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Andozho dar Amorati Bukhoro

SHakli gunoguni istismori dehqonon taqriban dar hamai namudi zamin mushohida megardid. Makhsusan, ahvoli sokinoni nohiyahoi kuhi nihoyat vaznin bud. Dar boloobi nohiyai Zarafshon kishovarzoni bezamin 25 foizi aholiro tashkil medodand. Onhoe, ki chorvoi kori nadoshtand, majbur budand ba sifati batrak kor kunand.

Zaminhoi khiroji baroi amiru khonho va hokimon daromadi kalon meovard. Miqdori khiroj az har tanob zamin ba darajai obyorii zamin vobastagi dosht; az zaminhoi obi az chor yak va az panj yak hissa, az zaminhoi lalmi ba andozai az shash yak qismi hosil andoz mesitondand.

Az dehqononi qishloqhoi kuhii boloobi Zarafshon az panj yak qismi hosilro khiroj megiriftand. Dar bekigarihoi Mogiyonu Forob khiroj ba shakli moliyot (natura) girifta meshud, ki takhminan az 14 to 20 hazor pudro tashkil mekard.

Ba gayr az in khirojro pulaki ham meruyondand.

Az bogu tokzor, kishti yunuchqa, poliz va obchakori andoz bo nomi «tanobona» sitonda meshud. Dar amorati Bukhoro solhoi 1807-1808 az har tanob ba mablagi yak tillo yo khud ba tariqi mol seyaki hosilro ba sifati tanobpuli mesitondand. Dar khonii Huqand va baze joyhoi digar in andoz pulaki sitonda meshud. Binobar in «tanobpuli» nom giriftaast.

savdo-19-vek

Baroi sitondani tanobpuli zamin dar har se sol yak marotiba chen karda meshud. In andoz hangomi mugcha bastani darakhton, yane qati nazar az miqdori haqiqii hosil, ruyonda meshud. Dar in mavrid az ofati tabii to bud shudani hosil ba etibor girifta nameshud.

Vaqte ki andozho bo pul sitonda meshudand, peshaki narkhi ziroat muqarrar megardid. Usulan, vay meboist ba narkhi bozor barobar meomad. Amalan onro khele baland mebardoshtand.

Dar baze mavridho dar Mogiyon, Forob, Kishtut, inchunin dar boloobi Zarafshon ba joi tanobpuli zakot meruyonidand. Kavsan niz yak namudi andoz bud.

Kuchmanchiyoni chorvodor ham zakot medodand. Az har 40 cap gusfand yak cap, az har 10 cap ushtur niz yak cap gusfand medodand. Kuchmanchiyon inchunin baroi mansabdori khud yak miqdor pulu molro ba sifati maoshi onho medodand.

Hunarmandon va savdogaron ham khangomi furukhtani moli khud ba khazinai hokim andoz mesuporidand. Ba juz andozi tarozupuli va takhtijoi dar bozor boz az onho andozi makhsus, ba misli dalolipuli niz mesitondand.

Barzgaron va hunarmandone, ki dar korhoi jamiyatii tamiri juyboru dargotho ishtirok namekardand, boqipuli nom andoz mesupurand.

Ba zammi in khiroju majburiyathoi mamul boz bisyor andozhoi digar niz mavjud budand. Onho makhsusan dar davrai amaliyoti harbi vusati ziyod paydo mekardand. YAke az hamin qabil andozhoi favquloda «pul» bud, ki pardokhti on baroi aholi khele garon meaftod.

Hangomi jang yo badi ba okhir rasidani on golibon az maglubon ba nom «amonpuli» megiriftand. Hajmi on ba khudsarii golib vobasta bud.

Hangomi ruyonidani andozho andozchinon nihoyat ba suistemol roh medodand. Az mavrid istifoda burda duzdi mekardand, az mardum ba hajmi ziyodgar moliyot mesitondand, jamkunandai khiroj meduzdid, bek meduzdid, khazinadori khonu hokim meduzdid. Hon faqat bo hamin qanoat mekard, ki miqdori tainkardai u purra jamovari gardida, ba khazinai u vorid meshavad.

Hiroju moliyothoi ilovagi va majburiyahoi gunoguni mehnati, alalkhusus dar Bukhoroi SHarqi hadu hisob nadoshtand. Ba dehqonon lozim meomad, ki majburiyathoi gunogunro niz ado namoyand. YAke az majburiyathoi khele vaznin hashar bud. In istiloh dar on zamon korhoi majburiero, ki dehqonon boyad ijro mekardand, ifoda menamud. Sokhtan va tamir kardani nahrho, inshoot, qalaho, pulho (kuprukkho), rohho, inchunin kishtukor va niholnishoni dar zaminhoi mir yo khon az hamin qabil korho ba shumor meraftand. Goho dar yak hashar to 10 hazor kas ishtirok mekard. Dehqonon vazifador budand, ki ba hashar bo kharu asp va asbobu abzori khud khozir shavand.

Dar khonii Huqand mukarrar gardida bud, ki har yak dehqon boyad se ruz dar hashar shirkat namoyad. Huroki odamon va khoshoki chorvoro khon ba zimai khud megirift. Dar Qarotegin muddati hashar 15 ruz tul mekashid. Dar baze joyho dehqonon hangomi khashar az hisobi khud khurok mekhurdand.

Dar Qaroteginu Darvoz aholiro majbur mekardand, ki baroi amaldoron va hokimoni khud hezum tayyor namoyand.

Dar Huqand, Darvoz va Qarotegin davlat az mablagi aqdi nikoh va taqsimi meros niz andoz megirift. Dar joyhoi digar in mablag nasibi qozi bud.

Dar sari pul va guzargohho baroi guzaronidani bor va chorvo bon sitonda meshud. Bori garoni andozho bar dushi dehqononi kambagaltarin meaftod. Kambagalon baroi adoi andozho aksar vaqt pul paydo karda nametavonistand. Az hamin sabab onho majbur budand, ki az boyho pul yo mahsulot qarz bigirand. Baroi qarzi girifta meboist foizi ilova namuda bargardonand. In taomul ba khonakharobii kasoni bisyor sabab megardid. Dehqonon majbur meshudand, ki baroi ruz guzaronidan ba shahrhoi kalon ravand, ki dar on joyho chun mardikor, sais, mashkob, bogbon kor mekardand.

Dar baze joyho dar korhoi kishovarzi, kosibi va korhoi khojagi mehnati arzoni gulomon istifoda megardid. Gulomon az subh to shom kor karda, nimgurusna shabro ruz mekardand va dar tan libosi janda doshtand. Sohibmansabon va zamindoroni kalon sohibi dahho gulom budand.

Mehnati toqatfarso, andozu majburiyathoi sershumor, suistemoli mansabdoron, khonavayron va qashshoqshavii mardumi kambagal, janghoi khonavayronkunanda sababi asosii shurishhoi ommavii mardumi jabrdida megardidand.

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