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Archa – darkht

Archa rastanii (darakhti) hameshasabz buda, ba sinfi suzanbargon dokhil meshavad. Helhoi on asosan darakht yo buttashakl buda, bazan khobravanda meshavand. SHaklhoi darakhtii on 10-12 m va hatto to 20-30 m ba bolo qad mekashand.

archa

Barghoi aksari rastanihoi javoni archa dar solhoi avvali sabzishashon suzanmonand buda, bad shakli pulakcharo megirand. Dar baze namudhoi archa bargho ba tavri doimi suzanshakl boqi memonad. Barghoi suzanmonand shakli neshtar yo khofro dorand. Barghoi pulakchashakl odatan khurd buda, boloi ham yo girdogird joygir shudaand.

Archa dar miqyosi jahon beshtar dar mamlakathoi sohili Bahri Miyonazamin, Osiyoi Nazdik va Markazi, inchunin dar mintaqahoi khushki janubi Amerikai SHimoli meruyad. Dar mintaqahoi kuhii Tojikiston 4 namudi archa (khorburs yo archai turkistoni, mahin- burs yo archai zarafshoni, sarvarcha yo saurarcha, patakarcha yo archai sibiri) nashunamo mekunad. Onho dar hamai nohiyahoi kuhii Tojikiston dar balandii 1000-1200 to 3400-3700 m az sathi bakhr pahn gardidaand.

archa-223

Archa darakhti rushnoidust buda, ba sharoiti khushki va khunuki nihoyat tobovar meboshad. Reshai purquvvati on ba qari zamin chuqur rafta, inchunin az hisobi reshahoi ilovagii tirresha bagirdu atrof vase pahn meshavad. CHunin tarzi resharoni ba archa imkon medihad, ki ob va moddahoi gizoiro az khokhoi nisbatan kamgizo jabbida, ba khud girad. Az in jost, ki archa hatto metavonad dar zaminhoi regzor, ohakkuh, tarqishi shakhhoi uryon, pastkhamihoi kuhsor niz nashunamo kunad. Archa ba sarmoi qahratuni kuhsor nagz tob meovarad.

Archa darakhti darozumr ast. Hatto dar sinnu soli 800-1000-solagi dar on navdahoi javon paydo shuda, metavonand chalguzai bisyor va tukhmi alosifat hosil kunand.

Dar mintaqahoi jangalhoi pahnbarg archa dar joyhoi kholii zamin, ki baroi sabzishi digar namudhoi darakhton muvofiq nest, anbuhi mustaqili archazorro paydo mekunad. Bo in roh khudro az raqobati digar rastaniho barkanor megirad.

Qismi ruizaminii hamai namudhoi archa nisbati sistemai (shabakai) reshagiashon nihoyat sust mesabzad. Baroi 3,5 m qad kashi- dani archa ziyoda az 100-120 sol lozim meshavad. Hamin tavr, reshai purquvvat va shokharondai archa ba tarqishi shakhhoi luchu uryon furu rafta, qismi ruizaminiy dar shakhho ovezonshudai onro mustahkam nigoh medorad.

Archazoroni Tojikiston rastanihoi khosi kuhiston meboshand. Omili asosii nisbatan makhdudkunandai archa dar mintaqakhoi kuhi, harorati past va tarkibi gizoii khok nabuda, balki ba qadri kofi nabudani namii khok meboshad. Dar barobari in archazoroni Tojikiston az archazoroni digar mamlakathoi jahon bo on farq me- kunand, ki onho ba harorati nihoyag past (to -30°S) va ham ba haro- rati nihoyat baland (+40°S) tobovar meboshand.

Sarv niz ba shubai luchtukhmon taalluq doshta, darakhti hameshasabz ast. Vay dar jumhuriamon dar shakli khudruy masohati vasero ishgol namekunad. Faqat dar havzai daryoi Kofarnihon, dar darai Sardai Miyona chakalakzori sarvi khudruyro vokhurdan mum- kin ast.

Odatan darakhti sarv to 15-20 m (bazan to 30 m) qad mekashad. Pustlokhi tanaash khokistarrang buda, bargash ba misli bargi archa sabzi pulakchashakl meboshad. CHalguzaash gird yo bayzashakl ast, badi pukhtan mekafad va tukhmhoi dar dokhilash buda ba zamin posh mekhu- rand. Tukhmhoi ba berun aftoda metavonand qobiliyati sabzishashon- ro to 2-3 sol nigoh dorand. Sarv niz chun aksari suzanbargon tavassuti tukhmash afzoish mekunad. Ba in maqsad avvali bahor dar niholkhona (yo parvardakhona) tukhmashro mekorand. Dar sharoiti musoid taqriban pas az yak moh tukhm nesh zada, ba sabzish shuru mekunad. Dar davomi 3-4 soli parvarish niholi
navrasi sarv to yak metr qad mekashad va onro jihati kabu- dizor namudani gulgashtu khiyobonhoi shahru dehoti vatanamon ba joi doimii muvofiq meshinonad.

Sarv to du khazor sol umr mebinad. Vay hamchun darakhti hameshasabzu zebo az qadimulayyom dar khududi Tojikiston mavridi parvarish qaror do- rad.

Surati sabzishi sanavbar nisbat ba archa khele ziyod meboshad. Vay ba ravshani ehtiyoji nihoyat kalon dorad. SHokharonii on faqat dar qismi nugiash ba amal meoyad va tarzi joygirshavii shokhahoi on imkon medihad, ki rushnoi ba tamomi qismhoi rastani bakhubi dastras shavad. Tirreshai sanavbare, ki dar zamini sakht meruyad, khub sabzida, khele chuqur meravad. Dar regzaminho boshad, darakhti sa- navbar ba juz tirresha, dar qabati bolotari zamin reshahoi ilo- vagi niz hosil mekunad.Sanavbar darakhti suzanbargi hameshasabz meboshad. Poyaash sutunmonandi rost, pustlokhash tirarang, gafsii tanai baze fardhoi kalonsolash to 1-1,5 m, balandii qadash to 40 m meshavad va to 350 — 400 sol umr mebinad.

Sanavbar darakhti ba khunuki tobovar meboshad. Dar Tojikiston darakhti sanavbarro baroi kabudizor kardani kuchavu khiyobonhoi shah- ru dehot, boghoi istirohati va gayraho vase istifoda mebarand.

  1. Bargi archa chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Dar Tojikiston kadom namudhoi archa meruyand?
  3. Baroi sabzishi mutadili archa chi guna sharoitho hatman zarurand?
  4. Sarv ba tavri khudruy dar kadom mahalli Tojikiston vomekhurad?

Az rui kadom khususiyathoyash sanavbar az archa farq mekunad?

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