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BALNEOLOGIYA

balneologiiaBALNEOLOGIYA (az lot. balneum – hammom, obbozi va …logiya), yak sohai ilmi tib, ki obhoi shifobakhsh, obshifoi va tasiri obro ba organizmi odam meomuzad. B. az bakhshhoi gunogun tarkib yoftaast, mas., balneografiya (tavsifi kurortho), balneoterapiya (muolija bo obi minerali), balneokhimiya (tadqiqi khosiyathoi khimiyavii obhoi minerali), balneotekhnika (hifzi obi minerali va istifodai bosamari on).
Ob, hamchun manbai hayot, hamesha bo tamadduni insoniyat aloqai nogusastani dosht. Odamon ba obi ruhafzoi daryovu chashma az qadimulayyom tavajjuhi khosa zohir mekardand, khususiyati shifobakhshii obhoro medonistand va istifoda meburdand.
Dar ogozi tamadduni avrupoi tajhizoti shustushuy va obbozi khele soda budand. Binobar kam budani ob onro sarfa mekardand. Odamon asosan az obzan va dushhoi khunuk istifoda meburdand. Aflotun dar tavsifi davlati idealii khud obzanhoi garmro faqat baroi pironsolon va marizon ijozat doda bud. Asri 5 to m. dar hududi vulqonhoi YUnon va jazirahoi hamshafati on istifodai obzanhoi mineralii garm rasm gasht. Bisyor chashmahoi shifobakhsh muqaddas donista meshudand.
Sokinoni Rim dar bahr yo daryoi Tibr obbozi mekardand. Odamoni sarvatmand dar khonahoi khud joyhoi makhsusi obbozi bunyod menamudand; baroi tabaqahoi kambizoati aholi hammomhoi umumi sokhta shuda budand. Tabobat bo obhoi shifobakhsh ba juzi tarkibii zindagii rimiyon tabdil yoft. Obi garme, ki az kuhu dara favvora zada mebaromad, bo maqsadi raf namudani bisyor bemoriho istifoda meshud.
Dar mamlakathoi SHarqi Nazdik va Miyona shustushu dar hammom odati mamuli bud. Odamoni sarvatmand hatto vannahoi chubini khudro ba ushturho bor karda ba safar mebaromadand. Jangovaron baroi obbozi choh kofta, onro takhtabandi mekardand; chunin chohho bo obi garm pur karda meshudand.
Sarzamini Osiyoi Markazi niz bo chashmayu obhoi shifobakhshi khud shuhrati beandoza dorad. Faqat dar qalamravi yak khudi Tojikiston ziyoda az 200 chashmahoi shifobakhshi obashon khunuk va garm mavjudand.
Abualii Sino dar «Al-Qonun» oid ba ahamiyati garmoba kardan va bayoni garmobaho meguyad: «Har kas, ki farbehi bikhohad, boyad bad az taom garmoba biravad… Agar kase halshaviyu logar shudan bikhohad, boyad bo shikami gurusna garmoba kunad va andar on bisyor bimonad… Boyad az yakbora berun shudan az garmoba va badi on sarro barahna va tanro andar marazi sardi guzoshtan ehtiyot shud, balki agar ayyomi zimiston boshad, boyad hangomi berunoi az garmoba bo jomahoi garm khudro bipechid. Kasone, ki ba holi taband va yo kasone, ki ba gusastagii payvastagi va omos giriftorand, boyad az garmoba parhez kunand…»
Abualii Sino dar joi digar roje ba shustushu bo obi sard guftaast: «(Obi sard) kasero khub ast, ki tadbirash az hama jihat ba joy boshad. Sin, quvvat, garmi va fasli on hama sozgor buda, ba khomii gizo, qay, ishol, bekhobi va nazlaho giriftor naboshad… (Obi sard)-ro gohe az baroi qavi gardonidani pust va nigoh doshtani garmi az pasi obi garm ba kor barand. Agar chunin khosta boshand, ob naboyad sakht sard, balki miyona boshad…»
Tadqiqi obhoi shifobakhshi Tojikiston tarikhi derina dorad. S. 518 sayyohoni chini Hoy-Sen va Sun-YUn, badtar Hyuen-Sen (s. 664) az Pomir didan karda, dar borai obhoi mineralii on malumot medihand. S. 1272 Marko Polo va s. 1602 Peter Benedikt Goes ba Pomir omada, dar barobari olami hayvonotu nabotot makoni obhoi shifobakhsh budani in sarzaminro qayd kardaand. Dar tadqiqoti minbadai balneologii qalamravi Tojikiston B.A. Fedchenko, N.I. Beryozkin, E.G. Andreev, K.P. Arikhbaev, M.V. Lavrov, G.I. Jukov, E.T. Isoeva, P.T. Zoirov, I.O. Qosimov va dig. sahmi nazarras guzoshtaand. Nig. niz Balneoterapiya, Obhoi minerali, Gidroterapiya.

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