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Alergiya: sabab va tabobati in bemori

Allergiya  –  in aksulamali  muzmini sistemai masuniyati organizmi odam  ba mavodu mahsulothoe ast, ki mamulan bezarar hastand. Nishonahoi (simptomhoi) allergiya metavonand dar joyhoi gunoguni organizm paydo shavand, shoyad az yak chand daqiqa to yakchand soat davom kunand va az jihati darajai vaznini khele gunogun  boshand.

Sadamoti (shoki) anafilaktiki Sadamoti (SHoki) anafilaktiki – in vokunishi nomuvofiqi (gayriadekvatii) organizm ba yagon allergeni muayyane meboshad. On baroi hayoti inson khavfnok ast.

alergiyaOmosi (varamshavii) Kvinke Omosi (varamshavii) Kvinke – in aksulamali allergii muzmin va baroi hayoti inson khatarnok meboshad, ki dar shakli paydoshavii omosi pahnshudai pust, hujayrahoi zeri pust  va mushakho (fassiy) ba nazar merasad

Varajai khasbedagi (Sennaya likhoradka) Varajai khasbedagi  (Sennaya likhoradka) —  dar asl varaja (tablarza/talvosa) nest, balki in khud aksulamali allergie meboshad, ki bo  khuruji atsazani, zukkom va mahkamshavii bini. hamrohi karda meshavad.

Allergiya

Allergiya –  in aksulamali muzmini sistemai masuniyati organizmi odam  ba mavodu mahsulothoe ast, ki mamulan bezarar hastand. Nishonahoi (simptomhoi) allergiya metavonand dar joyhoi gunoguni organizm paydo shavand, shoyad az yak chand daqiqa to yakchand soat davom kunand va az jihati darajai vaznini khele gunogun  boshand.

Malumothoi umumi

Allergiya metavonad ba pashmi baze namudzhoi hayvonot, mavodhoi khurokvorii gunogun, changu gubor, doruho, mavodhoi kimiyovi, gazidani hasharotho va gardi gulho paydo shavad.

Mavodhoe ki boisi paydoshavii allergiya megardand,  allergenho nomida meshavand. Dar baze holatho aksulamalhoi allergi chunon sabuk meguzarand, ki hatto shoyad shumo umuman nafahmed, ki allergiya dored.

Ammo allergiya metavonad, baraks az had ziyod khatarnok va hatto baroi hayot tahdidkunanda niz boshad. Dar odamone ki giriftori allergiya hastand, shoyad sadamoti anafilaktiki paydo shavad, ki holati vaznini patologi meboshad va shoyad bo aksulamali  az had ziyod shadidi organizm bo allergen aloqamand boshad. Sadamoti (shoki) anafialakti metavonad az sababi allergenhoi gunogun, az qabili mavodhoi doruvori, gazidani hasharotho, mavodhoi khurokvori, paydo shuda boshad. Sadamoti anafilakti inchunin metavonad az sababi ba pust rasidani allergen, masalan bo lateks, paydo shavad.

Allergiya ba mavodhoi khurokvori in aksulamali masuniyati meboshad, ki az mavodhoi muayyani khurokvori ba vujud meoyad va bo nishonahoi (simptomhoi) malum hamrohi karda meshavad. Allergiya ba mavodhoi khuroki vaqte ba vujud meoyad, ki organizm yagon namudi mavodi khurokvoriro ba tavri ishtibohi hamchun khatar baroi organizm qabul mekunad va baroi khudmuhofizatkuni sistemai masuniyatro majbur mekunad, ki antitelahoro korkard karda barorad. Hangomi boz dubora istemol kardani allergen sistemai masuniyat allakay ba zudi in mavodro meshinosad va favran aksulamal (vokunish) nishon medihad va antitelahoro korkard karda mebarorad. Aynan hamin mavodho nishonahoi allergiro ba vujud meorand. Allergiya ba mavodhoi khurokvori qarib ki hama vaqt ba hamin tariq inkishof meyobad.

Dar baze holatho dar kalonsolon, on namudi allergiyahoe ki dar sinni khurdsoliashon mushohida karda meshudand, az bayn meravand. Ammo agar allergiya akunun faqat dar sinni kalonsoli paydo shuda boshad, az on khalos shudan khele mushkil ast.

Zukkomi allergi (mutakhassison in holatro rinit menomand) yo varajai khasbedagi (sennaya likhoradka) dar har yake az dah (1/10)  nafari mushohida karda meshavad,  dar aksar mavridho merosi (avlodi) ast. Odamone ki digar namudi bemorihoi allergi, masalan astmai bronkhiali yo shukufa (ekzema) dorand, dar aksar mavridho az zukkomi allergi niz aziyat mekashand. In guna shakli allergiya nazar ba mardho beshtar dar zanho mushohida karda meshavad. Hangomi giriftorshavi ba zukkomi allergi shoyad nishonahoi zerin paydo shavand: khorish dar chashmon, dar gulu, dar bini va dar kom, atsazani va inchunin mahkamshavii bini, obravi az chashmon, obravii luobi az bini, konyunktivit (surkhshavi va dardi chashmon). Dar holathoi vaznin zukkomi allergi metavonad khuruji astma (dar odamone ki az astma aziyat mekashand) va yo shukufaro (ekzemaro) ba bor orad.

Sababhoi ba vujud omadani allergiya

Dar baze odamon sistemai masuniyat bar ziddi baze  mavodhoi muayyane (allergenho), moddahoi  kimiyovii gunogunero korkard karda mebarorad va ba tavri shadid aksulamal nishon medihad. YAke az onho gistamin buda, nishonahoi allergiro paydo mekunad. Aksulamali organizm metavonad dar natijai bo nafas ba darun kashidani in allergen, bo pust tamos giriftani on, vorid kardani allergen yo bo khurok istemol kardani on ba vujud oyad. Ba siftai allergen pashmi hayvonho, pashmaki darakhton, mavodhoi khuroki, mavodhoi oroishi (kosmetiki), mavodhoi dorugi, gardi gul  va dudi sigor misol shuda metavonand.

Nishonahoi (simptomhoi) allergiya

Aksulamali allergi metavonad dar joyhoi gunoguni badan paydo shavad, ammo nishonahoi on metavonand az yakchand daqiqa to ba yakchand ruz mushohida karda shavand.
— Rohhoi boloii nafaskashi: varajai khasbedagi (sennaya likhoradka), astma;
— chashmoni surkhshuda va obrav;
— dard va iltihobi bugumho;
— suzgiyoh (gazna/krapivnisa), shukufa (ekzema);
— shikamravi, qaykuni, ishol (darunravi).

Orizaho

— sadamoti (shoki) anafilaktiki (aksulamali vaznini allergi);
— nafaskashii dushvorshuda yo vizzossi;
— nabzi teztapanda;
— araqi khunuk;
— pusti chaspak;
— suzgiyoh;
— ikhtiloji meda (jeludochnie spazmi);
— sarcharkhzani;
— dilbehuzuri;
— sakta (kollaps) (nojurii shadidi ragho);
— ragkashiho (ikhtilojho).

Hangomi mavjud nabudani yorii tibbi holati allergiyai vaznin metavonad ba favtshavi burda rasonad.

SHumo khudaton chi kor karda metavoned

Aksulamalhoi sabuki allergi boisi paydo shudani zukkom, obravii chashmon va digar nishonahoi ba bemorihoi khunukzadagi monand, shuda metavonand. Inchunin shoyad kame donachahoi khorishkunanda niz paydo shavand. Agar shumo dar khudaton yo dar shakhsoni nazdikaton tez – tez hamin guna aksulamalhoro mushohida kuned, pas boyad ba dukhtur murojiat namoed.

Dar yod doshta boshed, ki dar holati sadamoti anafilakti, allergiya ba tamomi organizm tasirashro merasonad. Sadamoti anafilakti metavonad dar davomi 15 daqiqa pas az istemol kardani allergen (barangezanda) ba amal oyad, baroi hamin boyad chorahoi tajili andeshida shavand (boyad yorii tajili davat karda shavad).

Az mavodhoi khurokvori,  doruvori va digar mavodhoe, ki shumo bore ba onho allergiya doshted, khuddori namoed.

Boyad dustoni shumo, kheshovandon va hamkoronaton dar borai ba kadom chizho allergiya doshtani shumo bokhabar boshand. Hamesha ba hamai dukhturon (az on jumla stomatologho, kosmetologho va gayra) dar borai hama guna aksulamalhoi allergiaton, makhsusan dar borai ba kadom mavodhoi dorugi allergiya doshtanaton, gufta moned. In ham ba doruhoi bo dorukhat (resept) tavsiyashvanda  va ham be dorukhat tavsiyashuda dakhl dorad, Pesh az istemol kardani hama guna doruho, avval bodiqqat bo kogazpech va tavsiyanomai (dasturamali)  on shinos shaved.

Hangomi shaklhoi sabuki zukkom baroi bartaraf kardani nishonahoi on az qatrahoi ziddiomosi va doruhoi poshshavanda istifoda bared. Agar allergiya az mavodhoi doruvori paydo shuda boshad, favran az istemoli on doru dast kashed va bo dukhtur maslihat kuned.

Mavodhoi dorugii antigistaminiero istifoda bared, ki az tarafi dukhutr tavsiya shudaand. Hangomi istemol kardani mavodhoi antigistamini, ki tasiri sedativi dorand, az idora kardani avtomobil va mekhanizmho khuddori kuned, chunki onho boisi khoboludi shuda metavonand. Dar ayni zamon holo yak qator doruhoi antigistaminie niz mavjud hastand, ki tasiroti sedativi nadorand. Hangomi aksulamalhoi allergi dar pust, baroi bartaraf kardani suzish dar joyhoi donachahoi paydoshudai khoirshkunanda az krem yo losyonhoi ziddi khorish  istifoda bared.

Dukhturi shumo chi kor karda metavonad

Dukhutr boyad ehtimoliyati vujud doshtani digar bemorihoro istisno kunad va inchunin baroi muayyan kardani allergen, sanjishho (testho) guzaronad va agar zarur boshad doruhoi antigistamini va yo steroidhoro navishta tavsiya dihad. Agar allergen muayyan karda shuda boshad, ammo bo on tamos doshtan noguzir boshad,  pas boyad dukhur baroi peshgiri va tabobat kardani allergiya, vaksinai makhsusero ba shumo guzaronad.

Dukhtur inchunin metavonad baroi bemorone, ki az allergiya ba mavodhoi khuroki aziyat mekashand, parhezkunii (dietai) makhsusero niz tavsiya namoyad.

CHorahoi peshgirikunanda hangomi allergiya

Kushish kuned, ki mavodhoi barangezandai allergiyaro muayyan namoed, ki dar shumo allergiyaro ba vujud meorand va hamesha khudro az onho dur gired. Nazorat kuned, ki hamesha dar khonai shumo tozagi boshad va changu gubor, pashmaki darakhton va kanaho naboshand. Dar vaqti rubu chin yo tozakuni bo changkashak, afshondani changi mebelho, ivaz kardani bolopushhoi rakhti khob va digar tamosgiri bo ashyohoi changolud, biniatonro mahkam kuned (az bandinai dokagi yo niqobi ruy istifoda bared). Hangomi allergiya doshtan ba baze hayvonhoi khonagi az nigoh doshtani onho dar khonaaton khuddori kuned.

Agar shumo ba mavodhoi dorugii tibbi allergiya doshta boshed, hamesha bo khud kortero nigoh dored,  ki boyad dar on ba kadom doruho allergiya doshtani shumo, navishta shuda boshad. Dar in guna holat, hatto agar shumo dar holati behushi boshed yo nomi in guna doruhoro ba yod ovarda natavoned ham, shumo az voridshavii allergen ba badanaton emin hasted. Agar allergiyai vaznin (shadid) doshta boshed, dar in bora ba ahli oilaaton va hamkoronaton khabar dihed va az ogoh kardani dukhtur niz dar in bora faromush nakuned.

Qoidahoi zistan bo allergiya

Vaqte ki dar borai allergiya sukhan meguyand, guyo hama mutakhassis hastand: kasero farzandash — allergiyador hast, kase az bardosht nakardani baze mavodhoi khuroki aziyat mekashad, kase tamomi bahor atsa mezanad va sulfa mekunad va ilova bar in khorishi badan ham dorad. Mesazad ki dar borai pollinoz yo zukkomi allergi ba tavri alohida gap zanem. In holat baroi organizm khatarnok meboshad va dar yakjoyagi bo dermatiti atopiki metavonad boisi astmai bronkhiali gardad.

Sababho

Odatan chunin mehisoband, ki «hamai bemoriho bo holati asabho rabt dorand»  va allergiya niz az in istisno nest. Dar asl in tavr nest: stress naqshi «gironkunak» yo triggero mebozad, ki moiliyati irsii allergiro bedor mesozad. YAne ki, agar pas az yagon khel hayajoni sakhti ruhi yo asabi, shumo mushohida kuned, ki az chi boshad ki zukkom (shamolkhuri) dertar davom karda istodaast  va shumo az sulfai  khushki beholkunanda orom yofta nametavoned, ba allergolog – immunolog murojiat kuned. Agar shumo az khorish aziyat kashida istoda boshed, sababi paydoshavii onro dukhturi dermatolog fahmida metavonad. SHoyad in khorish nevrogenni boshad va shoyad – stress bemorii khobidaro bedor karda boshad.

Allergiya dar aksar mavridho dar sinni barvaqti kudaki paydo meshavad. Oyo on «afzoish» karda metavonad? «In dar aksar mavridho rukh medihad. Mo inro mushohida mekunem va az hamin sabab kushish mekunem ki ba tavri maksimali tabobati dorugiro kamtar kunem, muhiti beallergeniro muhayyo kunem, to in ki sistemai masuniyatii kudak khudash bo ravandi (prosessi) barpo kardani behissi yo chi tavre ki mo meguem bardoshtkuni ba allergenhoi az jihati sabab muhimro uhda karda tavonad» — naql mekunad  doktori ilmhoi tibbi, rohbari ilmi, sardukhturi NKKS –i allergiya va immunologiya  YUriy Smolkin.

«Ba purragi» sihat shudan az allergiya gayriimkon ast, chunki in namudi khossai aksulamali sistemai masuniyat meboshad, ki shumo onro hamchun merosi irsi qabul mekuned.

Agar tamomi majmui (kompleksi) chorabiniho, az qabili barpo kardani muhiti gipoallergeni, guzaronidani tabobati makhsus to gulshukufi va tabobati simptomatiki dar asnoi gulshukufi guzaronida shavand, khudi in bemoriro bartaraf yo sabuk kardan mumkin ast.

 

Oqibathoi nomatlub

Allergenhoi az hama pahnshudatarin – in gardi gul, changi kanahoi changposhdihanda, pashmi hayvonho, metallho, doruho, mavodhoi khuroki, pesh az hama mahsuloti shiri, qulfinay va mevahoi sitrusi meboshand. Baroi muayyan kardani allergeni fardii khudaton boyad ba dukhutr – allergolog murojiat kuned va az sanjishhoi makhsus guzared.

Hangomi zukkomi allergi – pollinoz az gardi gul,  khuruji khorishkunii pardahoi luobi, obravi az chashmon, zukkom, atsazani va (bazan) sulfai davomnok ba vujud meoyad. Rastani – allergenhoi az hama mamul tarin – in darakhti tus (beryoza), safedor (topol), darakhti rozdor (olkha), bulut (dub), bed (iva), dar janub – sarv (kiparis) va rastanihoi khushador (zlaki) meboshand. Allergeni az hama purquvvatarin in begonaalafi karantinii ambroziya – rastanie bo gulhoi khurdi zard meboshad.

Naboyad pollinozro hamchun nokhushii (mushkiloti) alamovari muvaqqati hisob kunem. Segonai riniti allergi,  dermatiti atopiki  va astmai bronkhiali hamchun «marshi atopiki» nomida meshavad.

Muvofiqi malumothoe, ki d.i.t., professori kafedrai allergologiyai klinikii RMAPO Natalya Nenasheva ovardaast, dar Rossiya dermatiti atopi dar 6,2 – 15,5 % — i kudakon, riniti allergi dar 12 – 24% — i aholi vomekhurad, astmai bronkhiali  dar bayni kudakon 5,6 – 12,1%,  dar kalonsolon  5,6 – 7,3% — ro tashkil medihad. Astmai bronkhialii atopi dar aksar mavridho bo riniti allergi yakjoya meboshad.

CHi tavr boyad zist

YAke az chorahoi muhimi komyobshavi dar muboriza bo allergiya – in parhezkunii (dietai) ziddiallergiyavi   meboshad. Sabzavothoi taru toza, lubiyogiho va rastanihoi khushador, ba ratsion beshtar vorid kardani mohi, na in ki gusht, — ravandi in bemoriro osontar menamoyad. Az nushokiho be kofeinashro intikhob namoed. Ammo parhezkuni (dieta) boyad ba tavri jiddi, pas az guzaronidani sanjishho infirodi tain karda shavad: shoyad ki aynan mohi yo mevahoi donakdor «dushmani shakhsii» shumo boshand.

CHunin aqidae pahnshuda (roij) meboshad, ki guyo baroi allergikho dar muhiti namnok zistan zararovar ast va muhiti khushku garm baroi onho – in darmoni hama dardho meboshad. SHoyad in aqida baroi digar bemoriho, az on jumla Bemorii Sil durust boshad, ammo na baroi allergiya.

Digaron fikr mekunand, ki baraks ba allergikho zarur ast, ki dar labi bahr zindagi kunand. In nodurust ast. Dar labi bahr niz alafho (boz hamon ambroziya), gulho va darakhton meruyand, ki gardi guli onho ba masofahoi dur pahn meshavad.

Naboyad dar davrai tiramoh va zimiston (tobiston), dar davrai epidemiya khudro dar khona qulf zada shined – baraks, sayru gasht dar havoi toza khele foidaovar ast. Ammo ham baroi odamoni solim va ham baroi odamone,  ki az allergiya aziyat mekashand, mearzad ki az tamosi mustaqim doshtan bo shakhsoni siroyatshuda hazar kunand.

Voqean, dar bayni namudhoi gunoguni allergiya, allergiya ba oftob – fotodermit niz vujud dorad. Naboyad shumo umed banded, ki malhamhoi (kremhoi)  ziddioftobi shumoro az paydoshavii donachahoi khorishkunanda emin nigoh medorand. Garchande ki baroi allergikho istifodai chunin kremho tavsiya doda meshavad, boyad khudro harchi kamtar va ba tavri minimali dar zeri tasiri nurhoi oftob qaror dihed.

CHi tavr boyad tabobat girift

CHunin moddahoe vujud dorand, ki nishonahoi (simptomhoi) allergiyaro ba tavri nazarras kam mekunand. «Mavodhoi dorugii antigistamini az rui qoida hangomi tabobati simptomatiki zarur meboshand. In vositai khubi tabobati mustaqim va yoridihanda meboshad, ammo in holo darmoni dardho nest, — gufta mefahmonad YUriy Smolkin. – Hangomi rinit mavodhoi poshshavandai (spreyho) dimogii ba joyhoi alohida tasirrason tavsiya doda shudaand, hangomi astma – bronkholitikho va hangomi dermatit — mavodhoi tasiri beruna istifoda burda meshavand».

Nisbati vositahoi antigistamini munosibati odamon bohazar (ehtiyotkorona) ast – odamon chunin mehisoband ki in doruho boisi bequvvati va khoboludi meshavand. Ammo doruhoi nasli nav boisi odatkuni va hissi behavsalagi nameshavand.

Imruzho vositai az hama tasirnoktarin baroi sabuk kardani nishonahoi (simptomhoi) pollino,  kortikosteroidhoi dimogi shumorida meshavand. Munosibati odamon nisbati inho, nazar ba mavodhoi dorugii antigistamini, boz ham manfitar meboshad – chunki okhir, hormonho hamchun vositai sakhttasir va doroi yak qator tasiroti nomatlub shuhratdoru mamul gashtaand.

Kortikosteroidhoi dimogi amalan ba jarayoni khun jabbida nameshavand va ba organizm ba tavri umumi tasir namerasonand. Bo vujudi in, istemolkunii davomnoki onho metavonad boisi zararbinii zamburugii pardahoi luobii bini gardad.

Muvofiqi tavsiyahoi  avrupoi, ki az tarafi kordonhoi (eksperthoi) amrikoi va rossiyagi niz qabul karda shudaand, hangomi bemorie ki simptomatikahoi ba tavri noravshan zuhurshavanda dorad, kortikosteroidhoi dimogi ba muddati 3 moh tain karda meshavand va pas az in samaranokii onho bahodihi karda meshavad.

Hangomi holathoi khele vaznintar tabobat ba yak moh tain karda meshavad va badan holati bemor bahodihi karda meshavad. Agar rinosinusit va pollinoz vujud doshta boshad, imkoniyati tabobat bo usuli jarrohi ba nazar girifta meshavad.

Usuli yagonae, ki ba sababi allergiya tasir merasonad, misli peshtara emkunoni (vaksinatsiya) bo allergen meboshad. In guna emkunoni ham baroi kalonsolon va ham baroi kudakon guzaronida meshavad. In guna kori mushkilro faqat ba mutakhassisoni olidaraja  bovar kardan mumkin ast.

Agar khatogiero daryoft karda boshed? Onro namoyon karda moned va tugmahoi Ctrl+Enter – ro zer kuned.

Tabobati bemorihoi allergi

Bemorihoi allergi dar asosi (tarkibi) khud mekhanizmhoi nihoyat (ba qadri kifoya) murakkabero darbar megirand.

Boyad judo kardani in guruhro ba allergiyaho (ki dar odamoni solim vomekhurad va hangomi tamos yo ba dokhili organizm aftodani antigenhoi konkreti, masalan mavodhoi doruvori, doruvorihoi  «noshinos», khushmazzakunnadaho va gayra)  va atopiyaho (bemorihoe ki dar asosi (tarkibi) onho moiliyati genetiki ba aksulamalhoi purzur nisbati  allergenho khobidaast); ba atopiyaho astmai bronkhiali, riniti allergi, dermatiti atopi va gayra dokhil meshavand. Fahmo ast, ki tabobat kardani bemorihoi in qadar farqkunanda, nisbatan az ham farq khohad dosht.

Dar umum tabobati bemorihoi allergi, az bayn burdani tamosgiri bo allergen, tarzi hayoti (ruzgori) gipoallergeni, parhezkuni (dieta) va tabobat bo doruhoro darbar megirad.

CHorahoi favri

Agar dar shumo yo farzandi shumo ba yagon barangezanda aksulamali allergi paydo shuda boshad, boyad shumo dorui antigistaminii nasli 1umro (suprastin, tavegil va gayra)  az rui voyaguzorii sinusoli qabul kuned va betakhir ba dukhtur murojiat namoed. Agar shumo khuruji holati baroi hayot tahdidkunandaero, az qabili khuruji astmai bronkhiali  (ki bori avval paydo shudaast) yo omosi Kvinkero shubha karda boshed – yorii tajiliro davat namoed. Agar dar shumo yo dar farzandi shumo tashkhisi astmai bronkhiali guzoshta  shuda boshad, hangomi paydo shudani khuruji on ba tavri jiddi az rui tavsiyahoi dukhtur amal kuned. Dar tabobati dorugii holathoi vaznini allergi doruhoi antigistamini, glyukokortisteroidho, bronkholitikho, energosorbentho va gayra istifoda burda meshavand. Vobasta ba vazninii ravandu guzarishi bemori dukhtur tabobati zaruriro intikhob mekunad.

Tabobat dar davrai oromi

«Davrai oromi» on davraero menomand, ki khuruji bemorii allergi peshgiri shudaast va bemor tabobat nagirifta istodaast yo tabobati bazisie girifta istodaast, ki baroi peshgirii khurujhoi nav ravona karda shudaast. Vobasta ba vazninii bemori allergolog metavonad parhezkuni (dieta), tarzi hayoti gipoallergeni va tabobati dorugiro tavsiya dihad.

Parhezkuni (dieta) baroi bemorihoi allergi dar maqolai alohida barrasi karda shudaast.

Tarzi hayoti gipoallergeni in tavsiyahoi umumi baroi hamai bemorone meboshad, ki az bemorihoi atopiki aziyat mekashand. Onho mahdud kardani tamosgirii bemor bo changu gubor, gardi gul, pashmi hayvonoti khonagi, tamoku va digar allergenhoro darbar megirand.

Baroi in sholu namadho, qolinho, rohatkursiho, bolishthoi ziyodati va hama guna chizhoero, ki dar onho changu gubor jam shuda metavonad, boyad az khona barovarda shavand va ba matrasu bolishtho ruykashhoi maskhusi changnoguzar kashida shavand, ruypushhoi rakhti khob va bolopushho (odeyalaho) to haddi imkon zud-zud shusta shavand, hujraho muntazzam boyad havoivaz (ventilyatsiya) karda shavand, boya dar khona az kashidani sigor dast kashid va gayra.

Tabobati dorugiro vobasta ba darajai takrorshavi va vazninii epizodhoi allergi intikhob va tain mekunand. Pas az sar kardani tabobat boyad zud-zud ba nazdi dukhtur raved va dar borai vazi salomatiaton ba vay khabar doda isted, to in ki vay tavonad tabobatro ba nazmi durust darovarda tanzim kunad. Hama tavsiyahoi dukhturo rioya kuned. Dar khona ruznomai makhsus tartib dihed. Sana va vaqti ruy dodani har yak khurujro va hamon allergenero niz, ki khurujro ba bor meorad navishta moned, hangomi ba qabuli dukhtur raftanaton in ruznomaro bo khud gired. Ba in tarz baroi dukhtur osontar meshavad, ki oidi vazi sihatii shumo chi kor kardanashro donad. Az dukhtur fahmida gired, ki kadom alomatho oidi badshavii vazi salomati khabar medihand. SHumo boyad aniq tasavvur kuned, ki hangomi ruy dodani khuruj chi amalhoro boyad ijro kuned.

Allergen- immunoterapiyai makhsus

In usuli tabobat az on iborat ast, ki ba organizmi bemor voyahoi balandshavandai afshurdai (ekstrakti) hamon allergene vorid karda meshavand, ki bemor ba on hassosiyati baland dorad. Dar natijai in guna tabobat ziyodshavii tadrijii ustuvorii organizm ba tasiroti hamin allergen mushohida karda meshavad. Dar yod doshta boshed, ki immunoterapiya (SIT) ba tavri istisnoi faqat dar davrai remissiya va jiddan az rui nishondihandaho guzaronida meshavad. Dar surati ba tavri oqilona guzaronidan, in usuli samaranok va bekhatar meboshad. Vale dar ayni hol dar yod doshta boshed, ki bo maqsadi roh nadodan ba orizaho, pas az vorid kardani allergenho, ba muddati na kamtar az 30 daqiqa boyad bemor dar zeri nazorati dukhtur boshad.

Peshgirii khuruji bemorihoi allergi

Mutaasifona, qismi beshtari bemorihoi allergi muzmin meboshand, onho bo davrahom khurujkuni va remissiya meguzarand.

Dar davrai remissiya, shoyad bemor oidi salomatiash yagon shikoyate nadoshta boshad.  Davrai khurujkunii bemori boshad, bo nishonahoi nazarras va badshavii vazi umumii salomatii bemor khudro nishon medihad. Aynan baroi hamin, peshgirii khuruji bemori yake az maqsadhoi asosii tabobat meboshad. SHoyad hama chiz muhim boshad: yane shumo chi mekhured, chi menushed, dar kujo istijomat mekuned, oyo zud-zud ba sayru gasht mebaroed,  tarzi hayoti shumo dar khona chi tavr tashkil karda shudaast, oyo shumo hayvonoti khonagi dored, shumo az kadom namudi kosmetika istifoda mebared, oyo shumo ba restoran meraved, shumo ba kadom namudi varzish shugl dored va gayra.

Agar dar shumo yake az bemorihoi allergiro tashkhis guzoshta boshand, dukhtur hatman ba shumo dar borai asoshoi peshgirii khurujho naql mekunad. Malum ast, ki baroi har yak bemori usulhoi daqiqi peshgiri kor karda barovarda shudaast. In jo mo faqat tavsiyahoi umumiro meorem.

Huddori kardan az tamos bo allergenhoi asosan sababshavanda

Hangomi muoina kardani bemor yo guzoshtani tashkhisi bemorii allergi, az rui qoida dukhtur kushish mekunad, ki omilhoi barangezandaro muayyan va paydo kunad.  Baroi muayyan kardani allergenho yakchand namudi usulhoi tashkhis vujud dorand: namuna-sanjishhoi pusti, tahlili khun baroi sanjishi makhsusi IgE, namuna-sanjishhoi khurujangez. Dukhtur, tarikhi bemorii shumoro tahlil karda, yake az in tahqiqothoro farmoish medihad. Bad az muayyan kardani allergen, dukhtur ba shumo oidi tagyir dodani tarzi hayot, baroi bartaraf kardani tamos bo in omilhoi barangezanda, tavsiyaho medihad.

Nazorat az boloi omilhoi muhiti zist

Hususiyati fiziologii odamone, ki az yagon namudi bemorihoi allergi aziyat mekashand, in moiliyati hameshagii (ibtidoii) onho ba zuhuroti gunoguni allergiya meboshad. Makhsusan in holat dar davrahoi khurujkuni, dar on vaqte ki organizm dar holati gipperaktivi qaror dorad, vaznintar megardad. Dar in davra hatto barangezandai nochize ham metavonad, zuhuroti bemorii asosiro vaznintar gardonad. Aynan baroi hamin ham dar ilmi allergologiya mafhume bo nomi tarzi hayoti gipoallergeni vuujud dorad, yane ba tavri maksimali qat kardani tamos bo allergeni potensiali.

Honai khudatonro az omilhoi khafnoki muhofizat namoed. Hayvonhoi khonagiro dar mavzei judogona nigohdori kuned yo ba dasti yagon odamoni khub dihed. Dar khona tamoku (nos) va sigor nakashed. Az mavodhoi khushbuykuni va digar mavodhoi buyi sakhtdoshta istifoda nakuned. Palosu qolinho, muloimkursiho, bolishthoi ziyodati va hama guna chizhoero, ki dar onho changu gubor jam shuda metavonad, dur kuned. Dar bolishtho va matrasho ruykashhoi makhsusi changnoguzar kashed. Az matrasho, bolishtho va bolopushhoi (odeyalahoi) gipoallergeni istifoda namoed. Ruykashhoi rakhti khob va kurpahoro (odeyalahoro) to haddi imkon zud-zud shued. Hujrahoro muntazzam havoivaz (shamoldihi/ventilyatsiya) namoed. Ammo naguzored, ki ba dokhili hujraho allergenho, az qabili gardi gul yo pashmaki darakhton vorid shavand.

Parhezkuni (dieta)

Tavsiyahoi parhezkuni (dieta) vobasta ba bemorii judogonai khossa farq mekunand. Rioya kardani parhezkunii gipoallergeni dar bisyor holatho imkon medihad, ki inkishofyobii khuruji bemori peshgiri karda shavad.

 

Tabobatkuni bo doruho

Pas az aniq shudani tashkhis, shoyad baroi shumo tabobati doimii bazisi tain karda shavad, ki metavonad hamchun peshgirikunandai khurujhoi nav khizmat namoyad. Boyad dar yod dosht, ki in guna doruvorihoro muntazzam va az rui tavsiyai dukhtur qabul mekunand. Ba tavri muntazzam qabul nakardani doruho dar aksar mavridho ba inkishofyobii khuruj ovarda merasonad. SHumo ba in doruho vobastagi paydo namekuned, hatto agar onhoro dar davomi solhoi ziyod ham istemol kuned.

Allergen- immunoterapiyai makhsus

In usuli tabobat az on iborat ast, ki ba organizmi bemor voyahoi balandshavandai ekstrakti hamon allergene vorid karda meshavand, ki bemor ba on hassosiyati baland dorad, Dar natijai in guna tabobat ziyodshavii tadrijii ustuvorii organizm ba tasiroti hamin allergen mushohida karda meshavad. Dar yod doshta boshed, ki immunoterapiya (SIT) ba tavri istisnoi faqat dar davrai remissiya va jiddan az rui nishondihandaho guzaronida meshavad. Dar surati ba tavri oqilona guzaronidan, in usuli samaranok va bekhatar meboshad. Vale dar ayni hol dar yod doshta boshed, ki bo maqsadi roh nadodan ba orizaho, pas az vorid kardani allergenho, ba muddati na kamtar az 30 daqiqa bemor boyad dar zeri nazorati dukhtur boshad.

Mushohidai doimii (sanatsiyai) sarchashmahoi mavjudai siroyatshavi

Dar aksar mavridho yake az omilhoi segonai (triggerii) inkishofyobii khuruji bemorihoi allergi, dar organizm mavjud budani sarchashmahoi siroyatshavi meboshad. Bazan vaqt siroyat metavonad be hej guna nishonaho (be simptom) zuhur kunad va tanho dar asnoi muoinakunii makhsus muayyan karda meshavad. Dar digar holatho dar organizm sarchashmahoi siroyatshavi dar shakli kares, bemorihoi iltihobii pusti va gayra mavjud meboshand. Aynan baroi hamin, boyad allergikho vazi sihatiashonro bodiqqat nazorat kunand va dar surati zarurat az tabobat guzarand.

Tarzi hayoti solim

Tarzi hayoti solim dar khud ba tavri oqilona tashkil kardani rejai kor va istirohat, khobravii basanda, khuroki solim, muntazzam dar havoi toza sayru gasht kardan va bo varzish shugl varzidanro darbar megirad (hatman az dukhturaton pursed, ki oyo ba shumo ijoza hast, ki ba in namudi sporti intikhobkardaaton mashgul shaved va dar kadom hajm). Tashkil kardani rejai ruz makhsusan dar sini kudaki, dar on davrae  ki kudak holo khudash nametavonad darajai mondashaviashro baho dihad va dar aksar mavridho dar holati hayajoni (barangekhta) va gipperaktivi qaror dorad, khele  muhim ast.

 

Ba tavri daqiq rioya kardani hama tainothoi dukhtur

In qoidai az hama muhimtarin meboshad. Ba dukhturi khudaton etimod doshta boshed va hama tavsiyahoi uro ijro namoed. Agar bo yagon sababe dukhtur ba shumo maqul naboshad, ba dukhturi digar murojiat kuned, ki boyad mutakhassisi beshtar boetiboru masuliyatnok boshad.

Allergiya ba khurokvoriho (allergiyai khuroki)

Allergiya ba khurokvoriho  – in hama guna aksulamali allergi ba khurokvorihoi muqarrarii bezarar va mavodhoi tarkibii khurokvoriho (ingredientho) meboshad.

Malumothoi umumi

YAgon to az namudhoi khurokvoriho metavonad bisyor allergenhoi khurokiro doshta boshad.  Az rui qoida inho safedaho va ahyonan – charbuho va karbogidratho meboshand. Hangomi allergiya sistemai masuniyat antitelahoro ba on miqdore kor karda mebarorad, ki az meyor ziyod meboshand, va bo hamin kor organizmro to on daraja qobili aksulamal mesozand, ki on hatto safedai bezararro niz hamchun agenti siroyatkunanda qabul mekunad. Agar sistemai masuniyat ba ravand (prosess) jalb nashuda boshad, pas in allergiya ba khurokvoriho nameboshad, balki hamtu dust nadoshtani (bardosht nakardani) yake az khurokvoriho meboshad.

Allergiyai asli ba khurokvoriho khele ahyonan (dar kamtar az du foizi aholi) ba nazar merasad. Beshtar az hama sababi in irsi meboshad. Dar kudakon odatan allergiya dar solhoi avvali hayotashon zuhur mekunad (dar aksar vaqt ba safedii tukhm) va badan on dar onho “rushd” mekunad.  Dar miyoni kalonsolone, ki takhminan allergiya ba khurokvoriho dorand, taqriban 80 % foizashon dar asl on guna holatero dorand, ki onro mutakhassison hamchun “psevdoallergiya ba khurokvoriho” nom nihodaand. Garchande ki on nishonahoe, ki dar onho mushohida karda meshavand, ba nishonahoi allergiyai asli monand hastand, shoyad sababi onho faqat hamtu dar dust nadoshtani (bardosht nakardani) yake az khurokvoriho nihon boshad. Beshtar az on, dar baze odamon aksulamalhoi pskhosomatiki ba baze khurokvoriho inkishof yofta metavonand, chunki onho chunin fikr mekunand, ki on khurokvori baroi onho hamchun barangezandai allergiya (allergen) meboshad.

Sababhoi allergiya ba khurokvoriho

On kudake, ki yake az volidonash giriftori allergiya hast, nazar ba on kudake ki volidonash allergik nestand, du marotiba beshtar khavfi giriftorshavi ba allergiya dorad. Agar hardu volidayn giriftori allergiya boshand, khavfnokii paydoshavii allergiya dar kudak boz du marotibai digar meafzoyad va ba hamin tariq in khavfnoki chor marotiba ziyodtar megardad. Ammo hamzamon moddahoe ki baroi kudak allergen hastand, shoyad az allergenhoi volidayni vay farqiyat doshta boshand.

Ba on nigoh nakarda, ki allergiya amalan metavonad ba hama guna namudhoi khurokvori inkishof yobad, allergenhoi az hama mamultarin inho; shir, tukhm, mohi, mollyuskho, soya, gandum va chormagzho, makhsusan chormagzi zamini (arakhis) meboshand.

Inchunin allergiyai chandtarafa (perekrestnaya) niz vujud dorad, ki bad az aksulamal ba yake az allergenho paydo meshavad. Ba hamin tariq odamone, ki giriftori allergiya ba chormagzi zamini hastand, metavonand nisbati digar namudi lubiyogiho, az qabili nakhud, lubiyoi soya va nask niz allergiya doshta boshand. Inchunin bemorone ki ba kharbuzai khushbuy allergiya dorand, metavonand bo mururi zamon ba bodiring va kadu niz aksulamali allergi paydo kunand; va aynan hamin tavr odamone ki giriftori allergiya ba kharchangi bahri (krevetka)  hastand, shoyad nisbati kharchangi khurd  (krab) niz hassosiyatnok meshavand.

Dar baze odamon ba sulfatho – mavodhoi kimiyovi allergiya paydo meshavad, ki onho baroi nigohdorii rangi khurokvoriho, masalan dar khushkmevaho va sabzavotho istifoda burda meshavand. Aksulamal nisbati onho az nafaskashii kanda-kanda yo sadamoti (shoki) allergi, pas az istemolkunii khurokhoe, ki dar tarkibashon sulfatho dorand, iborat meboshad. Sulfatho metavonand boisi khuruji vaznini astma niz shavand.

 

Nishonahoi (simptomhoi) allergiyai khurokvori

Aksulamalhoi allergi odatan dar davrai az yakchand daqiqa to du soat, pas az istemoli khurok paydo meshavand. Ammo dar bemorone, ki giriftori shakli vaznini allergiya hastand, hatto dastrasoni yo buy kardani khurok metavonad posukhi allergiro barangezad.

Nishonahoi (simptomhoi) barvaqtii mamuli (tippiki) az varamkuni va khorishu suzishi labho, dahon yo gulu iborat hastand. Pas az voridshavi ba sistemai hozima, khurokvorii barangezanda metavonad dilbehuzuri, qaykuni, khalai rudaho va shikamraviro barangezad.

Aksar vaqt khorish, isparma (krapivnitsa), shukufa va surkhshavii pust sar meshavad.

Dar baze bemoron khurokvori riniti allergiro barangekhta metavonad, ki baroi on zukkom, sulfakuni va nafaskashii boloi (kutoh-kutoh/damkutohi) khos meboshand.

Bazan metavonad az lahzai furu burdani  allergen aksulamali allergii kutohmuddat ruy dihad – ba muddati az yakchand soat to du ruz.  Dar muqoisa bo aksulamali favri, nishonahoi aksulamali allergii kutohmuddat on qadar sakht namudor nameshavand va metavonand az shukufa, isparma (krapivnitsa) va astma iborat boshand.

Sadamoti (shoki) anafilakti – in holati ahyonan ruydihanda, vale baroi hayot khatarnoke ast, ki hangomi giriftori ba on yakchand organho va sistemahoi organizm ba aksulamali allergi giriftor meshavand. Nishonahoi on az khorishi shadid (intensivi) isparma (krapivnitsa), araqkuni, varam kardani pardahoi luobii gulu, nafastangi va pastshavii fishori arteriali iborat meboshand. Agar in guna holat harchi teztar va ba tavri durust muolija karda nashavad, on metavonad ba zudi vaznintar shavad va ba holati behushi  yo hatto favtshavi burda rasonad.

SHumo chi kor karda metavoned?

Agar shumo dar guruhi khavfnok qaror doshta boshed  (yane agar dar oilai shumo holathoi giriftorshavi ba allergiya rukh doda  boshand), nisbati aksulamali organizmi shumo ba hama guna khurokvorihoi nav khele hushyor boshed. Hangomi zarurati chashidani yagon khuroki nav az hissahoi (porsiyahoi) kam sar kuned yo umuman az on dast kashed, makhsusan agar shumo az khonai khudaton yo az tamadduniyat (sivilizatsiya) dar masofai dur qaror doshta boshed.

SHumo boyad nagzakak fahmed, ki chiro khurda istodaed. Tamgakogazhoi on mahsulothoero, ki kharidori mekuned, khonda baroed. Agar yagonto az on chizhoe, ki shumo odatan kharidori mekuned, hamchun «moli nav» yo «behtar kardashuda»  elon shuda boshand, tamgakogazi onro dubora az nav dida baroed.

Faqat mahsulothoi taru toza va navro istemol kuned. Kushish kuned, ki  khurokvorihoi khushkkardashuda, konservonidashuda va korkardshudaro istemol nakuned.

Mahsulothoi khurokii navro ba menui farzandaton tadrijan vorid kuned, makhsusan agar shumo va shavharaton hardu giriftori allergiya boshed.

Har dafae, ki ba kudakaton yagon gizoi nav medihed, avval ba vay hissai na on qadar kalonro dihed va onro bo mururi zamon ziyodtar kardan gired.

Agar dar shumo ba yagon to az qismhoi tarkibii (ingredienthoi) khurokvori aksulamal paydo shuda boshad, bo allergolog mashvarat kuned, ki oyo dar haqiqat in nishonaho az allergiya ba khurokvori paydo shudaand yo az sababi yagon mushkiloti digar.

Agar mabodo bore ba shumo tashkhisi allergiyai khurokvori guzoshta boshand, usuli yagonai samaranoki khalosshavi az on in muayyan kardani mavodi (agenti) barangezanda  va az on duri justan meboshad.

Havfi favtidan az aksulamali allergi meafzoyad, agar shumo giriftori astma boshed. Agar vaziyat chunin boshad, pas boyad shumo hamesha voyai epinefrinro (adrenalin) baroi ehtiyot dar joyi dastras doshta boshed, to in ki onro hangomi sar zadani aksulamali allergi  qabul kuned. SHumo boyad doned, ki dar kadom holatho va chi tavr suzandorui epinefrin guzaronida meshavad. Bazan qabul kardani doruhoi antigistamini niz kumak merasonad. Ammo shoyad istifoda kardani epinefrin hayotan muhim boshad.

Dukhtur chi kor karda metavonad?

Allergolog dar asosi tahlili tarikhi bemorii shumo, muoina va sanjishi obektivona va sanjishhoi laboratori, metavonad tashkhisi aniqro guzorad.

Baroi tashkhisi allergiyai khurokvori az namunai skarifikatsionii (kharoshidashavii) pusti istifoda mekunand, ki hangomi in usul afshurai (ekstrakti) mahlulkardashudai mahsulotro dar rui pust meguzorand va hamzamon dar on jo yakchand kharosh yo suzanzani ham mekunand. Agar hej guna aksulamal ruy nadihad, in sanjishi pust manfi ast. Ammo agar dar davomi 15 daqiqa surkhshavi va varamkuni ba monandi joyi gazidai khomushak ba amal oyad, mumkin ast, ki shumo ba mahsuloti tadqiqshavanda allergiya doshta boshed. Ammo ba in nigoh nakarda in guna sanjish (test) metavonad natijahoi bardurug-musbi yo bardurug-manfi nishon dihad.

Usulhoi beshtar daqiqtar in tahlilhoi khuni meboshand, ki hamchun sanjishi radioallergosorbenti (radioallergosorbentniy test (RAST)) va tahlili immunofermenti (immunofermentniy analiz (IFA)), va tadqiqi antitelaho malum meboshand. Ammo inho niz metavonand natijahoi bardurug-musbi dihand.

Sanjishi pusti va tahlili khun baroi antitelaho — on allergenhoero paydo mekunand, ki ba tavri potensiali metavonand aksulamalhoi allergiro dar yagon odame barangezand. Agar pas az sanjishi pusti va tahlili khun niz tashkhis nomuayyan monad, dukhtur metavonad sanjishhoi barangezandaro tain namoyad. In guna tahqiqotho dar statsionarhoi allergologi va az rui nishondihandahoi jiddi guzaronida meshavand. Hangomi guzaronidani sanjishhoi barangezanda dar bini, dar zeri zabon yo mustaqiman dar bronkhho miqdori na on qadar kaloni allergen guzaronida meshavad va pas az chand muddate aksulamal ba on bahodihi karda meshavad. In tadqiqot metavonad dar bemor aksulamali shadidi allergiro barangezad, baroi hamin boyad on dar huzuri dukhtur guzaronida shavad, chunki vay metavonad dar holati zaruri kumaki favrii tibbi rasonad.

Agar dar shumo allergiyai asli ba khurokvori paydo shuda boshad, ba shumo parhezkunii (dietai) makhsus tavsiya doda meshavad, ki allergini gumonbarshudaro (takhminiro) purra istisno mekunad. Dar davomi yakchand hafta boyad in guna parhezkunii gipoallergeni rioya karda shavad (odatan on az birinj, salat, seb iborat meboshad). Bad az muddati muayyane in parhezkuniro gunogunrang kardan mumkin ast  va badtar ba on khudi hamon allergeni paydokardashudaro niz dokhil kardan mumkin ast. Agar badi vorid kardani hamon allergen boz az nav allergiya inkishof yobad, ba shumo zarur meoyad ki in parhezkunii (dietai) ogoznamudaatonro davom dodan gired.

Dar yod dored, ki hama guna parhezkunii istisnoi (dietai eliminatsioni) (dieta bo istisno kardani mahsulothoi allergeni) tanho  bo rozigii dukhturi shumo va dar zeri nazorati dietologi takhassusi metavonad guzaronida shavad.  CHunki hatto bo hamin guna parhezkuni ham shumo boyad bo khurok tamomi mavodhoi zarurii organizmro qabul kuned. Dukhtur metavonad ba tavri oqilona mahsulothoi allergeniro ba digarhoyash ivaz namoyad, ki hamon mavodhoi gizoi va vitaminhoro dar tarkibashon doro meboshand. Hej vaqt az dietai khudaton yagon guruhi purrai mahsulothoro yakuyakbora ba muddati yakchand hafta istisno nakuned, makhsusan agar sukhan dar borai kudakoni khurdsol, pironsolon va odamoni bemor rafta istoda boshad.

Rioya kardani parhezkunii jiddi ba bisyor odamon kumak merasonad, ki az allergiyai khuroki sihat yoband. YAke az tadqiqotho malum namud, ki pas az 1-2 soli ba tavri pokvijdonona rioya kardani dietai gipoallergeni, takhminan az se yak hissai kudakoni sinni boloi va kalonsolon niz az hassosnoki ba khuroki barangezanda khalos shudand. Lekin allergiya ba chormagzi zamini (arakhis), chormagzho, mohi va mollyuskho dar aksar mavridho metavonad to okhiri hayot boqi monad.

Parhezkuni hangomi bemorihoi allergi

Bemorihoi allergi  – in guruhi kaloni bemoriho meboshad, ki dar khud holathoi jiddiero az qabili omosi (varami) Kvinke, sadamoti anafilakti, astmai bronkhiali va bemorihoi baroi hayot kamtar khatarnokro (riniti allergi, dermatiti atopi va gayra) darbar megirad.

Mavodhoi khuroki baroi davrai ori az khurujhoi bemori

Baroi bazei in bemoriho omili barangezanda aynan mahsulothoi khurokvori meboshand. Baroi digarhoyashon asosan allergenhoe ba misli gardi guli rastaniho, pashmi hayvonot, changu gubor va gayra sabab meshavand. Fahmo ast, ki tavsiyahoi parhezi baroi in qadar patologiyahoi gunogun ba tavri nazarras farq khohand kard. Ammo hamzamon yak qator tavsiyahoe niz hastand, ki baroi hama manfiatnok meboshand.

1) Bo allergologi khudaton ruykhati aniqi mahsulothoi khurokvorii «ijozat dodashuda» va «manshuda» — ro muvofiqa kuned. Mumkin ast, ki baroi aniq kardani mavjudiyati allergenhoi konkreti ba shumo guzashtan az sanjishhoi skarfikatsionii pusti yo tahlili makhsusi IgE –ro dar khunoba (sivorotka) tavsiya dihand.

2) Boyad mahsulothoi navi khurokiro bo ehtiyoti ziyod chashida bined. Behtar ast, ki in guna koro shumo dar sharoiti khona va dar zeri nazorati nazdikonaton ijro kuned, ki metavonand dar surati paydo shudani allergiya ba shumo kumaki zaruri rasonand.

3) Hurokro khudaton mustaqilona az mahsulothoi khomi avvali tayyor kuned. Gusht va mohiro faqat bo buridaho kharidori kuned.

4) Kushish kuned, ki mahsulothoi nimtayyo (polufabrikatho), mahsulothoi konservonidashuda, mayonezho va digar soushoro istifoda nakuned. SHumo hej vaqt nametavoned oidi tarkibi mahsulothoi tayyori kharidorikardaaton purra mutmain boshed.

5) Tavsifi tarkibi hama guna khurokhoi tayyoro, ki onhoro niyati khurdan dored, bodiqqat khonda baroed.

Tavsiyahoi mazkur ham ba kudakon va ham ba kalonsolon dakhl dorand. Agar farzandi shumo giriftori allergiya boshad, zarur ast, ki voyai khuroki (ratsioni) vayro bo diqqat zeri nazorat gired. Dar on vaqte ki holo kudak khurd ast va ba maktab yo bogchai bachagona nameravad, hama chiz nisbatan oson va odditar ast. Hamin ki kudak kalontar va mustaqil meshavad, nazorat kardani vay mushkiltar megardad. Ba kudak fahmonidan zarur ast, ki kadom mahsulothoro baroi vay khurdan mumkin ast va kadomashro ne. Dar ayni zamon boyad chunin shakli mukollama intikhob karda shavad, ki kudak boyad fahmad, ki dasturu tavsiyahoi shumo faqat “dilsuzii modarona” nabuda, balki kori zaruri meboshand. Agar mahsulothoi baroi vay “manshuda” ziyod boshand, mearzad, ki onhoro dar yagon namudi korte navisem va ba kudak dihem to bo khudash gardonad. Boyad oshpazi maktab va muallimon niz dar borai mushkilii farzandi shumo bokhabar boshand. Agar shumo oidi sifati khurokhoi nahorii maktabi mutmain naboshed, boyad baroi kudak dar khona khurok tayyor kuned va dar quttichai plastmasi ba vay dihed to bo khudash barad.

Hurokkhuri (khurokvoriho) dar davrai khuruji bemorihoi allergi

CHi tavre ki peshtar yodras shud, khususiyati fiziologii odamone, ki giriftori yagon bemorii allergi hastand, in moiliyati ibtidoii onho ba hama guna hodisahoi allergi meboshad. Makhsusan vaziyat dar davrai khuruji bemorii asosi vaznin meshavad, ki dar on vaqt organizm dar holati giperaktivi qaror dorad, dar in davra hatto barangezandai nochize ham metavonad zohirshavi bemorii asosiro vaznintar gardonad yo aksulamali allergii navero zohir kunad.

Aynan baroi hamin tavsiyahoi parhezi dar davrai khuruji bemori baroi hamai bemoriho monand hastand va ba qadri kifoya jiddi meboshand.

Mana ruykhati takhminii mahsulothoi «ijozatshuda» va «manshuda».

Istisno shudaand:

— murgshurbo, khurokhoi sernamak, tezu tund va biryonshuda, khurokhoi dud dodashuda, kulchaqandho, mahsulothoi hasibi yo gastronomi (hasibhoi pukhtashuda yo dud dodashuda, hasibchaho, sardelkaho va gushti namakardashuda), gushti jigar;

— mohi, tukhmi mohi, mahsulothoi bahri;
— tukhm;
— panirhoi tezu tund va obkardashuda, yakhmos, mayonez, afshurai pomidor (ketchup);
— turb (redka), shalgamcha (redis), shilkha (shavel), ispanog (shpinat), pomidor, qalanfuri bulgori, karami namakin (kvashenaya kapusta), bodiringi namakin (solenie ogursi);
— zanburug, chormagz;
— mevahoi sitrusi, qulfinayi yoboi (zemlyanika), qulfinay (klubnika), tamashk (malina), zardolu (abrikosi), shaftolu (persiki), anor, angur, angat, kivi, ananas, kharbuza, tarbuz;
— charbuhoi derobshav (dushvorgudoz) va margarin;
— nushokihoi gaznoki mevagi, kvas;
— kofe, kakao, shokolad;
— asal, karamel, zefir, qiyom (pastila), tort, keks (bo  aromatizatorho va gayra.);
— namudhoi gunoguni saqichho.

Mahdud karda shudaand:

— yarmai kashki (mannaya krupa), mahsulothoi makaroni, non az ordhoi navi oli
— shiri kholis va qaymoq (faqat bo khurokho doda meshavand), tvorog, yogurtho bo ilovagihoi mevagi;
— gushti barra, gushti murg;
— sabzi, shalgam, lablabu, piyoz, sirpiyoz;
— olubolu, qoti siyoh (chernaya smorodina), banana, klyukva, marminjon (ejevika), obi khuch (otvar shipovnika);
— ravgani maska (slivochnoe maslo).

Tavsiya doda meshavand (bo darnazardoshti bardoshtkunii infirodi):

— yarma (gayr az yarmai kashki);
— mahsulothoi shirturushi (kefir, biokefir, yogurtho be ilovagihoi mevagi va gayra );
— navhoi tezu tund nabudai panirho;
— gushti parhezi (gushti gov, khuk, zargush, murgi marjon), konservahoi makhsusi gushti baroi khurokvorii kudakon;
— hama namudhoi karam, kadui tarrak, kadui patisson, kadui mamuli, jafari (zelen petrushki), shibit (ukropa), nakhudi taru tozai sabz (molodoy zeleniy goroshek), lubiyoi lubiyoi gilofaki (struchkovaya fasol);
— sebhoi sabzrang va safedrang, murudu nok, navhoi safedrangi gelos va olu, qoti safed va surkh (belaya i krasnaya smorodina), bektoshi (krijovnik);
— ravgani zardi (pukhtashudai) maska (toplenoe slivochnoe maslo), ravgani rastanigii pokkardashuda va khushbuykardashuda (rafinirovannoe dezodorirovannoe rastitelnoe maslo) (juvorimakkagi, oftobparasti, zaytuni va gayra);
— fruktoza;
— noni gandumi az ordi navi duyum, kulchaqoqakhoi gallagi (khlebsi zernovie), chubchaho va pataroqhoi irisii shirinnashuda (nesladkie kukuruznie irisovie palochki i khlopya).

In guna parzezkuniro (dietaro) hangomi giriftor budan ba bemorihoi vazninshudai allergi ba muddati 7-10 ruz tain mekunand, pas az on muvofiqi tavsiyai dukhtur ohista-ohista ba dietai infirodii gipoallergi (dietae ki mahsulothoi khurokii konkretiro, ki baroi bemoroni konkreti allergen meboshand,  istisno mekunad) guzashtan mumkin ast.

Dar okhir az hamai allergikho khohish kardan mekhostem, ki dietaro hamchun shakli aziyatkashi qabul nakunand.

Dar yod doshta boshed, ki tavassuti rioya kardani tavsiyahoi parhezi (dieti), bo vujudi bemorii allergi doshtanaton ham, shumo baroi khudaton imkoniyati bo hayoti solim va purarzish zistanro faroham meored.

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