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Ahamiyati nafaskashi

Tavassuti uzvhoi nafaskashi mubodilai gazho bayni organizm va muhiti atrof ba amal meoyad. Dar natija odam oksigenro furu burda, gazi karbonatro khorij mekunad. Oksigeni dokhilshuda, dar ravandi oksidshavii moddahoi organiki faolona ishtirok mekunad. Hujayraho ba onho ehtiyoji kalon dorand. Dar natijai oksidshavii har kadom moddai organiki gazi karbonat va ob hosil shuda, az organizm khorij megardad. Nafaskashi du khel meshavad:

  1.  beruni (mubodilai  gazho bayni shush va muhiti atrof);
  2. dokhili (mubodilai gazho bayni hubobchahoi shush va khun).

Uzvhoi nafaskashiro kovokii bini, halqbini, khirnoy, noyi nafas, hubobchahoi havoi (alveolaho) va shush tashkil mekunand .

Rohhoi nafaskashi. Rohhoi nafaskashi az kovokii bini ibtido girifta, ba vositai devorai ustukhoniyu tagoyakho ba nimahoi rostu chap taqsim meshavand. Har kadomi onho rohhoi pech dar pech doshta, sathi dokhilii kovokii biniro ziyod mekunand. Pardai luobi, ki kovokii biniro pushonidaast, doroi bisyor muyakchaho, raghoi khun va gadudho buda, luob judo mekunand. Luob na tanho mikrobhoro nigoh medorad, balki onhoro bezarar megardonad.

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Luob bo zarrahoi ba on chaspida muttasil az kovokii bini berun meravad. Dar kovokii bini havo garm va namnok meshavad. Havo az kovokii bini ba halqbini va az on jo ba halq meguzarad.

Halq qifmonand buda, devorhoyash az yakchand tagoyak iborat ast. Hangomi furu burdani khurok daromadgohi halqro tagoyaki boloii halq mepushonad. Dar bayni tagoyakhoi halq chinhoi luobi – sadoparda mavjud ast (rasmi 56). Kholigihoi bayni sadopardaro – tarqishi ovoz menomand.

Dar vaqti khomushii odam sadopardaho az ham dur shuda, tarqishi sado ba sekunjai barobarpahlu monand meshavad. Hangomi guftugu va surudkhoni sadopardaho bo ham nazdik meshavand. Dar mavridi nafasbarori havo chinhoro fishor doda, ba larza medarorad. Hamin tavr ovoz paydo meshavad.

Balandii ovozi odam az darozii sadopardaho vobasta ast. Sadopardaho chi qadare ki kutoh va larzishash ziyod boshad ovoz hamon qadar balandtar meshavad. Sadopardai zanho nisbat ba sadopardai mardho kutohtar ast. Binobar in ovozi zanho balandtar ast.

Sadopardaho dar yak soniya az 80 to 10000 marotiba ba larzish omada metavonand. Ovozi nutqi odam dar kovokii halq, dahon va bini hangomi tagyir yoftani mavqei zabon, labho, jogi poyon purra tashakkul meyobad (rasmi 57). Odam ba vositai ovoz hissiyot va kayfiyat, khursandi, qahru gazab, mehruboni, tahdid, istehzo va navozishi khudro izhor karda metavonad.

Ovozi behad baland ba sadopardaho zarar dorad, onho tarang va ba ham nazdik meshavand, ba hamdigar rasida, molish mekhurand va dar in hol ozurda meshavand. Odame, ki aksar ovozashro behad baland mekunad, khirri meshavad yo tamoman ovozash megirad. Hangomi past gap zadan sadopardaho purra ba ham jafs meshavand.

Baroi ehtiyot kardani azoi ovoz past gap zadan lozim ast.  Bisyor gazak giriftani rohhoi nafas ba sadopardaho zarar merasonand. Tamokukashi va istemoli mashrubot ba azoi ovoz tasiri manfi merasonad. Behuda nest, ki odamoni tamokukash va istemolkunandagoni mashrubotro az ovozi pasti khirriashon shinokhtan mumkin ast.

Nafase, ki mo mebarorem, az halq ba khirnoyi naychamonand, ki devorai peshash az tagoyakhoi nimdoira iborat ast, meguzarand. Onho bo hamdigar bo bandu mushakho payvastand. Devori narmi aqibi khirnoy ba surkhruda jafs buda, ba guzashtani khurok mone meshavand. Khirnoy ba du noyi nafas judo shuda, ba shushi rost va chap meguzarad.

Shush. Dar shush har yak noyi nafas misli darakht ba shokha taqsim shuda, tamomi sathi shushro ishgol mekunad. Nugi shokhahoi maydatarini noyi nafas bo dastai hubobchahoi shush, ki devorash tunuki puri havo ast, ba okhir merasad. Devorhoi onho az yak qabat hujayrahoi epiteli tarkib yofta, bo muyragho zich pechonida shudaand.

Hubobchahoi hujayrahoi epiteli moddahoi faoli biologi judo karda, sathi dokhilii onhoro chun pardai tunuk mepushonad.

In parda hajmi doimii hubobchahoro nigoh doshta, nameguzorad, ki onho ba ham nazdik shavand. Gayr az in moddahoi parda mikroorganizmhoi az havo ba shush dokhilshavandaro bezarar megardonand. Pardai «korkardashuda» dar namudi balgam bo rohi havoguzar berun karda meshavad yo tavassuti fagosithoi shush «hazm» megardad.

Hangomi gazaki shush bemorii sil va digar bemorihoi siroyatkunandai shush paydo meshavand. Dar natija mumkin ast pardai on zarar dida, hubobchahoi shush ba hamdigar chaspand va dar mubodilai gazho ishtirok karda natavonand. Hubobchahoi odamoni tamokukash qobiliyati chandiri va tozashaviro gum karda az zahri tamoku sakht meshavand. Havoi toza, nafasgirii boshiddat hangomi kori jismoni, inchunin mashguliyati varzishi baroi az nav barqaror shudani pardaho musoidat mekunand.

Shush gayr az mavqei dil, raghoi khungard, raghoi nafas va surkhruda tamomi qafasi sinaro pur mekunad. Har yak shush 300-350 mln hubobcha dorad. Sathi umumii hubobchaho az 100 m beshtar, yane az sathi badan 50 marotiba kalontar ast. Har yak shush az berun bo pardai hamvoru shaffofi boftai payvastkunanda – pardai shush pushonida shudaast. Devori darunii qafasi sina ba pardai devora pushonida shudaast. Kovokii pardai havonoguzari bayni onho namnok va tamoman behavo ast. Binobar on shush muntazam ba devorai kovokii sina jafs buda, hajmi on az tagyir yoftani hajmi kovokii qafasi sina vobasta ast.

  1. Nafasgiri chi ahamiyat dorad?
  2. Chand namudi nafaskashiro farq mekunand?
  3. Kadom uzvho sistemai nafaskashiro tashkil medihand?
  4. Kovokii bini dar jarayoni nafasgiri chi ahamiyat dorad?
  5. Ovozi nutq chi tavr ba vujud meoyad?
  6. Sokhti shush chi khel ast?
  7. Kovokii pardagi chist?
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