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BACHADON

bachadonBACHADON (Uterus, metra), zahdon, rahim, qismi makhsusi azoi tanosul. Dar javfi kosi khurd, dar bayni peshobdon va rudai rost joygir shudaast. Vazni B.-i zanhoi nazoida 49 – 59 g, zanhoi serfarzand 90 – 100 g ast. Qismi ziyodi B.-ro tanai on tashkil mekunad, ki jonibi boloro qar va poyonashro gardanai B. menomand. Qari B. vase buda, ba pesh kham shudaast. B. andarun sathi sekunjae dorad, ki boloyash tavassuti du surokh bo naychahoi B. (naychahoi Fallopiy) aloqamand ast. Gardanai B. ba mahbal boz meshavad. Devorai B. se parda dorad: pardai beruni (perimetriya), pardai miyona (miometriya; gafstarin parda, ki az se qabat mushaki sufta iborat ast), pardai dokhili (endometriya), ki doroi gadudhoi sershumor buda, dar natijai hayzbini tagyir meyobad (onro luobparda niz menomand).
Vazifai B. bacha ovardan buda, on chahor unsuri asosiro dar bar megirad: omodagi ba qabul va implantatsiyai hujayratukhmi bordor: faroham ovardani sharoiti muvofiq baroi sabzishu inkishofi on badi implantatsiya; muhofizati janin; tavlidi kudak va dig. unsurhoi haml badi ba okhir rasidani muhlati fiziologii homilagi. Rukh namudani tagyirot dar luobpardai B. sharti zarurii omodagii on bahri qabul va inkishofi hujayratukhmi bordor meboshad (nig. Davrai hayz). Agar hujayratukhmi bolig bordor nagardad, dar on surat qabati luobparda (endometriya) kuchida meaftad va in holat mujibi khunshori az rohi tanosul meshavad. Dar surati bordor shudan, hujayratukhm az nayi B. guzashta dar javfi on joy megirad va dar muhiti baroi khud sozgor inkishof meyobad (nig. Homilagi).
Hangomi homilagi luobpardai B. gafs va «sershira» shuda, kuchida meistad. Hujayrahoi qabati kuchida ba miqdori ziyod glikogen dorand va dar davrahoi avvali haml janinro ba gizo tamin mekunand. Pardai kuchanda dar tashakkuli hamrohak, ki badi haftai 12-umi homilagi ogoz meyobad, shirkat mevarzad.
B. hamchun uzvi doroi mushakhoi purquvvat hamesha dar holati tonus qaror dorad. Tonusi B. khususan dar okhiri homilagi ziyod meshavad.
Tadqiqi B. yake az qismathoi asosii muoinai akusheri va ginekologi mahsub meyobad. Dar mavridi gundoshtani anamnez ba malumoti marbut ba hayz va tavallud etibori jiddi doda meshavad. Gardanai B.-ro bo oinahoi makhsus mebinand, dar mavridi zarurat az luobparda namunaho girifta mesanjand, biopsiya, kolposkopiya, gisteroskopiya, kuldoskopiya meguzaronand. Buzurgi, joygiri, namud, nuqsi inkishof, omosho, jismhoi begona va konkrementhoi B. bo rohi rentgenoskopiya muayyan karda meshavand. Baroi tashkhisi tafriqii omoshoi B. az usuli ultrasado istifoda menamoyand.
Nuqsi anatomii B. gunogun ast. Tamoman nabudani B.-ro, ki badi ba balogati jinsi rasidan oshkor karda meshavad (binobar naomadani hayz), ageneziya yo aplaziya menomand. Goho B. metavonad juft boshad. Dar yake az onho, ki mumkin ba mahbal roh nadorad, khuni hayz jam meshavad (gematometra). Dar in guna mavridho zeri shikam dard mekunad. B. dushokha ham shuda metavonad. B.-i dushokha az yak yo du gardana iborat ast.
Nodurust joygir shudani B.-ro hangomi muoinai ginekologi oshkor mesozand. Goho B. mefuroyad (nig. Furomadani bachadon) yo bar asari baze omosho chapagardon (darun berun) meshavad. Zarbu lat yoftani B. dar natijai ba shikam aftodani zani homila, bori vaznin bardoshtan va g. rukh menamoyad. Daridani tanai B. niz mumkin ast (beshtar hangomi tavalludi vaznin ba vuqu mepayvandad). Bemorihoi B.: adneksit, endomiometrit, endometrioz, eroziyai gardanai B., sil, sifilis, aktinomikoz, mioma, adenoma, papiloma, saraton, sarkoma, khoreonepitelioma va g.
KL
Uzvhoi tanosuli darunii zanho (tukhmdoni rost, naychai rosti bachadon, bachadon v mahbal kushoda, sifoq qisman dur karda shudaast): 1 – qari bachadon; 2 – bandaki tukhmdoni chap; 3 – shokhai tukhmdonii arteriyai bachadon; 4 – nayi bachadon (tukhmron); 5 – shokhchai naychavii arteriyai bachadon; 6 – boftai tukhmdon; 7 – tukhmdon; 8 – bandaki tukhmdon; 9 – arteriya va venahoi tukhmdon; 10 – bandaki pahni bachadon; 11 – kanori ozodi tukhmdon; 12 – stromai tukhmdon; 13 – kanori sifoqii tukhmdon; 14 – intihoi naychai tukhmdon; 15 – juyakchahoi kundalang; 16 – sifoqi naychai bachadon; 17 – intihoi tukhmdon; 18 – bofti bachadonu mahbal; 19 – arteriya va venahoi bachadon; 20 – mahbal; 21 – qismi mahbalii gardanai bachadon.
M.F. Dodkhoeva.

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