Vanji VMKB, Panjakentu Aynii viloyati Sugd, shahri Kulobu nohiyai Nosiri Husravi viloyati Hatlon, nohiyahoi Fayzobodu Rogun guzaronida shuda bud, omoda gardidaast.

  1. Tahlili vazi muassisahoi tomaktabi

Omuzishi vazi muassisahoi tomaktabi dar Jumhurii Tojikiston nishon medihad, ki dar 5 soli okhir (solhoi 1999 – 2004) miqdori onho toraft kam shudaast:

Jadvali 1

+—–T——-+—————-T————+———————–Tj|  Solho      |SHumorai muassisahoi tomakta- | SHumorai kudakon dar onhµ|             |bii doimoamalkunanda         |                        |+————-+—————————–+————————+|   1999      |           523               |           51614        ||             |                             |                        ||   2000      |           502               |           53409        ||             |                             |                        ||   2001      |           501               |           57312        ||             |                             |                        ||   2002      |           496               |           59763        ||             |                             |                        ||   2003      |           494               |           62950        ||             |                             |                        ||   2004      |           492               |           61893        |+————-+—————————–+————————+

Manba: Kumitai davlatii omori Tojikiston

Nishondodho tasdiq mekunand, ki agar dar soli 1999 shumorai muassisahoi doimoamalkunandai tomaktabi dar Jumhurii Tojikiston 523 adadro tashkil dihand, pas onho dar soli 2004 ba 492 adad rasida, nisbati soli 1999 ba miqdori 31 adad kam shudaand. Vale boyad zikr kard, ki miqdori qabuli kudakon dar in muassisaho az 51700 ba 62000 rasida, talaboti volidon ba kudakistonho meafzoyad. Az shumorai umumii aholii 0-7 sola (1350,0 nafar) tanho 6,2 % kudakoni sinni tomaktabi ba muassisahoi tomaktabi faro girifta shudaand, zero solhoi okhir dar mamlakat shumorai aholii in sinnu sol khelo afzudaast va to soli 2004 in afzoish ba tariqi zayl ast:

Jadvali 2

+————–+———-T—-+—————-+——————-j|              | SHumorai aholii|SHumorai kudakoni| Foizi farogirii   ||              | 0-7 sola      |dar muassisahoi | kudakon dar muas- ||              | (hazor nafar) |tomaktabi faro  | sisahoi tomaktabi ||              |               |giriftashuda     |                   ||              |               |(hazor nafar)   |                   |+-T–T———+—————+—————-+——————-+| Jumhurii     |    1350,0     |    63,0        |      4,7          || Tojikiston   |               |                |                   |+—R———-+—————+—————-+——————-+| VMKB         |    34,0       |    1,6         |      4,7          |+————–+—————+—————-+——————-+| Viloyati      |    366,1      |    23,0        |      6,3          || Sugd         |               |                |                   |+—R———-+—————+—————-+——————-+| Viloyati      |    518,8      |    12,2        |      2,4          || Hatlon       |               |                |                   |+————–+—————+—————-+——————-+| sh. Dushanbe   |    117,9      |    19,5        |      16,5         |+—T———-+—————+—————-+——————-+| NTJ          |    313,2      |    6,7         |      2,1          |+————–+—————+—————-+——————-+

Manba: Kumitai davlatii omori Tojikiston

Jadvali mazkur nishon medihad, ki vazi farogirii kudakon dar mintaqahoi gunogun barobar nest. Masalan, agar dar shahri Dushanbe farogirii kudakon ba muassisahoi tomaktabi 16,5% boshad, dar viloyati Sugd 6,3 %, viloyati Hatlon 2,4 % va shahru nohiyahoiya tobei jumhuri 2,1% ast. Makhsusan in masala dar viloyati Hatlon tashvishovar ast, zero shumorai aholii 0-7 solai viloyati Hatlon (518,8) az shumorai umumii aholii in sinnu soli mintaqahoi digari jumhuri khele ziyod ast, lekin farogirii kudakon ba muassisahoi mazkur faqat 2,4 %-ro tashkil medihad. In ast, ki qarib 95 % kudakon (khususan dar dehot) be tayyori va malakahoi zururii hayoti ba maktab faro girifta meshavand.

Az solhoi 1994-96 sar karda dar nohiyahoi Muminobod, Hovaling, Baljuvon, SHurobodi viloyati Hatlon; nohiyai Mastchohi Kuhii viloyati Sugd va nohiyahoi tobei jumhuri (Varzob, Tavildara) muassisahoi tomaktabi faoliyati khudro qat namudaand va to hol barqaror nagardidaand.

Solhoi okhir muassisahoi tomaktabi bo ashyohoi tarbiyaviyu talim tamin karda nameshavand. Maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati az sababi kam budani bujeti davlati baroi tamini muassisahoi tomaktabi ba tavri qofi mablag judo namekunand. Imruz zeri nazorati qati giriftani khuroki kudakon, khizmatrasonii tibbi muhim ast, zero onho ba meyor, gizonoki va talabothoi hifzi salomatii kudakon javobguy nestand. Muassisahoe, ki baroi kudakistonhoi jumhuri tajhizotu bozichahoro bo nazardoshti sinni solu kudakon boyad istehsol namoyand, vujud nadorand.

Dar sistemai tarbiyai tomaktabi 4475 nafar kormandoni omuzgori faoliyat dorand, ki az onho 24,7% bo malumoti oli, 50% bo malumoti miyonai makhsus, 43 % bo malumoti miyonai pedagogi, 5% bo malumoti olii nopurra va 20,3 % bo malumoti miyonai umumi meboshand.

Vazi tamini shubahoi maorifi shahru nohiyaho bo mutakhassisoni soha tashvishovar ast, zero az 68 nohiyahoi jumhuri 38-to idorayu shubahoi maorif mutassadiyoni kor bo muassisahoi tomaktabi doshta boshand ham, az bayni onho tanho 10% mutakhassisoni soha meboshand. CHunki dar aksariyati nohiyaho shumorai kudakistonho kam buda, nazorati faoliyati kori onho ba zimmai mudironi kabinethoi metodi yo kormandoni gayriikhtisosi shubahoi maorif guzoshta shudaast. In amal imkoniyat namedihad, ki shubahoi maorif faoliyati kudakistonhoro tahti nazorati qati girandu vobasta ba sharoiti mahal va inkishofu mushkiloti onho dar nazdi maqomoti boloii idorakunii maorif va maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati masalaguzori kunand. Dar muassisahoi tomaktabi, gayr az in, mebel (dar khonahoi bozi, khob), tajhizoti varzishi, fondi kitobhoi bachagona, bozichaho, asbobhoi ayonii talim komilan farsuda shudaand va yo az chunin vasoil mahrumand. Vozeh ast, ki in ba sifati tarbiyavu talimi kudakon tasiri manfi merasonad. Solhoi okhir aksariyati binoho tamiri purra nashudaand va bazeashon tamiri davriro nadidaand. Dar natija bomi binohoi kudakistonho mechakad, quburhoi obguzar va khathoi barq az kor baromadaand (nohiyahoi SHugnon, Roshtqala, Vanji VMKB; Ayni, Asht, Zafarobodi viloyati Sugd, Bokhtar, Beshkent, Kulob, Temurmalik YOvoni viloyati Hatlon, nohiyahoi sh Dushanbe, Rogun va gayraho).

Hulosa, farogirii kudakoni sinni tomaktabi dar kudakistonho va sifati tarbiyayu talimi kudakon dar onho bo bisyor sababhoi iqtisodiyu ijtimoi ba talaboti imruza javobguy nest.

2 . Monitoringi muassisahoi tomaktabi

Dar Tojikiston oid ba problemahoi tarbiyai tomaktabi, sifati talimi tomaktabi, sababhoi purra tamin nashudani huquqi kudakoni sinni tomaktabi ba nigohubin va az jihati ilmi asosnok namudani onho korhoi tadqiqoti guzaronida nashudaast.

Bo maqsadi behtar namudani faoliyati muassisahoi tomaktabi bo tashabbusi Vazorati maorifi Jumhurii Tojikiston va dastgirii tashkiloti baynalmilalii dar Almato budai YUNESKO monitoringi muassisahoi tomaktabii nohiyahoi SHugnon, Vanj ( VMKB), Panjakent, Ayni ( viloyati Sugd), Kulob, Beshkent (viloyati Hatlon) va Fayzobodu Rogun (NTJ) guzaronida shud. Maqsadi asosii omuzish az masalakhoi zerin iborat bud:

– baho dodan ba vazi tarbiyavu talim dar muassisahoi tomaktabi va muayyan kardani ehtiyoji kudakonu oilaho ba tarbiyai tomaktabi dar nohiyahoi piloti;

– tahlili vazi ijtimoi, moddiyu tekhnikii muassisahoi mazkur va sokhtori onho (shumorai muassisahoi tomaktabi va kudakon, rasonidani khizmathoi gunogun, tamin bo barnomaho, problemahoi tamin bo mutakhassison va mablagguzori);

– muayyan namudani problemahoi tarbiyai tomaktabi va rohhoi bartaraf kardani onho, tahiyai tavsiyaho va nakshaho baroi kudakone, ki ba kudakistonho faro girifta nashudaand;

Vazifahoi asosii omuzish:

– muayyan kardani sathi tarbiyayu talimi kudakoni sinni tomaktabi dar oila va kudakistonho;

– nishon dodani sharoithoi mavjudai tarbiya va talimi kudakon;

– inikosi manbahoi mablagguzori, tamini kudakistonho bo kadrhoi ikhtisosmand va mavodi metodi baroi tarbiya va inkishofi kudak;

– mushohidai tamoili robitai oila va kudakiston dar tarbiyai kudakon;

Korkhoi tadqiqoti dar shahru nohiyaho bo usulkhoi pursishnoma (baroi kormandoni masuli shubahoi maorif, sarvaronu murabbiyoni muassisahoi tomaktabi, padaru modaron, kormandoni. hukumathoi mahalli, jamoatho va gayrakho), mubohisai infirodi, rasmgiri va jam ovardani malumot jarayon girift. Dar doirai tadqiqoti mazkur 926 nafar faro girifta shudand, az jumla:

– volidayn, namoyandagoni maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati, jamoatho-714 nafar;

– mudiron va mushovironi kudakistonho – 72 nafar;

– murabbiyon-124 nafar;

– mutakhassisoni shubahoi maorif – 16 nafar.

Natijai omuzishi masalai mazkur dar nohiyahoi intikhobshuda nishon dod, ki muassisahoi tomaktabi ba mushkiloti iqtisodiyu ijtimoi nigoh nakarda, mavjudiyati khudro nigoh doshta, kori tarbiyayu talimi tarbiyagirandagonro tibqi hujjathoi meyori, az jumla barnomai talimii “Rohnamoi murabbi” durust ba roh mondaand. Mutaassifona, dar onho dushvorikhoi ziyode mavjudand, ki halli onho tanho ba shubahoi maorif vobasta nest. holati binohoi kudakistonho, nuqtahoi ob (Vanj Beshkent, SHugnon, Ayni), barq va sistemai garmidihanda (SHugnon, Vanj Panjakentu Beshkent) kharob buda, purra tamirtalaband. hamai tajhizoti khonahoi bozi, khob, bozichaho muvofiqi sinnu sol, ayoniyat oid ba mashguliyathoi gunoguni peshbinishudai barnomai “Rohnamoi murabbi” kuhnayu farsuda shudaand yo tamin nestand.

YAke az vazifahoi haltalabi muassisahoi tomaktabi tamin namudani onho bo kadrhoi balandikhtisosi soha ast. Az 206 nafar kormandoni pedagogii kudakistonhoi nohiyahoi piloti 30,7 % malumoti miyonai umumi dorand.

Az shumorai umumii padaru modarone, ki ba savolho posukh dodand 93 foizashon giriftani tarbiyai tomaktabiro zarur meshumorand, 5% onho tarbiyai tomaktabii khonagiro durust mehisoband va faqat 2% volidayn ba savoli guzoshtashuda javob doda natavonistand.

Gayr az in, dar jumhurii mo asosan muassisahoi davlatii tomaktabi amal mekunand. Sababhoi inkishof nayoftani muassisahoi khususiyu gayridavlati baroi kudakon, pesh az hama dar sathi past qaror doshtani malumotnokii padaru modaron oid ba afzaliyatnokii tarbiyai tomaktabi, kambizoatii oilaho, takmil nayoftani hujjathoi meyorii huquqi, bemasuliyatii rohbaroni aksariyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, shubahoi maorif va digarho meboshad. Inchunin, nokifoya budani mablagguzorii muassisahoi tomaktabi boisi sol to sol past gardidani nufuzi soha shudaast.

  1. Maqsad va vazifahoi Barnoma

Maqsadi Barnoma mutobiki qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai maorif” ba tanzim darovardani sistemai tarbiyai tomaktabi behtar namudani sifati talimu tarbiya dar muassisahoi tomaktabi ast.

Vazifahoi Barnoma az inho iborat meboshand:

– jonnok namudani tarbiyai tomaktabi va behtar kardani sifati omodagii kudakon ba maktab dar kudakistonho tavassuti tashkil namudani guruhhoi tayyori ba maktab dar nazdi kudakistonho va maktabhoi tahsiloti umumi;

– takmili bazai meyorii huquqii sistemai tarbiyai tomaktabi;

– darki afzaliyatnoki va tahkimi zaminai omuzishi zabonhoi davlati va khoriji, bakhusus rusiyu anglisi, dar kudakistonho;

– behtar namudani sifati tayyor kardani kadrhoi balandikhtisos baroi muassisahoi tomaktabi;

– mustahkam namudani bazai moddiyu tekhniki va ijtimoii muassisahoi tomaktabi;

– tamini ravandi talimi tomaktabi bo mavodi talimi, ilmiyu metodi;

– hamkori bo tashkilotu sozmonhoi gayrihukumatti dar mavridi baland bardoshtani malumotnokii padaru modaron dar tarbiyai kudakon va tayyor namudani onho ba maktab (kudakone, ki ba kudakistonho faro girifta nashudaand);

– takmili mahorati kasbii mushovironi shubahoi maorif, sarvaron va murabbiyoni kudakistonho tavassuti chopi mavodu dasturhoi metodi, taboduli nazar va omuzishi tajribai kishvarhoi digar;

  1. Rohkhoi amali gashtani Barnoma

Bo maqsadi amali gashtani maqsadu vazifakhoi guzoshtashuda zarur ast:

– dar navbati avval, zaminai huquqii hifzi kudak mustahkam gardad:

– tamini variantnokii mazmun, shaklho va usulhoi tarbiyai tomaktabi dar kudakistonho;

– tashkhisi inkishofi kudak dar jarayoni talim va behtar namudani muhiti tashakkuli on dar muassisai tomaktabi;

– tamini zaminai moddi-tekhniki va talimiyu metodii muassisahoi tomaktabi;

– vase ba roh mondani shaklu namudhoi navi muassisahoi tomaktabi baroi kudakoni doroi imkoniyathoi mahdudi inkishof;

– dar hamai mintaqahoi jumhuri tasis dodani khadamoti psikhologi-tibbi va pedagogi;

– tamini omodagii peshazmaktabii kudakon dar zaminai tahsiloti tomaktabi;

– tahiya va tatbiqi Standarti davlatii talimi tomaktabi;

– tajdidi nazar namudani mazmuni tarbiyai kudakon dar muassisahoi tomaktabi bo nazardoshti talaboti davlat va jomea;

Dar baland bardoshtani sifati tarbiyavu talimi tomaktabi faroham ovardani sharoitho baroi tashakkuli shakhsiyati kudak dar kudakon paydo namudani malakahoi zaruri baroi omodagi ba maktab asos ast. Dar mazmunu mundarijai faoliyati korii muassisahoi tomaktabi ba omuzishi zabonhoi davlati, rusiyu anglisi boyad diqqati makhsus dod. YAke az vazifahoi muhimmi tarbiyai kudakon dar muassisahoi tomaktabi inkishofi aqli, ehsosot va nigoh doshtanu mustahkam namudani holati jismoniyu ruhii kudak ast.

Ba maqsadi qone gardonidani talaboti shahrvandon ba kudakistonho lozim ast, ki zaminai huquqiyu mablagguzorii soha mustahkam gardad va namudhoi gunoguni muassisahoi tomaktabi tashkil shavand:

– muassisahoi tomaktabii raviyahoi varzishiyu tabobati, estetiki, ekologi, guruhhoi kudakoni layoqatmand, kudakoni inkishofashon mahdud va gayraho;

– kudakistonhoi oilavi;

– tasisi guruhhoi tayyori ba maktab dar zaminai maktabhoi tahsiloti umumii dehote, ki kudakistonho faoliyat namekunand;

– yasliho, kudakistonho, yasli-kudakistonho;

– muassisahoi tomaktabii kompleksii “Maktab-kudakiston”;

Dar idorayu shubahoi maorifi viloyatho, shahru nohiyahoi jumhuri idorakuni va rasonidani yorii metodi ba kudakistonhoro boyad mutakhassisoni ikhtisosmandi sohai tomaktabi ba uhda doshta boshand. In imkoniyat medihad, ki problemahoi inkishofi kudakon va muassisahoi tomaktabi sarivakt va samaranok hallu fasl shavand.

Bo maqsadi tamini muassisahoi mazkur bo mavodi metodi va guzaronidani tadqiqothoi ilmiyu pedagogi dar sistemai tarbiyai tomaktabi zaruriyati tasisi Markazi jumhuriyavii ilmi – metodi ba miyon meoyad.

Dar oyanda baroi ziyod namudani shumorai kudakon dar kudakistonho, khususan dar dehot sokhtani binohoi kompleksii “Maktab-kudakiston” ba maqsad muvofiq ast.

  1. Mablagguzorii Barnoma

Baroi takmil va inkishof dodani sistemai tarbiyai tomaktabi sharoiti moddi va bazai mustahkami iqtisodi zarur ast. Manbahoi mablagguzorii tatbiqi Barnomai davlatii inkishofi sohai tomaktabiro baroi solhoi minbada Bujeti davlati muayyan mekunand. Mablagguzorii Barnoma az Bujeti davlati, ki baroi dastgohi markazi, muassisahoi tobei Vazorati maorif hamasola judo karda meshavad va inchunin az hisobi mablaghoi maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati, tashkilotu muassisaho, sozmonhoi gayridavlati va sarparaston peshbini shudaand, surat megirad (Zamimahoi 1 va 2).

  1. Tayyor kardani kadrho va takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni muassisahoi tomaktabi

Bazai tayyorkunii mutakhassison baroi muassisahoi tomaktabi donishgohho va kollejhoi omuzgorii Tojikiston ba hisob meravand. Har sol 140 nafar fakultahoi pedagogikai tomaktabiro khatm menamoyand, ki az onho tanho 8-10% ba joyi kor hozir meshavand. Az in lihoz, mekhanizmi jalb va vobastkunii khatmkunandagoni fakultahoi tomaktabii maktabhoi olii omuzgoriro baroi kor, khususan dar dehot, tahiya kardan lozim ast.

Boyad khatmkunandagoni fakultai tomaktabii maktabhoi olii omuzgori dar barobari giriftani ikhtisosi asosi, inchunin imkoniyati giriftani ikhtisoshoi ilovagii pedagog-ruhshinosi kor bo kudakoni sinni tomaktabi, menejmenti tarbiyai tomaktabi, zabonhoi khorijiro doshta boshand.

Kurshoi takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni muassisahoi tomaktabi dar donishkadahoi takmili ikhtisos tashkil karda meshavand, lekin novobasta az on, ki chunin markazho dar viloyatho, shahri Dushanbe niz faoliyat mekunand, onho samarai dilkhoh namedikhand.

Az in lihoz, tahiya va amali gardonidani tekhnologiyai talimi fosilavi oid ba takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni pedagogii muassisahoi tomaktabi dar donishkadahoi takmili ikhtisos, markazhoi metodi ba maqsad muvofiq ast.

Inkishofi aloqahoi baynalmilali oid ba tajribaivazkuni, takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni muassisahoi tomaktabi, omukhtani sistema, modelhoi gunoguni tarbiyai tomaktabii davlathoi khoriji kishvar dar sathi past qaror dorad. Hangomi guzaronidani kurshoi takmili ikhtisos az tekhnologiyai navi hozirazamon, ki ba faoliyati amali vusat mebakhshad, istifoda kardan lozim ast.

Tashkil va guzaronidani chorabinihoi jumhuriyavi, ba monandi “Kudakistoni sol”, “Mudiri sol”, konferensiyahoi ilmi-amali va seminarho roje ba sayqal dodani mahorati kasbii murabbiyon va problemahoi tarbiyai tomaktabi ba maqsad muvofiq ast.

  1. Natijai nihoii Barnoma

Barnomai zikrshuda boyad davra ba davra tatbiq gardad. Dar sistemai tarbiya va talimi tomaktabi bazai meyorii huquqi, asoshoi ilmiyu metodi oid ba inkishofi shabakai muassisahoi tomaktabi tasisi guruhho va sinfhoi tayyori ba maktab tahiya va mustahkam meshavad. Sifati jo ba joguzorii kadrho dar idorayu shubahoi maorifi tamomi mintaqaho behtar megardad.

Sathi sifati tarbiyavu talim dar muassisahoi tomaktabi baland meshavad. Istifodai shaklho va usulhoi navu faol dar tayyorkuni va takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni pedagogii kudakistonho ba behtar shudani mahorati kasbii onho kumak merasonad. Tahiya, nashr va dastras namudani adabiyoti bachagona, mavodi talimiyu metodi baroi muassisahoi tomaktabi hallu fasli khudro meyobad.

Az hisobi tashkili guruhho va sinfhoi tayyori ba maktab dar zaminai kudakistonho va maktabhoi tahsiloti umumi foizi farogirii kudakon dar muassisahoi tomaktabi ziyod megardad va omodagii kudakon ba maktab behtar meshavad. Maqomi murabbi dar jomea baland bardoshta meshavad.

* Zamimaho ovarda nameshavand.

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