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Asarhoi nasrii Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil

Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil shoir, faylasuf, mutafakkir va inchunin navisandai zabardast niz hast. Asarhoi nasrii Bedil maqomu poyai uro dar rushdu tahavvuloti nasri adabii ahdi tanazzuli feodalizm nishon medihad. Osori nasrii Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil niz dar mavzuhoi mukhtalif ejod gardidaand va onho niz dar dokhili «Kulliyot»-i u omadaand:

  1. «Debocha». Bedil bo chunin unvon bar muqaddimai devoni ashori khud ba nasr navishtaast. Muhim on ast, ki dar in asar az porahoi sheri niz khele ustodonavu ogohona istifoda kardaast. Adibi mutafakkir pas az hamdu nat, mohiyati kalomi bade, ravobiti shaklu mazmuni badei, mashaqqat va nazokati jarayoni ejodi bade va umuman kori ejodi, khususiyathoi ejodiyoti khesh, khususan osori manzum va korgiri az mavzuhoi madhi, hajvi va gayra bahshoi sudmand ba miyon meorad.
  2. «Nukot». In asari Bedil nasri buda, dar on az zikri porahoi gunoguni sheri khele farovon kor girifta shudaast. Dar in asar Bedil aqoidi falsafi, tasavvufi-irfoni, ijtimoi, tarbiyavi-akhloqi, jomeashinosii khudro bayon namudaast. U baroi tahkim bakhshidan ba andeshahovu aqidahoi gunoguni khud dar in asar az porahoi sheri khele ustodona kor giriftaast.

Nazm hatto nisbat ba nasr dar in asar nufuz dorad. Az jumla dar asar beshtar janrhoi ruboi, musammati mukhammas, qita, gazal, fard yo mufradot istifoda shudaand. CHunonchi: «Nukta – Majoz, yane olami etiborro nihole tasavvur namudan ast, ki tukhmi on juz haqiqat nest, dar martabai nihol az tukhm aslo nishon natavon yoft va hamchunon az shokhu barg hech natavon shikoft.

Ruboi:

Ay on ki gahe khilvatu gah anjumani,

Payvasta ba vahmi gayr otash fikani.

Nayrangi dui boz nadorad in jo,

Man bo tu tuam, chunon ki bo man tu mani.

Asari mazkur baroi muayyan namudani aqidahovu jahonbinii Bedil, baroi tain namudani mavqe va poyai adib dar tahavvuli nasri badeii asrimiyonagii tojik arjmand ast.

  1. «Ruqaot». Ruqaot yo nomanigori yake az janrhoi mashhuri adabiyoti asrimiyonagii fors-tojik ast, ki dar du shakl – nazmu nasr duchor meshavad. Sanati nomanigori makhsusan dar «SHohnoma»-i Firdavsi nihoyat ustodona va dar goyati fasohatu malohat ba mushohida merasad. Az asri XI sar karda namunahoi mansuru mustaqili on zuhur mekunad. SHoyad asosguzori on Hakim Sanoii Gaznavi boshad. Malum ast, ki dar in janri adabi khususiyathoi nasri adabi, tarikhi, falsafi, yoddoshti dar shakli omekhta niz meoyad.

«Ruqaot»-i Bedil asari nasri buda, dar on porahoi sheri niz istifoda shudaast. YAne majmui nomahoest, ki Bedili Dehlavi onhoro dar vaqthoi gunogun, bo shakhsoni alohida navishtaast. Kasone, ki Bedil ba onho noma navishtaast, onho dustonu muqarrabon, hamfikronu hamaqidahoyash, umuman shakhsiyathoi boehtiromi davroni ejodkorand. Maktubho beshtar javobi buda, javobi nomai nafare az khamfikronu nazdikoni Bedil ast. Maktubho az in ru, arzishi adabi-sharhiholi doshta, ravobiti adabi – ejodi, munosibati shakhsiyatho, simohoi ilmi, adabi, farhangii zamoni mutafakkirro bayon menamoyad. Dar nomaho bisyor lahzahoi ruzgori Bedil, munosibatu guftor, raftoru ravobiti u bo muosiron inikos yoftaast.

  1. «CHor unsur». Asari kalontarini nasrii Bedili Dehlavi buda, soli 1705 ba tab rasidaast. In asar nasri boshad ham, bo porahoi sheri aqoidu andeshahoi muallif tahkimu taqviyat doda meshavad. «CHor unsur» doroi chor bob buda, asosan masalahoi falsafi, chahor unsuri ofarinish: ob, khok, bod, otash, doir ba ruhi mutlaq, ruhi tabiiyu naboti, hayovoniyu insoni bahs ba miyon ovardaast. Dar asar falsafai ofarinish, hayotu mamot, kamolyobiyu zavolpaziri, fano va baqo khele ba tafsil bayon karda shudaast.

Guzashta az in, asar sarshor az havodisu voqeoti tarikhi – lashkarkashihoi SHohshujo, zadukhurdu kashmakashihoi siyosi, nooromihoi davrro faro megirad. «CHor unsur» janbahoi gunoguni holnomai Bedil, muqarrabonu duston, kheshovandonu payvandon, hamsuhbatonu ustodoni mutafakkirro niz dar bar megirad. Dar asar baze az doirahoi adabii zamon, burdu bokhti sukhangustaroni asr, munosibati Bedil bo baze az shoironi muosiri khud niz inikos yoftaast. «CHor unsur» boz az on jihat muhim ast, ki dar on oid ba ovoni khurdsolii shoir, davrai maktabkhoni, tahsili madrasa va to ba okhir idoma nayoftani tahsili Bedil dar in talimkada, khonadorshavii in simoi ejodi va ba sipohgari ru ovardani u ba tasvir omadaast.

Umuman «CHor unsur»-i Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil baroi baho dodan ba adabiyoti asri XVII, ba khusus nasri badei, baroi adiboni judogona va muayyan namudani hunari ejodii onho, bahri qiyosu tarjehi poyai sukhanvarii sukhanvaron, oid ba safarhoi Bedil va dar majmu, afkori adabiyu shevai ejodiash malumoti arzishmandi ilmi, adabi ba dast darovardan mumkin ast.

Tarkibi devoni Bedili Dehlavi

AbulmaonI Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil asosan dar hamai navhoi adabi ejod kardaast. U makhsusan dar kadom navi adabie, ki ejod karda boshad, khatman tozakoru navovar etirof shudaast.

Devoni u dar dokhili «Kulliyot»-ash joygir buda, 37500 baytro dar bar megirad. Devoni Bedil az nigohi navhoi adabI niz nisbatan boganovat buda, az gazaliyot, ruboiyot, qasoid, qitaot, tarkibot va tarjeot, tashbehot va tamsilot iborat meboshad. Navhoi adabii mazkur dar davrahoi gunogun ejod karda shudaand.

Tahlili gazaliyoti Bedili Dehlavi

Az nigohi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo niz devoni shoir khele jolib buda, asosan ishq (ham ishqi irfoni – tasavvufi va ham ishqi zamini – bayni insonho), masalahoi falsafI – hakimona, hayotI – ijtimoI, tarbiyavI – akhloqi, vasfi tabiatu manzaranigori, tavsifi khisoli hamidai insoni va mazammati kirdorhoi razila, himoyai adolatu haqiqat, tanqidi zolimon, vasfi khirad, ilmu donish, marifatu aql, khoksorivu furutanI va gayraro dar bar megirad.

CHunon ki qablan yodovar shudem, dar devoni Bedili DehlavI pesh az hama, gazal mavqe dorad. Ba qavli khudi u, gazalsaro behtarinu tavonotarin ejodkor ast:

Bedil, guhari nazm kaserost, ki imruz,

Dar bahri gazal zavraqi andesha davonad.

Albatta, mavzui markazii gazal ishq va jozibahoi qalbii inson, hissiyotu hayajonhoi ruhI, ehsosoti nihodiyu siyarI, galayonhoi botinI va gayra meboshad. Az in ru, ishqi tasavvufI – irfonI dar gazaliyoti Bedil maqomi makhsus dorad. In ishqi juyo buda, asli kheshro mejuyad va az in ru, on manaviyotsoz, tafakursoz va davronsoz ast. Az tarafi digar, in ishq insoni komilro ba voya merasonad, zero noguziran in inson marhalahoi kamolotro mepaymoyad. On vorahidan az olami nafsonI va payvastan ba olami ruhonist.

Baroi namuna chand gazalero az devoni shoir khohem sanjid, ki dar onho ofaridani mazmun, intikhobi mavzu, korgirI az hunari ejod, istifodai radifu qofiya, khususiyathoi vaznI va gayra to kadomin poya somon doda shudaast.

CHunonchi, gazali «Johil az jami kutub sohibi manI nashavad»-ro az nazar khohem guzaronid:

Aysh donad dili sargashta pareshoniro,

Nokhudo bod buvad kishtii tufoniro.

Ashk dar gamkadai dida nadorad qimmat,

Az buni choh baror in mahi kanoniro,

Ishq nabvad ba imoratgarii aql sharik,

Sel az kaf nadihad sanati vayroniro.

Az khatu zulfi buton toza dalel ast, ki husn

Karda chatri badan asbobi pareshoniro.

Bor yobi chu ba khoki dari sohibnazaron,

CHini domoni adab kun khati peshoniro.

Rezishi ashki nadomat zi siyahkorihost,

Lozim ast abri siyah qatrai nansoniro.

Zeri gardun natavon ganri kasofat andukht,

Nokhunu mu-st raso mardumi zindoniro.

Lofi ozodagi az ahli fano nozebost,

Domani chida chi lozim tani uryoniro?

CH,ohil az jami kutub sohibi mani nashavad,

Nisbate nest ba sheroza sukhandoniro.

Nafasi sukhta boyad ba tapish ravshan kard,

Nest shami digar in anjumani foniro.

Natavon yoft az on jilvai berang surog,

Magar oina kuni didai qurboniro.

Bozgashte nabuvad poi talabro, Bedil,

Seli mo nashnavad afsuni pushanmoniro.

Gazali mazkur muqaffo buda, kalimahoi pareshoni, tufoni, kanoni, vayroni, peshoni, naysoni, zindagi, uryoni, sukhandoni, foni, qurboni va pushaymoni hamqofiya shudaand, ki beistisno bo pasoyandi ro omadaand. Harfi ravi dar kalimahoi qofiya «n» buda, tanho dar vojai «peshoni» rioya nashudaast. Hurufi reshai qofiya dar kalimahoi qofiyashavanda «- oniro» buda, «o»-ridfi mufrad, «i»-vasl, «r»-khuruj va «o» mazid ast. YAne yak unsur (ridf) to harfi ravi – «n» va se unsur (vasl, khuruj, mazid) badi ravi omadaand. Az in ru, qofiyai mazkur mutlaq ast.

Gazal dar bahri Ramali musammani makhbuni aslam ejod shudaast, ki afoili on chunin meboshad:

– V – – / V V – – / V V –         – /    –    –

YAne: foilotun, failotun, failotun, falun.

Az nigohi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo gazali bolo ishqi-ijtimoi buda, ohangi khele qavii andarzi dorad. Dili sargashta – qalbi oshiq, nokhudo – malloh, bod ast. Pareshonii dil – ayshi on, bod – malloh hodii rohi murod meboshad. Ashk – YUsuf, chashm-choh va giristan – zohirshavii YUsuf buda, ishq – sel; khatu zulf – juzi husn, ki boisi pareshonii oshiqand, khele hunarmandona korbast shudaand. Dar in abyot holati oshiq mavridi tasvir qaror dorad.

Az bayti 5-um janbai irfoni quvvat megirad, ki hangomi musharraf gardidan ba suhbati sohibnazaron – piron, murshidon boyad solik sakht odobi shogirdiro rioya bikunad. Agar zarrae rioya nashavad, ashki pushaymoni rekhtan foida nadorad. Tibqi nazariyai sufiho jahoni moddi – zindon, tan ham baroi jon zindon ast. Az in ru, dunyodusti va tanparvari noravost. Hadaf az jami kutub faoliyati amali nakardani orif ast. Hadaf az jilvai barang qurb ast, ki on na ba vositai didai zohir, balki ba vositai didai botin muyassar megardad.

Iborai izofii «poi talab» – hadafi nihoi, zero on bebozgasht buda, pazirandai afsuni pushaymoni nest. YAne dar rohi rasidan ba hadafi nihoi pushaymoni joy nakhohad dosht. Orif hej goh pushaymon nakhohad shud.

Gazali digari shoiri mutaffakkir, ki bo matlai zerin shuru meshavad, khele jolibu hunarmandona va margub rui kor omadaast;

Maoli[1] kor nuqsonhost har sohibkamoliro,

Agar mohat kunand, az dast nagzori hiloliro.

metavon onro ba purragi zikr namud, ki to yak andoza sharhu tahlili on az ahamiyat kholi nest:

Ramidanho zi avzoi jahon tarzi digar dorad,

Ba vahat pesh boyad burd az in sahro gizoliro.

Ba naqshi neku bad ravshandilonro dasti rad nabvad,

Kafi oina mechinad guli beinfioliro.

Bisoti guftugu tay kun, ki dar anjomi kor okhir,

Ba hukmi khomushi pechidan ast in farshi qoliro.

Vuboli ranji piri barnatobad sohibi javhar,

CHanor otash zanad nochor dalqi kuhnasoliro.

Dar in vodi, ki khok ast etibori jahlu donishho,

Gubore bar havo don qasri firathoi oliro.

Ba vahdatkhonai dil gayri dil chize namegunjad,

Bar in oina juz tuhmat madon naqshi misoliro.

Agar khunsardii dil obyori mazraat boshad,

CHu tukhmi obila nashunamo kun poymoliro.

Ba changi agniyo domoni faqr oson nameaftad,

Ba chini khok gardad, to shavad qobil safoliro.

CHi imkon ast, Bedil, munim az gaflat burun oyad,

Hujumi khobi khargush ast yaksar sheri qoliro.

Gazali mazkur muraddaf nest, muqaffost. Kalimahoi sahibkamoliro, hiloliro, gizoliro, beinfioliro, qoliro, kuhnasoliro, oliro, misoliro, poymoliro, safoliro hamqofiya shudaand. Reshai qofiya «oliro» buda, harfi reshagii kalimai qofiya yo khud ravi «l» meboshad. YAne; «o» ridfi mudrad va «i»-vasl, «r»- khuruj, «o»-mazid buda, pas az ravi se unsur va pesh az ravi yakto omadaast. SHakli qofiya mutlaq meboshad. Boyad guft, ki dar gazali mazkur qofiya ba juz talaboti janri, inchunin vazifai khushohangi, ravoni va beshtar az on bori manibofi, mazmunofarini niz mekashad.

Az nigohi istifodai vazni in gazal khele jolibu jazzob ast. On dar bahri Hazaji musammani solim insho gardida, doroi afoili zerin meboshad:

V – – – / V – – – / V – –            – / V –     –

yane, mafoilun, mafoilun, mafoilun, mafoilun.

Gazal az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo komilan mazmuni ijtimoi doshta, tajribai hayot, hikmati zindagi, andarzi ruzgor bunyodi tematikii onro faroham ovardaast. Falsafai inkishofi olamu odam va tajribahoi hasilkardai inson asosi onro tashkil namuda, az ogoz to anjom davom mekunad. YAne makhluq pas az haddi kamol duchori nuqson ast. Pas gizoliro niz gohe metavon kasb kard, ki maqsad sifat ast, yane ramandagi az miyoni mardum va tarki dunyovu afzal donistani uqbo bayon shudaasat.

Ravshandilon istiora buda, kinoya az orifonu sufiyon ast, ki ba neku bad yaksonand va in sifati onho monand ba kirdori oyina ast, ki zishtu nakuro yakson inikos menamoyad. Vodi yo khud in vodi-dunyoi moddi, khok- kamarzishi va fitrati oli-shakhsiyathoi sohibmarifat buda, hadafi Bedil bevafoii olam va Haqshinosii inson meboshad. Dil-kabai sirat va vahdatkhona-khona baroi yak nafar – Hudo, yane khonai Hudo ast. Az in ru, ba juz khudi dil dar u (dar didai zohir) chizi digare nest.

Munim – sarmoyador, kase ki umre juz ganovati moddi – tanparvari chizi digarero namedonad va inro Bedil ba du chiz shabeh donistaast: yake khobi khargush, digare rasmi sheri rui qoli va hadaf az har du monandi gaflatvarzi va bekhabari az guzashti umr va gazidani angushti hayrat meboshad.

Umuman, mazmuni gazal paymudani marohili kamolot va hushyorivu ziraki dar in joda va besh az on ehtiyot az tagoful ast, ki boisi pushtidastgaziho megardad.

YAke az muhimtarin khususiyathoi nazmi Bedil va az jumla, gazaliyoti shoiri mutafakkir dar on ast, ki u sheri andesha meguyad. Az in ru, dar guzashta niz pas az omuzishi «Kalomi sharif», «CHahor kitob», «Devon»-i Hofiz, bad ba omukhtani ejodiyoti Bedil shuru menamudand.

Umuqi andesha, pahnoi fikr, javloni takhayoyul, sanati vojasozivu sukhanoroi, daryofti juzviyoti suvari va nazokati tasvir tanho khosi hunari ejodii abulmaoni ast. Az jumla baroi ifodai mushakhkhastar ba gazali zerin ru meorem:

CHashmi tu ba holi man gar nim nakhar khandad,

Horam ba chaman nozad, aybam ba hunar khandad.

To chand bar on oraz bar ragmi nigohi man,

Az halqai gesuyat gulhoi nazar khandad.

Dar kishvari mushtoqon bepartavi didori

Hurshed charo tobad? Bahri chi sahar khandad.

Dil mechakad az chashmam, chun abr agar giryam,

Jon medamad az lalat, chun barq agar khandad.

Bo ahli fano dorad har kas sari yakrangi,

Boyad, ki ba rangi sham az raftani sar khandad.

YAk khandai u barqi bunyodi du olam shud,

Digar chi balo rezad, gar bori digar khandad?

Dar jui dami tegat shirinii obe

hast, K-az jushi halovatho zakhmash ba shakar khandad.

Somoni tarab sahl ast z-in naqsh, ki mo dorem,

Subh az du nafar fursat bar khud chi qadar khandad?

Har shabnam az in gulshan tamhidi gule dorad,

Bo girya madoro kun, chandon ki asar khandad.

Az sayi havas bigzar, Bedil, ki dar in gulshan. Gul niz agar khandad, az pahlui zar khandad.

Gazali mazkur muraddaf buda, kalimai «khandad» radifi soda ast va kalimahoi nazar, hunar, sahar, agar, sar, digar, shakar, qadar, asar, zar hamqofiya shudaand. Qofiyahoi dar gazali bolo zikrshuda muqayyad buda, bo ravi (hamsadoi «r») intiho yoftaand.

Gazal dar bahri Hazaji musammani akhrab ejod gardida, afoili on chunin ast:

– – V / V – – – /       –   – V / V –      –   –

yane, mafulu/ mafoilun/ mafulu/ mafoilun.

Juziyoti hunari va darki mani vobasta ba marifati manoiyu vazifai badeii lafz ast, ki baroi daryofti hadafi ejodkor musoidat menamoyad. CHunonchi, khandidani chashm – nazarafkani, nozi khor dar chamanu tamaskhuri ayb bar hunar – kinoya az barhamzanii garazho va darki asolati sidq ast. Ragmi nigoh, guli nazar, halqai gesu… iborahoi mamuli buda, oshiq az nazzorai jamoli mahbuba benasib ast, zero halqahoi mu chun hijoband va in ba on monand ast, ki chashmi kholdor niz az nazzora mahrum meboshad. Hadafi asli visol buda, shikva az firoqu hijron baso shoirona rui tasvir omadaast. Fano – ogozi baqost va nurafkanii sham – guzashtan az sar – baqoi ust, ki dar vujudi mahbub baqoro mebinad. Hadaf az tegu jushi halovatho iborai ramzii tegi nigoh ast, ki halovati guvoro dorad, ki kinoya az zakhmi teg-qurboni nigoh gardidan meboshad. Dar baythoi minbada niz hadafhoi ijtimoi matrah shudaast, zero tatbiqi orzuvu niyozhoi insoni, ba qavli shoiri mutafakkir, ki somoni tarab, madoro, tamhid, havas va gayra juziyoti onand, on goh dast medihand, ki ganovati moddi boshad. Masalan, agar gul dar zamiri khesh zar (zardii dokhili guncha) nadoshta boshad, nameshukufad. YAne az khandidan mahrum ast. Albatta, murodi shoir jahoni moddist, zero in gulshan hamin maniro dorad.

Digar az nozukihoi sanati gazalsaroii in mutafakkir on ast, ki juziyoti lirikii tasvir komilan makhsus, voqei, mushakhkhas, dastras, ruzgorivu tabii, hayotiand. U az chunin ashyovu juziyoti tabiat tasvirsozivu maniofarini mekunad, ki on tanho khosi hunari ejodii Bedil ast. Kase az payravonash dar barobari shoir joy girifta natavonistaand. YO khud sayi havas – orzu kardan, in gulshan – dunyoi moddi, palu – ba manii neru, musidat dastgiri va gayra, zar – gardi dokhili gul, ki baroi nashunamoyash musoidat mekunad.

YAne, shoir behbudii sathi zindagiro marbut ba doroi yo ganovati moddi medonad, ki durust ast.

Maqsadi adib dar in jo on ast, ki dar olami moddi be ganovati moddi, be boigari zindagi kardan mahol ast. Hamchunon ki agar gul ham az zardii dokhili khud mahrum boshad, yoroi shukuftan namekunad.

Daryofti maqsad, darki mani, faro giriftani hadafi asosii shoir dar nazmi Bedil va ba khusus, dar gazaliyoti u tez va ba osoni dast namedihad. U asosan sarbasta sukhangui mekunad. Manii sher, mohiyati maqsadi adib pechida ast va az in ru, manii sherro tavassuti zahmathoi shabonruzi metavon sarfahm raft.

Baroi misol ba gazali digari Bedil ru ovarda mebinem, ki on az nigohi hunar, mahoratu malaka, zavqu istedodi shoiri dar kadomin poya qaror dorad. Inchunin, gazali mazkur ba kadom maqsad ejod shudaast va darki mazmunu muhtavo va manii on chi guna dast medihad. CHunonchi:

Az gubori jilvai gayri tu to bastam nazar,

CHun safi mijgon du olam mahv shud dar yakdigar.

Bastaam mahmil ba dushi yasu az khud meravam,

Boli parvozi nadorad subh juz chohi digar.

Hidmati mui miyonat to kiro boshad nasib,

Gulrukhonro z-in havas zunnor mebandad kamar.

Vahdati hasrat ba in kamfursati makhmuri kist?

Surati hamyoza dorad chini domoni sahar.

Olamero az tagoful rabti ulfat dodaem,

Nest mijgon qobili sheroza be zabti nazar.

In tanosoni daleli vahshati sarshor nest,

Har qadar afsurda gardad sang, mebandad kamar.

Gar falak beetiborat kard, joi shikva nest,

Bar halovat bastai dil chun gireh dar nayshakar.

Sayri rangu bu havas dori, zi gul gofil mabosh,

SHukhii parvoz natvon did juz dar bolu par,

CHand boyad shud havasfarsudi par, kasbi etibor,

Marham, ay gofil, namearzad ba chandin dardi sar.

Manzili sargashtagoni rohi ajz aftodagist,

To dili khok ast, Bedil, ashkro haddi safar.

Gazali mazkur doroi matla va maqta, takhallus buda, az 10 bayt iborat ast. Gazal radif nadorad va qofiyahoi on az kalimahoi zerin: nazar, yakdigar, jigar, kamar, sahar, nayshakar, par, sar, safar faroham omadaand. Reshai qofiya «ar» buda, «r»-i harfi ravi meboshad. Az sababi on ki qofiya bo ravi tamom shudaast va pas az on unsuri digare ishtirok nadorad, chunin shakli qofiyaro qofiyai muqayyad meguyand.

Gazal dar bahri Ramali musammani mahzuf ejod gardidaast, ki afili on chunin ast:

– V – – / – V – – /       – V – – /       – V –

yane foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilun.

Dar bayti avval shoir meguyad, ki ba juz tu man az hama ruy gardonidam va du olam baroi man hej ast. Mahmil bastan – ikhtiyori safar kardan, dushi yas – jonibi navmedi, az khud raftan – nest gardidan va gayra, ki omadan ba in jahon omodagi ba jahoni digar (boqi) ast. In misli subh ast, ki barobari faroravi, nest meshavad va muhlati hastiash niz khele kutoh ast. Mui miyon – nozuki, khidmat – omodagi ba kor, zunnor bastani kamar – ba khidmat tayyor budan meboshad. YAne ba umedi sharafyobi ba khidmati mahbuba hama omodai khizmat hastand. Vahshat – ramandagi, vahshati hasrat – lahzai havasho, makhmur – khumoroluda, khamyoza – dahanvojak – kutohii fursat. CHini domon – harakati bosurat va gayra. Manii in ifodaho on ast, ki umr chunon shitob dorad, ki hatto kiroi orzuhovu havasho namekunad. YO in ki: olame – jahone, dunyo, ki kinoya az insonhost. Tagoful – gaflat, bekhabari; rabti ulfat – nizomi khushholi, sheroza – vaslkunandai avroq yo chizi digar, zabti nazar

  • sarfi nazar yo boz doshtani nigoh. Maqsad on ast, ki bekhabarii mo boisi khushholii digaron shudaast. Holati qahramoni liriki holati chashm dar paykari inson ast. Agar boz yo pushida ast, az foida kholi nest. Dar holati boz budan mushohida mekunad, mebinad. Dar holati pushidani chashm mijgonho ba ham meoyandu osuda meshavand.

Va yo vojahoi tanosoni – tanparvari, osudagi; dalel – alomat, nishoni… vahshat – odamgurezi; sarshor – farovon, bisyor; afsuda gashtan

  • kornoshoyami, farsudashavi, yane kinoya az quvvatgiri va omodashavi buda, kamar bastan boshad sifati hamon tayyori meboshad. YAne manzuri adib solikoni rohi haq ast, ki onho har qadare dunyobezoru nematbadbin boshand, ba hamon andoza omodavu dastandarkorand. Zero tanosoni insonro ba dunyovu nemathoi on poyband mesozad.

Lafzi halovat – guvoroi, shirini kinoya az nozu nemathoi dunyoi; gireh – pardahoi dokhili nayshakar, ki pas az giriftani hosil onho nolozim meshavand.

Maqsadi shoir on ast, ki az beetibori shikva kardan khub nest, zero khudi shakhs gunahkor ast, ki ba nozu nemat dilbastagi dorad. YAne shakhsi haris – kasi beetibor, khoru zalil megardad.

Ifodai sayri rangu bu – mayl ba sui buyu rang, yane dunyo; gul – manba, mansha ast, zero manbai nakhat hamono gul ast. SHukhii parvoz – azmi parvoz, bavuquoi, hadafi adib on ast, ki inson olami mujizaosoro naboyad zohirbini kunad, misli on ki javhari nakhat – gul, javhari olam – Holiqi on ast. YAne parvozro hamagon mebinandu medonand, vale asosi on bolu par ast, ki be on parvoz nomumkin meboshad.

YO in ki kalimahoi havasfarsud – dar hasrati chize umrro sarf kardan; kasbi etibor – boobru shudan; marham – doru; yane to kay bahri etibor say mekuni? Agar obruyu etibor baroi inson marham boshad, talosh bahri on ranj ast.

Nihoyat kalimai «manzil» rohi – hadafnoki musofir; rohi ajz – rohi tariqat; haddi safar – masofai taykardai solik ast. Maqsadi shoir on ast, ki nozukii rohi solikro misli rohi ashki mijgon medonad, ki khele nozuk meboshad. Hamin ki zarrae azm az nizom dur shud, ba khok aftoda nobud meshavad.

Digar az khususiyathoi gazaliyoti in simoi buzurg on ast, ki az nigohi shakl komilan sunnatist, yane vazn, radifu qofiya, tedodi abyot, rioyai matla va maqta, istifodai takhallus va gayra. Albatta, dar juziyoti masalahoi shakli, khususan jihathoi zaboni, tozakoriho dorad, vale asosan hunari u dar ejodi maniho, hadafnokii tasvirhost. Mahz hamin sabab bud, ki Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil unvoni iftikhorii Abulmaoni»-ro sazovor gardid. YAne pas az Sanoi, Attor, Hoqoni, Jaloluddini Balkhi, Sadi, Iroqi, Husrav, Hofizu Kamol, Jomi va bisyor digaron sohib gardidan unvon magar oson ast?!

Az in ru, mavzui gazaliyoti u khele boy, sersohavu serpahlu, mukhtalifu gunogun ast. U makhsusan vassofi ishqi irfoni, targibgari falsafai irfonu tasavvuf, himoyagari adolatu adolatkhohi, tavsifgari ilmi hikmat, haqiqatu poki, haqjuivu haqgui va gayra meboshad.

Dar gazalhoi u misli kulli osorash khislathoi hamidai odami: ehtiromi inson, buzurgdoshti ilmu irfon, nekukori, rostguivu rostqavli, ilmomuzi, mehnatdusti, khoksori, shikastanafsi, durandeshi, sidqu sadoqat, qanoatpeshagi, saburi, khotirjami va gayra bo odditarin juziyot rui tasvir omadaand. Baraks, khislathoi razilai odami: noadolati, kibr, hasad, bukhl, duruggui, khavobalandi, insonbadbini, mardumfirebi, johilivu nodoni, munofiqi, ribokhori, palidi va gayraro sakht mahkum menamoyad, ki janbahoi falsafi – ijtimoii mavzui ashorashro tashkil namudaand. U ba mavzuhoi sunnatii gazal ru ovarda boshad ham, dar juziyot tozakori dorad. Vale tozakorihoi jiddiro Bedil dar mani, muhtavo va mohiyati masalaho vorid sokhtaast.

Dar markazi tematikii ashori Bedil, ba khusus,gazalhoi u simoi inson meistad. SHoir tarjehi insonro nisbat ba digar makhluqot qoil shuda, bartarii insonro dar khiradi u, dar faoliyati vay mebinad, shoir tavassuti ejodi bade mekhohad olamero (insonhoro) az gaflat barorad. Az in ru, gazali Bedil gazali andesha ast. Bunyodi gazaliyoti Bedil bar andesha asos yoftaast. U hatto oid ba maqomu martaba, johu jaloli inson qasidai judogona dorad, ki metavon chand bayte az onro zikr namud:

Ay shami bazmi quds[2], nadonam chi mazhari[3],

K-az vahm[4] goh ravshanu gohe mukaddari[5],

Goh az samumi[6] qahr chu gulkhan purotashi.

Goh az nasimi lutf chu gulshan muattari.

Dar chor rukni[7] dahr tui hayrati zuhur,

Dar haft bahri charkh[8] tu noyob gavhari.

Gofil zi khud mabosh, ki chun shami oftob

Iqboli haft mahfilu[9] nuh qasri akhzari.

Az har shaye[10], ki ahli tu fahmad afzali,

Az har makon, ki fahmi tu pay burd, bartari.

Har jo nigoh meravad, on jo tu raftai,

Har su khayol meravad, on jo tu mepari.

Mahkumi nafsi in hama dunhimmati charo,

K-andar bisoti quds tu sadru sarvari.

Olam hama musakhkhari amri zamiri[11]tust, Ay bekhabar, tu az chi havoro musakhkhari?!

Buzurgdoshti inson nisbat ba kulli mavjudoti rui zamin, yake az masalahoi markazii ejodiyoti Bedili Dehlavi meboshad. YAke az jihathoi farqkunandai ejodiyoti Bedil niz dar guzorishi masalai mazkur va rohi halli on zohir meshavad. Azbaski doirai faoliyati inson serseha, khudi inson makhluqi baso murakkabtarini mavjudot hast, pas darki mohiyati ejodiyoti Bedili Dehlavi niz hamin guna murakkab ast. Albatta, Bedil gazalhoe niz dorad, ki dar onho zeboihoi olami mavjuda, tasviri manzaraho, khususan juziyoti fasli bahor, jirmhoi samovi va gayra mavridi tasvir qaror doda shudaand.

[1] Maol – joi bozgasht; oqibati kor.

[2]     Quds – poki.

[3]     Mazhar – zohirshavi

[4]     Vahm – khayol.

[5]     Mukaddar – gamgin.

[6]     Samum – shamoli suzon.

[7]     Rukn – qism.

[8]     CHarkh – osmon.

[9]     Mahfil – zamin.

[10]   SHay- chiz.

[11]   Zamir – botin, dil.

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