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BALANDII NISBI VA MUTLAQ

Balandii nisbi va muayyan kardani on. Ba kharitai tabii nimkuraho nazar andozem, rangkhoi gunoguniro mushohida mekunem. On rangho nohamvorikhoi sathp Zaminro nshion msdihand, ki onro dar geografiyai tabii relef menomand. On az pasti, hamvori, vodi, teppaho va kuhho iborat meboshad (Az jadvali balandii qismi poyonii kharita nishon dihed, ki in namudhoi relef dar kharita bo kadom rangho ifoda karda shudaand?).

chenkunii  balandiOnho ba khud khos balandi dorand. Balandi nisbi va mutlaq meshavad. Farqiyati balandii yak nuqtai sathi Zaminro az digarash balandii nisbi menomand. Onro dar mahal ba vositai niveliri maktabi muayyan mekunand. Masalan, ba mo lozim ast, ki dar mahal balandii tepparo muayyan kunsm. Baroi in amalro ijro kardan du khonanda ipggirok mekunand. YAke az onho nivelirro dar domanai teppa guzoshta, amudi budani onro aniq menamoyad. Bad ba vositai nishongiraki nivelir nuqtai nishon megiriftagiro muayyan mekunad. Honandai digar ba on nuqtai nishongirifta mekh mekubad. Hamii tavr, balandii tepparo az domana to qulla chen mekunand. Agar balandii nivelir I metr, balandii teppa 6 metr boshad, dar on surat az domanai telpa to qullai on khonandaton joi yakdigarro 5 marotiba ivaz mekunand va balandii nisbpp onro muayyap menamoyand.

Balanlii mutlaq va muayyan kardani on. Ba mo malum ast, ki qismhoi alohidai sathi khushki az sathi bahr va uqyonus dar balandihoi gunogun voqe gardidaand. Har yaki onkho (hamvori, teppa, pahnkuh, qatorkuh va gayra) doroi balandii nisbi va mutlaq meboshand. Agar balandii nisbiro az rui balandii yak nuqtai sathi khushki nisbat ba nuqtai digari on muayyan kunand, balandii mutlaqro az sathi miyonai obi bahr va uqyonus muayyan menamoyand. Binobar in balandii nuqtai sathi Zaminro, ki muvofiqi nishebi az sathi bahr (dar ilmi topografiya on ba 0 barobar asg) hisob karda meshavad, balandii mutlaq menomand.

Dar jumkhurii mo balandii mutlaqi sathi Zamin az sathi Bahri Baltika hisob karda meshavad. Onro dar naqshai mahal va kharitai tabiy bo nuqta ifoda karda, buzurgii balandiro az sathi bahr bo metr nishon medekhand. Masalan, balandii mutlaqi agbai Anzob az sathi bahr 3372 metr, qullai Ismoili Somoni 7495 metrro tashkil medihad.

Tasviri nohamvorihoi sathi Zamin (relef) bo khathoi Ufuqi. Sathi Zamin nohamvor ast. YAk mahal az mahali digar bo pasti va balandii khud farq mekunad. Baroi dar naqsha va kharitai tabii tasvir kardani onkho az khathoi ufuqi istifoda mebarand.

Har yak khati ufuqi nuqtahoi balandii mutlaqashon yakkhelaro bo ham payvast menamoyad. Hamin tavr, xatepo, ki balandihoi mutlaqi (az sathi bahr) yakkhelaro bo ham payvast mekunad, khati ufuq menomand. Agar nohamvorii (relefi) sathi Zamin gunogun (az jihati balandi) boshad. Dar naqsha va kharitai tabii khathoi ufuqi beshtar kashida meshavand. Tarzi kashidani khathoi ufuqi dar rasmi 15 tasvir yoftaast. Dar on namudi zokhirii Jazirai Linkoln va naqshai onro mebinem. Agar ba namudi zohirii jazira nazar andozem, mebinem, ki khati ufuki az sohili on kashida shudaast. In chunin mano dorad, ki sohili jazira va sathi bahr yak khel balandii mutlaq dorand va on bo 0 ifoda shudaast. Digar khathoi ufuky (20, 40, 60 80..-) az yakdigar dar masofai 20 metr kashida shudaand. Har yaki onho balandii mutlaqi nuqtai muayyani mahalro ifoda mekunand. Binobar in dar naqsha baroi farq kardani balandii mutlaqi yakkhela dar nazdi har yak khati ufuqi balandii mutlaqi on bo adad ifoda karda shudaast (Az rasmi 15 on adadhoro nishon dihed).

Dar naqsha mo inchunin az rui ba ham nazdik va yo dur joygir shudani khathoi ufuqy nisheby va moilii mahalro muayyan mskunem. Ba ham nazdik voqe gardidani khathoi ufuqi guvohi medihad, ki relefi on qismi mahal nihoyat nisheb ast. Dar yak qismi naqshae, ki khathoi ufuqi az yakdigar dur kashida shudaand, moil budani relefro nishon medihand. Hatchahoe, ki ba har yak khati ufuqi ba tavri amudi kashida shudaand, ba kadom samt past shuda raftani relefi mahalro nishon medihand.

Hamin tavr, dar naqsha va kharitai tabii nohamvorihoi sathi Zamin ba vositai khathoi ufuki nishon doda meshavand. Az hamin sabab mutakhassison (geologho, rohsozon, binokoron, naqbkanho va gayra) dar faoliyati khud az naqshahoi topografi hamajoniba istifoda mebarand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Balandii nisbi chist?
  2. Balandii mutlaq va nisbi az yakdigar chi farq dorand?
  3. Hathoi ufuqi baroi chi lozimand?
  4. Dar naqsha ba ham nazdik va az hamdigar dur kashida shudani khathoi ufuqi chy mano dorad va chiro ifoda mekunad?
  5. Az naqshahoi topografi kadom mutakhassison bsshtar istifoda mebarand?
  6. Az rui naqshai Jazirai Linkoln nishebi va moilii mahalro muayyan kuned.
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